Publications by    
Page 1  (18 Items)

1.  Negative luminescence of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
F. Fuchs, D. Hoffman, A. Gin, A. Hood, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Phys. Stat. Sol. C 3 (3)-- February 22, 2006
The emission behaviour of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 µm and 13 μm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental set-up the internal quantum efficiency has been determined in the temperature range between 80 K and 300 K for both, the negative and positive luminescence. The quantitative analysis of the internal quantum efficiency of the non-equilibrium radiation enables the determination of the Auger coefficient. reprint
2.  Negative and positive luminescence in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (12)-- December 1, 2005
The quantum efficiency of negative and positive luminescence in binary type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been investigated in the midinfrared spectral range around the 5-μm wavelength. The negative luminescence efficiency is nearly independent on temperature in the entire range from 220 to 325 K. For infrared diodes with a 2-μm absorbing layer, processed without anti-reflection coating, a negative luminescence efficiency of 45% is found, indicating very efficient minority carrier extraction. The temperature dependent measurements of the quantum efficiency of the positive luminescence enables for the determination of the capture cross section of the Shockley-Read-Hall centers involved in the competing nonradiative recombination. reprint
3.  Negative luminescence of long-wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 87 (20)-- November 14, 2005
The electrically pumped emission behavior of binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 µm and 13 µm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental setup, the internal and external quantum efficiency has been determined in the temperature range between 80 K and 300 K for both, the negative and positive luminescence. The negative luminescence efficiency approaches values as high as 35% without antireflection coating. The temperature dependence of the internal quantum efficiency near zero-bias voltage allows for the determination of the electron-hole-electron Auger recombination coefficient of Γn=1×1024 cm6 s–1. reprint
4.  Infrared detection from GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays
A. Gin, B. Movaghar, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
Nanotechnology 16-- July 1, 2005
We report on the photoresponse from large arrays of 40 nm radius nanopillars with sensitivity in the long-wavelength infrared regime. Using photoluminescence techniques, a peak wavelength blue shift of approximately 5 meV was observed at 30 K from GaInAs/InP nanopillar structures, indicating carrier confinement effects. Responsivity measurements at 30 K indicated peak wavelength response at about 8 µm with responsivity of 420 mA/W at −2 V bias. We have also measured the noise and estimated the peak detectivity to be 3×108 cm·Hz½·W−1 at 1 V reverse bias and 30 K. A maximum internal quantum efficiency of 4.5% was derived from experiment. Both the photo and the dark transport have been successfully modeled as processes that involve direct and indirect field-assisted tunneling as well as thermionic emission. The best agreement with experiment was obtained when allowances were made for the non-uniformity of barrier widths and electric field heating of carriers above the lattice temperature. reprint
5.  Uncooled operation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the mid- wavelength infrared range
Y. Wei, A. Hood, H. Yau, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow, V. Natha
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (23)-- June 6, 2005
We report high performance uncooled midwavelength infrared photodiodes based on interface-engineered InAs/GaSb superlattice. Two distinct superlattices were designed with a cutoff wavelength around 5 µm for room temperature and 77 K. The device quantum efficiency reached more than 25% with responsivity around 1 A/W. Detectivity was measured around 109 cm·Hz½/W at room temperature and 1.5×1013 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K under zero bias. The devices were without antireflective coating. The device quantum efficiency stays at nearly the same level within this temperature range. Additionally, Wannier–Stark oscillations in the Zener tunneling current were observed up to room temperature. reprint
6.  High performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid, long, and very long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, A. Hood, V. Yazdanpanah, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Orlando, FL, Vol. 5783, pp. 86-- March 28, 2005
We present our most recent results and review our progress over the past few years regarding InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for photovoltaic detectors and focal plane arrays. Empirical tight binding methods have been proven to be very effective and accurate in designing superlattices for various cutoff wavelengths from 3.7 µm up to 32 µm. Excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. High quality material growths were performed using an Intevac modular Gen II molecular beam epitaxy system. The material quality was characterized using x-ray, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence, etc. Detector performance confirmed high material electrical quality. Details of the demonstration of 256×256 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays are presented. reprint
7.  High performance LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and infrared focal plane array
Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Gin, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 309-- January 22, 2005
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattices grown on n-type GaSb substrate with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. reprint
8.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors
A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 316-- January 22, 2005
Leakage currents limit the operation of high performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode technology. Surface leakage current becomes a dominant limiting factor, especially at the scale of a focal plane array pixel (< 25 µm) and must be addressed. A reduction of the surface state density, unpinning the Fermi level at the surface, and appropriate termination of the semiconductor crystal are all aims of effective passivation. Recent work in the passivation of Type-II InAs\GaSb superlattice photodetectors with aqueous sulfur-based solutions has resulted in increased R0A products and reduced dark current densities by reducing the surface trap density. Additionally, photoluminescence of similarly passivated Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice and InAs GaSb bulk material will be discussed. reprint
9.  GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays for long wavelength infrared detection
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 350-- January 22, 2005
Nanopillar devices have been fabricated from GaInAs/InP QWIP material grown by MOCVD. Using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching techniques, large, regular arrays of nanopillars with controllable diameters ranging from 150 nm to less than 40 nm have been reproducibly formed. Photoluminescence experiments demonstrate a strong peak wavelength blue shift for nanopillar structures compared to the as-grown quantum well material. Top and bottom metal contacts have been realized using a polyimide planarization and etchback procedure. I-V and noise measurements have been performed. Optical measurements indicate photoconductive response in selected nanopillar arrays. Device peak wavelength response occurs at about 8 µm with peak device responsivity of 420 mA/W. Peak detectivity of 3×108 cm·Hz½/W has been achieved at -1V bias and 30 K. reprint
10.  Ammonium Sulfide Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Bajowala, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- March 22, 2004
We report on the surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors using various ammonium sulfide solutions. Compared to unpassivated detectors, zero-bias resistance of treated 400 µm×400 µm devices with 8 µm cutoff wavelength was improved by over an order of magnitude to ~20 kΩ at 80 K. Reverse-bias dark current density was reduced by approximately two orders of magnitude to less than 10 mA/cm2 at –2 V. Dark current modeling, which takes into account trap-assisted tunneling, indicates greater than 70 times reduction in bulk trap density for passivated detectors. reprint
11.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Hood, J. Nah, and M. Razeghi
International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF), San Diego, CA; Thin Solid Films 447-448-- January 30, 2004
Recently, excellent infrared detectors have been demonstrated using Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials sensitive at wavelengths from 3 μm to greater than 32 μm. These results indicate that Type-II superlattice devices may challenge the preponderance of HgCdTe and other state-of-the-art infrared material systems. As such, surface passivation is becoming an increasingly important issue as progress is made towards the commercialization of Type-II devices and focal plane array applications. This work focuses on initial attempts at surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes using PECVD-grown thin layers of SiO2. Our results indicate that silicon dioxide coatings deposited at various temperatures improve photodetector resistivity by several times. Furthermore, reverse-bias dark current has been reduced significantly in passivated devices. reprint
12.  High Quality Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices with Cutoff Wavelength ~3.7 µm Using Interface Engineering
Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Gin, A. Hood, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M. Tidrow
Journal of Applied Physics, 94 (7)-- October 1, 2003
We report the most recent advance in the area of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices that have cutoff wavelength of ~3.7 µm. With GaxIn1–x type interface engineering techniques, the mismatch between the superlattices and the GaSb (001) substrate has been reduced to <0.1%. There is no evidence of dislocations using the best examination tools of x-ray, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The full width half maximum of the photoluminescence peak at 11 K was ~4.5 meV using an Ar+ ion laser (514 nm) at fluent power of 140 mW. The integrated photoluminescence intensity was linearly dependent on the fluent laser power from 2.2 to 140 mW at 11 K. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurement revealed a characteristic temperature of one T1 = 245 K at sample temperatures below 160 K with fluent power of 70 mW, and T1 = 203 K for sample temperatures above 180 K with fluent power of 70 and 420 mW. reprint
13.  Quantum Sensing Using Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice for Infrared Detection
M. Razeghi, A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, and J. Nah
Microelectronics Journal, 34 (5-8)-- May 1, 2003
Large, regular arrays of bulk GaSb and InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice pillars have been fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry etching. A 2.5 keV electron beam lithography system and metal evaporation are used to form the Au mask on superlattice and bulk substrates. Dry etching of these materials has been developed with BCl3:Ar, CH4:H2:Ar and cyclic CH4:H2:Ar/O2 plasmas. Etch temperatures were varied from 20 to 150 °C. The diameter of the superlattice pillars was below 50 nm with regular 200 nm spacing. Bulk GaSb pillars were etched with diameters below 20 nm. Areas of dense nanopillars as large as 500 μm×500 μm were fabricated. The best height/diameter aspect ratio was approximately 10:1. To date, these are the smallest diameter III–V superlattice pillar structures reported, and the first nanopillars in the InAs/GaSb material system. The basic theory of these devices and surface passivation with SiO2 and Si3N4 thin films has also been discussed. reprint
14.  Recent Advances in InAs/GaSb Superlattices for Very Long Wavelength Infrared Detection
G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, K. Mahalingam, S. Houston, Y. Wei, A. Gin and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4999, pp. 457-- January 27, 2003
New infrared (IR) detector materials with high sensitivity, multi-spectral capability, improved uniformity and lower manufacturing costs are required for numerous long and very long wavelength infrared imaging applications. One materials system has shown great theoretical and, more recently, experimental promise for these applications: InAs/InxGa1-xSb type-II superlattices. In the past few years, excellent results have been obtained on photoconductive and photodiode samples designed for infrared detection beyond 15 microns. The infrared properties of various compositions and designs of these type-II superlattices have been studied. The infrared photoresponse spectra are combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra to provide insight into the underlying physics behind the quantum sensing in these materials. Results for superlattice photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths as long as 25 microns are presented. reprint
15.  Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photovoltaic detectors with cutoff wavelength approaching 32 μm
Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters, 81 (19)-- November 4, 2002
We report the most recent advance in the area of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photovoltaic detectors that have cutoff wavelengths beyond 25 μm, with some at nearly 32 μm. The photodiodes with a heterosuperlattice junction showed Johnson noise limited peak detectivity of 1.05 x 1010 cm Hz½/W at 15 μm under zero bias, and peak responsivity of 3 A/W under -40 mV reverse bias at 34 K illuminated by ~300 K background with a 2π field-of-view. The maximum operating temperature of these detectors ranges from 50 to 65 K. No detectable change in the blackbody response has been observed after 5-6 thermal cyclings, with temperature varying between 15 and 296 K in vacuum. reprint
16.  Advanced InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photovoltaic Detectors for Very-Long Wavelength Infrared Applications
Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 80 (18)-- May 6, 2002
We report on the temperature dependence of the photoresponse of very long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based photovoltaic detectors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The detectors had a 50% cutoff wavelength of 18.8 μm and a peak current responsivity of 4 A·W-1 at 80 K. A peak detectivity of 4.5×1010 cm· Hz½·W-1 was achieved at 80 K at a reverse bias of 110 mV. The generation–recombination lifetime was 0.4 ns at 80 K. The cutoff wavelength increased very slowly with increasing temperature with a net shift from 20 to 80 K of only 1.2 μm reprint
17.  Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices and Detectors with Cutoff Wavelength Greater Than 18 μm
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, G.J. Brown and D. Johnstone
Proceedings of the SPIE, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4650, 111 (2002)-- January 25, 2002
The authors report the most recent advances in Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials and photovoltaic detectors. Lattice mismatch between the substrate and the superlattice has been routinely achieved below 0.1%, and less than 0.0043% as the record. The FWHM of the zeroth order peak from x-ray diffraction has been decreased below 50 arcsec and a record of less than 44arcsec has been achieved. High performance detectors with 50% cutoff beyond 18 micrometers up to 26 micrometers have been successfully demonstrated. The detectors with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 18.8 micrometers showed a peak current responsivity of 4 A/W at 80K, and a peak detectivity of 4.510 cm·Hz½·W-1 was achieved at 80K at a reverse bias of 110 mV under 300 K 2(pi) FOV background. Some detectors showed a projected 0% cutoff wavelength up to 28~30 micrometers . The peak responsivity of 3Amp/Watt and detectivity of 4.2510 cm·Hz½·W-1 was achieved under -40mV reverse bias at 34K for these detectors. reprint
18.  Quantum Dots of InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice for Infrared Sensing
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin and G.J. Brown
Materials Research Society Fall Meeting, Boston, MA; MRS Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 692 (H3.1)-- November 26, 2001
Throughout the past years, significant progress has been made in Type-II (InAs/GaSb) photovoltaic detectors in both LWIR and VLWIR ranges. BLIP performance at 60K for 16 μm photovoltaic Type-II detectors has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. The detectors had a 50% cut-off wavelength of 18.8 μm and a peak current responsivity of 4 A/W at 80K. A peak detectivity of 4.5×1010cm·Hz1/2/W was achieved at 80K at a reverse bias of 110mV. Detectors of cutoff wavelength up to 25μm have been demonstrated at 77K. The great performance of single element detectors appeals us to lower dimensional structures for both higher temperature performance and possible wavelength tunability. Simple calculations show that quantum effects will become significant when the lateral confinement is within tens of nanometers. The variation of applied gate voltage will move the electron and hole energy levels unevenly. The cutoff wavelength of the superlattice will vary accordingly. Auger recombination will also decrease and higher temperature operation becomes possible. In this talk, the latest results will be discussed.

Page 1  (18 Items)