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1.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. reprint
 
2.  Active and passive infrared imager based on short-wave and mid-wave type-II superlattice dual-band detectors
E.K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 22-24-- January 1, 2013
A versatile dual-band detector capable of active and passive use is demonstrated using short-wave (SW) and midwave(MW) IR type-II superlattice photodiodes. A bilayer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated detectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ~1 × 10-5 A/cm² for the ∼4.2 μm cutoff MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F∕2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using tint  30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. Excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. reprint
 
3.  Surface leakage investigation via gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, E.K. Huang, A.M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 21, p. 213501-1-- November 19, 2012
By using gating technique, surface leakage generated by SiO2 passivation in long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice photodetector is suppressed, and different surface leakage mechanisms are disclosed. By reducing the SiO2 passivation layer thickness, the saturated gated bias is reduced to −4.5 V. At 77 K, dark current densities of gated devices are reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, with 3071 Ω·cm² differential-resistance-area product at −100 mV. With quantum efficiency of 50%, the 11 μm 50% cut-off gated photodiode has a specific detectivity of 7 × 1011 Jones, and the detectivity stays above 2 × 1011 Jones from 0 to −500 mV operation bias. reprint
 
4.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. reprint
 
5.  Low irradiance background limited type-II superlattice MWIR M-barrier imager
E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, M.A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
OSA Optics Letters (OL), Vol. 37, No. 11, p. 2025-2027-- June 1, 2012
We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320 × 256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and ∼99%operability. The 280 K blackbody’s photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of ∼5 × 1012 ph·cm−2·s−1. Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a ∼5 pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of ∼5 × 1010 ph·cm−2·s−1 and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F∕2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array’s uniform responsivity. reprint
 
6.  AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet 320 x 256 focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, E.K. Huang, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 896-898-- March 1, 2012
We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1−xN–based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition AlxGa1−xN layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ∼285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA∕W, which corresponds to an EQE of ∼37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. reprint
 
7.  World's first demonstration of type-II superlattice dual band 640 x 512 LWIR focal plane array
E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680Z-- January 22, 2012
High resolution multi-band infrared detection of terrestrial objects is useful in applications such as long range and high altitude surveillance. In this paper, we present a 640 x 512 type-II superlattice focal plane array (FPA) in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) suitable for such purposes, featuring 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red). The dual band camera is single-bump hybridized to an Indigo 30 μm pitch ISC0905 read-out integrated circuit. Test pixels revealed background limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5x1011 Jones at 7.9 μm (blue) and ~1x1011 Jones at 10.2 μm (red) at 77K. reprint
 
8.  Suppresion of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-Infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826811-- January 22, 2012
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150 K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. reprint
 
9.  Suppression of surface leakage in gate controlled type-II InAs/GaSb mid-infrared photodetectors
G. Chen; B.-M. Nguyen; A.M. Hoang; E.K. Huang; S.R. Darvish; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8268, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices IX, 826811 (January 20, 2012)-- January 20, 2012
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. reprint
 
10.  Elimination of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.-M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 18, p. 183503-1-- October 31, 2011
The electrical performance of mid-infrared type-II superlattice M-barrier photodetectors is shown to be limited by surface leakage. By applying gate bias on the mesa sidewall surface, leakage current is significantly reduced. Qualitatively IV modeling shows diffusion-dominated behavior of dark current at temperatures greater than 120 K. At 110 K, the dark current of gated device is reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching the measurement system noise floor. With a quantum efficiency of 48% in front side illumination configuration, a 4.7μm cut-off gated device attains a specific detectivity of 2.5 × 1014 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 110 K, which is 3.6 times higher than in ungated devices. reprint
 
11.  Type-II superlattice dual-band LWIR imager with M-barrier and Fabry-Perot resonance
E.K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, B.M. Nguyen, M.A. Hoang, R. McClintock, M. Stegall, and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 13, p. 2560-2562-- July 1, 2011
We report a high performance long-wavelength IR dual-band imager based on type-II superlattices with 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red channel). Test pixels reveal background-limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ∼5×1011 Jones at 7.9 μm in the blue channel and ∼1×1011 Jones at 10.2 μm in the red channel at 77 K. These performances were attributed to low dark currents thanks to the M-barrier and Fabry–Perot enhanced quantum efficiencies despite using thin 2 μm absorbing regions. In the imager, the high signal-to-noise ratio contributed to median noise equivalent temperature differences of ∼20 mK for both channels with integration times on the order of 0.5 ms, making it suitable for high speed applications. reprint
 
12.  Type-II InAs/GaSb photodiodes and focal plane arrays aimed at high operating temperatures
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, and B.M. Nguyen
Opto-Electronics Review (OER), Vol. 19, No. 3, June 2011, p. 46-54-- June 1, 2011
Recent efforts to improve the performance of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPA) have been reviewed. The theoretical bandstructure models have been discussed first. A review of recent developments in growth and characterization techniques is given. The efforts to improve the performance of MWIR photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been reviewed and the latest results have been reported. It is shown that these improvements has resulted in background limited performance (BLIP) of single element photodiodes up to 180 K. FPA shows a constant noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11 mK up to 120 K and it shows human body imaging up to 170 K. reprint
 
13.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and B.M. Nguyen
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80122Q-1-- April 26, 2011
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type II superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Using M-structure superlattice, novel device architectures have been developed, resulting in significant improvement of the device performances. In this paper, we will compare different photodetector architectures and discuss the optimization scheme which leads to almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance. At 150K, single element detectors exhibit a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x10(12) cm.Hz(1/2)/W. BLIP operation with a 300K background and 2π FOV can be reached with an operating temperature up to 180K. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11mK up to 120K. Human body imaging is achieved at 150K with NEDT of 150mK. reprint
 
14.  Recent advances in high performance antimonide-based superlattice FPAs
E.K. Huang, B.M. Nguyen, S.R. Darvish, S. Abdollahi Pour, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, and M.A. Hoang
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80120T-1-- April 25, 2011
Infrared detection technologies entering the third generation demand performances for higher detectivity, higher operating temperature, higher resolution and multi-color detection, all accomplished with better yield and lower manufacturing/operating costs. Type-II antimonide based superlattices (T2SL) are making firm steps toward the new era of focal plane array imaging as witnessed in the unique advantages and significant progress achieved in recent years. In this talk, we will present the four research themes towards third generation imagers based on T2SL at the Center for Quantum Devices. High performance LWIR megapixel focal plane arrays (FPAs) are demonstrated at 80K with an NEDT of 23.6 mK using f/2 optics, an integration time of 0.13 ms and a 300 K background. MWIR and LWIR FPAs on non-native GaAs substrates are demonstrated as a proof of concept for the cost reduction and mass production of this technology. In the MWIR regime, progress has been made to elevate the operating temperature of the device, in order to avoid the burden of liquid nitrogen cooling. We have demonstrated a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x1012 cm·Hz1/2/W at 150 K for 4.2 μm cut-off single element devices. Progress on LWIR/LWIR dual color FPAs as well as novel approaches for FPA fabrication will also be discussed. reprint
 
15.  High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices
S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 14, p. 143501-1-- April 4, 2011
The dominant dark current mechanisms are identified and suppressed to improve the performance of midwave infrared InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice photodiodes at high temperatures. The optimized heterojunction photodiode exhibits a quantum efficiency of 50% for 2 μm thick active region without any bias dependence. At 150 K, R0A of 5100 Ω·cm² and specific detectivity of 1.05×1012 cm·Hz0.5·W-1 are demonstrated for a 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.2 μm. Assuming 300 K background temperature and 2π field of view, the performance of the detector is background limited up to 180 K, which is improved by 25 °C compared to the homojunction photodiode. Infrared imaging using f/2.3 optics and an integration time of 10.02 ms demonstrates a noise equivalent temperature difference of 11 mK at operating temperatures below 120 K. reprint
 
16.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. reprint
 
17.  Type-II Antimonide-based Superlattices for the Third Generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Manijeh Razeghi, Edward Kwei-wei Huang, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Siamak Abdollahi Pour, and Pierre-Yves Delaunay
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVI, Vol. 7660, pp. 76601F-- May 10, 2010
In recent years, the Type-II superlattice (T2SL) material platform has seen incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties which has lead to unprecedented development in the arena of device design. Its versatility in band-structure engineering is perhaps one of the greatest hallmarks of the T2SL that other material platforms are lacking. In this paper, we discuss advantages of the T2SL, specifically the M-structure T2SL, which incorporates AlSb in the traditional InAs/GaSb superlattice. Using the M-structure, we present a new unipolar minority electron detector coined as the p-M-p, the letters which describe the composition of the device. Demonstration of this device structure with a 14 μm cutoff attained a detectivity of 4x1010 Jones (-50 mV) at 77 K. As device performance improves year after year with novel design contributions from the many researchers in this field, the natural progression in further enabling the ubiquitous use of this technology is to reduce cost and support the fabrication of large infrared imagers. In this paper, we also discuss the use of GaAs substrates as an enabling technology for third generation imaging on T2SLs. Despite the 7.8% lattice mismatch between the native GaSb and alternative GaAs substrates, T2SL photodiodes grown on GaAs at the MWIR and LWIR have been demonstrated at an operating temperature of 77 K reprint
 
18.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. reprint
 
19.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. reprint
 
20.  State-of-the-art Type II Antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection and imaging
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, P. Manurkar, and S. Bogdanov
SPIE Proceedings, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments II, San Diego, CA, Vol. 7467, p. 74670T-1-- August 5, 2009
Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL), a system of multi interacting quantum wells was first introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this low dimensional system has drawn a lot of attention for its attractive quantum mechanics properties and its grand potential for the emergence into the application world, especially in infrared detection. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs and imaging applications which elevated the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art Mercury Cadmium Telluride. We will present in this talk the current status of the state-of-the-art Type II superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays, and the future outlook for this material system. reprint
 
21.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
 
22.  Recent Advances in LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 97, No. 6, p. 1056-1066-- June 1, 2009
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. reprint
 
23.  High performance antimony based type-II superlattice photodiodes on GaAs substrates
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981T-- April 13, 2009
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on GaSb substrate have achieved significant advances in both structural design and material growth, making Type-II superlattice infrared detector a rival competitor to the state-of-the-art MCT technology. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost. The device performances of Type-II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. reprint
 
24.  Surface leakage reduction in narrow band gap type-II antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes
E.K. Huang, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 5, p. 053506-1-- February 2, 2009
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching rendered structural and electrical enhancements on type-II antimonide-based superlattices compared to those delineated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) with a regenerative chemical wet etch. The surface resistivity of 4×105 Ω·cm is evidence of the surface quality achieved with ICP etching and polyimide passivation. By only modifying the etching technique in the fabrication steps, the ICP-etched devices with a 9.3 µm cutoff wavelength revealed a diffusion-limited dark current density of 4.1×10−6 A/cm2 and a maximum differential resistance at zero bias in excess of 5300 Ω·cm2 at 77 K, which are an order of magnitude better in comparison to the ECR-etched devices. reprint
 
25.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from M-structure InAs-GaSb superlattices
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 2, p. 157-162.-- February 1, 2009
The recent introduction of a M-structure design improved both the dark current and R0A performances of Type-II InAs-GaSb photodiodes. A focal plane array fabricated with this design was characterized at 81 K. The dark current of individual pixels was measured between 1.1 and 1.6 nA, 7 times lower than previous superlattice FPAs. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The quantum efficiency of detectors without antireflective coating was 74%. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK, limited only by the performance of the testing system and the read out integrated circuit. Background limited performances were demonstrated at 81 K for a 300 K background. reprint
 

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