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1.  
Bias-selectable three-color short-, extended-short-, and mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
Bias-selectable three-color short-, extended-short-, and mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
Abbas Haddadi, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Letters Vol. 42, Iss. 21, pp. 4275-4278 (2017)-- October 16, 2017
A bias-selectable, high operating temperature, three-color short-, extended-short-, and mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The short-, extended-short-, and mid-wavelength channels’ 50% cutoff wavelengths were 2.3, 2.9, and 4.4μm, respectively, at 150K. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a saturated quantum efficiency of 34% at 4μm under +200 mV bias voltage in a front-side illumination configuration and without any antireflection coating. At 200mV, the device exhibited a dark current density of 8.7×10−5  A/cm2 providing a specific detectivity of ∼2×1011  cm·Hz1/2/W at 150K. The short-wavelength channel achieved a saturated quantum efficiency of 20% at 1.8μm. At −10  mV, the device’s dark current density was 5.5×10−8  A/cm2. At zero bias, its specific detectivity was 1×1011  cm·Hz1/2/W at 150K. The extended short-wavelength channel achieved a saturated quantum efficiency of 22% at 2.75 μm. Under −2  V bias voltage, the device exhibited a dark current density of 1.8×10−6  A/cm2 providing a specific detectivity of 6.3×1011  cm·Hz1/2/W at 150K. reprint
 
2.  
Dark current reduction in microjunction-based double electron barrier type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
Dark current reduction in microjunction-based double electron barrier type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12617 (2017)-- October 3, 2017
Microjunction InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors with reduced dark current density were demonstrated. A double electron barrier design was employed to reduce both bulk and surface dark currents. The photodetectors exhibited low surface leakage after passivation with SiO2, allowing the use of very small size features without degradation of the dark current. Fabricating microjunction photodetectors (25 × 25 µm² diodes with 10 × 10 µm² microjunctions) in combination with the double electron barrier design results in a dark current density of 6.3 × 10−6 A/cm² at 77 K. The device has an 8 µm cut-off wavelength at 77 K and exhibits a quantum efficiency of 31% for a 2 µm-thick absorption region, which results in a specific detectivity value of 1.2 × 1012 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
 
3.  
Toward realization of small-size dual-band long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices
Toward realization of small-size dual-band long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Manijeh Razeghi
Solid-State Electronics-- June 20, 2017
In this study, we demonstrate 12 × 12 µm² high-performance, dual-band, long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices. The structure consists of two back-to-back heterojunction photodiodes with 2 µm-thick p-doped absorption regions. High quality dry etching combined with SiO2 passivation results in a surface resistivity value of 7.9 × 105 Ω·cm for the longer (red) channel and little degradation of the electrical performance. The device reaches dark current density values of 4.5 × 10−4 A/cm² for the longer (red) and 1.3 × 10−4 A/cm² for the shorter (blue) LWIR channels at quantum efficiency saturation. It has 50% cut-off wavelengths of 8.3 and 11.2 µm for the blue and red channel, respectively, at 77 K in back-side illumination configuration and exhibits quantum efficiencies of 37% and 29%, respectively. This results in specific detectivity values of 2.5 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W and 1.3 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K. reprint
 
4.  
Bias–selectable nBn dual–band long–/very long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattices
Bias–selectable nBn dual–band long–/very long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattices
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, Sourav Adhikary, & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 3379 (2017) -- June 13, 2017
Type–II superlattices (T2SLs) are a class of artificial semiconductors that have demonstrated themselves as a viable candidate to compete with the state–of–the–art mercury–cadmium–telluride material system in the field of infrared detection and imaging. Within type–II superlattices, InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs have been shown to have a significantly longer minority carrier lifetime. However, demonstration of high–performance dual–band photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx T2SLs in the long and very long wavelength infrared (LWIR & VLWIR) regimes remains challenging. We report the demonstration of high–performance bias–selectable dual–band long–wavelength infrared photodetectors based on new InAs/InAsSb/AlAsSb type–II superlattice design. Our design uses two different bandgap absorption regions separated by an electron barrier that blocks the transport of majority carriers to reduce the dark current density of the device. As the applied bias is varied, the device exhibits well–defined cut–off wavelengths of either ∼8.7 or ∼12.5 μm at 77 K. This bias–selectable dual–band photodetector is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for multi–spectral LWIR and VLWIR imaging and detection. reprint
 
5.  
Recent advances in antimonide-based gap-engineered Type-II superlattices material system for 2 and 3 colors infrared imagers
Recent advances in antimonide-based gap-engineered Type-II superlattices material system for 2 and 3 colors infrared imagers
Manijeh. Razeghi, Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, and Thomas Yang
Proceedings of SPIE 10177, Infrared Technology and Applications XLIII, 1017705-- May 9, 2017
InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices (T2SLs) is a system of multi-interacting quantum wells. Since its introduction, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, InAs/InAs1- xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx T2SL-based photodetectors for detection in different infrared regions, from short-wavelength (SWIR) to long-wavelength (LWIR) infrared, and the future outlook of this material system. reprint
 
6.  
Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice barrier
Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice barrier
A. Haddadi, R. Chevallier, A. Dehzangi, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 110, 101104 (2017)-- March 8, 2017
Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate have been demonstrated. An AlAsSb/GaSb H-structure superlattice design was used as the large-bandgap electron-barrier in these photodetectors. The photodetector is designed to have a 100% cut-off wavelength of ∼2.8 μm at 300 K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.65 A/W at 1.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 41% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 78 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−3 A/cm² under −400 mV applied bias at 300 K, the nBn photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 1.51 × 1010 Jones. At 150 K, the photodetector exhibited a dark current density of 9.5 × 10−9 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 50%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.12 × 1013 Jones. reprint
 
7.  
Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K
Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, Romain Chevallier, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 035502 (2016)-- February 13, 2017
We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−5 A/cm², under −80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 Jones and a background–limited operating temperature of 110 K. reprint
 
8.  
Impact of scaling base thickness on the performance of heterojunction phototransistors
Impact of scaling base thickness on the performance of heterojunction phototransistors
Arash Dehzangi, Abbas Haddadi, Sourav Adhikary, and Manijeh Razeghi
Nanotechnology 28, 10LT01 (2017)-- February 2, 2017
In this letter we report the effect of vertical scaling on the optical and electrical performance of mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices. The performance of devices with different base thickness was compared as the base was scaled from 60 down to 40 nm. The overall optical performance shows enhancement in responsively, optical gain, and specific detectivity upon scaling the base width. The saturated responsivity for devices with 40 nm bases reaches 8,845 and 9,528 A/W at 77 and 150 K, respectively, which is almost five times greater than devices with 60 nm bases. The saturated optical gain for devices with 40 nm bases is measured as 2,760 at 77 K and 3,081 at 150 K. The devices with 40 nm bases also exhibit remarkable enhancement in saturated current gain, with 17,690 at 77 K, and 19,050 at 150 K. reprint
 
9.  
Mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices
Mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices
A. Haddadi, S. Adhikary, A. Dehzangi, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 109, 021107 (2016)-- July 12, 2016
A mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistor based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. Near a wavelength of 4 μm saturated optical gains of 668 and 639 at 77 and 150 K, respectively, are demonstrated over a wide dynamic range. At 150 K, the unity optical gain collector dark current density and DC current gain are 1 × 10−3 A/cm² and 3710, respectively. This demonstrates the potential for use in high-speed applications. In addition, the phototransistor exhibits a specific detectivity value that is four times higher compared with a state-of-the-art type-II superlattice-based photodiode with a similar cut-off wavelength at 150 K. reprint
 
10.  
High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs<sub>1-x</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub>/AlAs<sub>1-x</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub> superlattices
High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, X. V. Suo, S. Adhikary, P. Dianat, R. Chevallier, A. M. Hoang, A. Dehzangi
Proc. SPIE 9819, Infrared Technology and Applications XLII, 98190A -- May 20, 2016
We present a high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode, whose structure is based on type-II superlattices with InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx on GaSb substrate. At room temperature (300K) with front-side illumination, the device shows the peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6mm, corresponding to 37% quantum efficiency at zero bias. At 300K, the device has a 50% cut-off wavelength of ~1.8mm. For −50mV applied bias at 300 K the photodetector has dark current density of 9.6x10-5 A/cm² and RxA of 285 Ω•cm², and it revealed a detectivity of 6.45x1010 cm•Hz½/W. Dark current density reached to 1.3x10-8 A/cm² at 200 K, with 36% quantum efficiency which leads to the detectivity value of 5.66x1012 cm•Hz½/W. reprint
 
11.  
InAs/InAs<sub>1-x</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub> type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A. M. Hoang, R. Chevallier, S. Adhikary, A. Dehzangi
Proc. SPIE 9819, Infrared Technology and Applications XLII, 981909-- May 20, 2016
We report InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattice base photodetector as high performance long-wavelength infrared nBn device grown on GaSb substrate. The device has 6 μm-thick absorption region, and shows optical performance with a peak responsivity of 4.47 A/W at 7.9 μm, which is corresponding to the quantum efficiency of 54% at a bias voltage of negative 90 mV, where no anti-reflection coating was used for front-side illumination. At 77K, the photodetector’s 50% cut-off wavelength was ~10 μm. The device shows the detectivity of 2.8x1011 cm•Hz½/W at 77 K, where RxA and dark current density were 119 Ω•cm² and 4.4x10-4 A/cm² , respectively, under -90 mV applied bias voltage reprint
 
12.  
High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
A. Haddadi, X.V. Suo, S. Adhikary, P. Dianat, R. Chevallier, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107 , 141104 (2015)-- October 5, 2015
A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ~1.8μm at 300K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R×A of 285 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 9.6×10-5 A/cm² under −50mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45×1010 cm·Hz½/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3×10-8 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66×1012 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
 
13.  
InAs/InAs<sub>1-X</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub> Type-II Superlattices for High-Performance Long-Wavelength Infrared Medical Thermography
InAs/InAs1-XSbx Type-II Superlattices for High-Performance Long-Wavelength Infrared Medical Thermography
Manijeh Razeghi, Abbas Haddadi, Guanxi Chen, Romain Chevallier and Ahn Minh Hoang
ECS Trans. 2015 66(7): 109-116-- June 1, 2015
We present the demonstration of a high-performance long-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate. The photodetector’s 50% cut-off wavelength was ~10 μm at 77K. The photodetector with a 6 μm-thick absorption region exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.47 A/W at 7.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 54% at -90 mV applied bias voltage under front-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. With an R×A of 119 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 4.4×10-4 A/cm² under -90 mV applied bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 2.8×1011 Jones. This photodetector opens a new horizon for making infrared imagers with higher sensitivity for medical thermography.
 
14.  
High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ~9μm
High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ~9μm
Q. Y. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. J. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori
Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015)-- February 2, 2015
We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm−1 and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes. reprint
 
15.  
Bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAs<sub>1−x</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub> type-II superlattices
Bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx type-II superlattices
A. Haddadi, R. Chevallier, G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 106 , 011104 (2015)-- January 8, 2015
A high performance bias-selectable mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The mid- and long-wavelength channels' 50% cut-off wavelengths were ∼5.1 and ∼9.5 μm at 77 K. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 45% at 100 mV bias voltage under front-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. With a dark current density of 1 × 10−7 A/cm² under 100 mV applied bias, the mid-wavelength channel exhibited a specific detectivity of 8.2 × 1012 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 77 K. The long-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 40%, a dark current density of 5.7 × 10−4 A/cm² under −150 mV applied bias at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity value of 1.64 × 1011 cm·Hz½·W-1. reprint
 
16.  
Demonstration of type-II superlattice MWIR minority carrier unipolar imager for high operation temperature application
Demonstration of type-II superlattice MWIR minority carrier unipolar imager for high operation temperature application
Guanxi Chen, Abbas Haddadi, Anh-Minh Hoang, Romain Chevallier, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Letters Vol. 40, Iss. 1, pp. 29–32 (2015)-- December 18, 2014
An InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice-based mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) 320×256 unipolar focal plane array (FPA) using pMp architecture exhibited excellent infrared image from 81 to 150 K and ∼98% operability, which illustrated the possibility for high operation temperature application. At 150 K and −50  mV operation bias, the 27 μm pixels exhibited dark current density to be 1.2×10−5  A/cm², with 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.9 μm, quantum efficiency of 67% at peak responsivity (4.6 μm), and specific detectivity of 1.2×1012 Jones. At 90 K and below, the 27 μm pixels exhibited system limited dark current density, which is below 1×10−9  A/cm², and specific detectivity of 1.5×1014 Jones. From 81 to 100 K, the FPA showed ∼11  mK NEDT by using F/2.3 optics and a 9.69 ms integration time. reprint
 
17.  
InAs/InAs<sub>1-x</sub>Sb<sub>x</sub> type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices for high performance long wavelength infrared detection
A. Haddadi , G. Chen , R. Chevallier , A. M. Hoang , and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 121104 (2014)-- September 22, 2014
High performance long-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate have been demonstrated. The photodetector's 50% cut-off wavelength was ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector with a 6 μm-thick absorption region exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.47 A/W at 7.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 54% at −90 mV bias voltage under front-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 119 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 4.4 × 10−4 A/cm² under −90 mV applied bias at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 2.8 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2·W-1. reprint
 
18.  
High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
Erdem Cicek, Ryan McClintock, Abbas Haddadi, William A. Gaviria Rojas, and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 50, Issue 8, p 591-595-- August 1, 2014
We report on solar-blind ultraviolet, AlxGa1-x N- based,p-i-n,focal plane array (FPA) with 92% operability. At the peak detection wavelength of 278 nm, 320×256-FP A-pixel showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) and responsivity of 49% and 109 mA/W, respectively, increasing to 66% under 5 volts of reverse bias. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density: <7×10-9A/cm², at FPA operating voltage of 2 volts of reverse bias. reprint
 
19.  
Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices:  A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices: A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, P.R. Bijjam, and R. McClintock
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2014-- August 1, 2014
Type II superlattices (T2SLs), a system of interacting multiquantum wells,were introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention, especially for infrared detection and imaging. In recent years, the T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material growth quality, device structure design, and device fabrication techniques that have elevated the performance of T2SL-based photodetectors and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) to a level comparable to state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection and imaging, such as mercury cadmium telluride compounds. We present the current status of T2SL-based photodetectors and FPAs for imaging in different infrared regimes, from short wavelength to very long wavelength, and dual-band infrared detection and imaging, as well as the future outlook for this material system. reprint
 
20.  
High performance photodiodes based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
High performance photodiodes based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, R. Chevallier, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 251105 (2014)-- June 23, 2014
Very long wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb Type-II superlattices are demonstrated on GaSb substrate. A heterostructure photodiode was grown with 50% cut-off wavelength of 14.6 μm. At 77 K, the photodiode exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.8 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 46% at −300 mV bias voltage from front side illumination without antireflective coating. With the dark current density of 0.7 A/cm², it provided a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1010 Jones. The device performance was investigated as a function of operating temperature, revealing a very stable optical response and a background limited performance below 50 K. reprint
 
21.  Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y2O3 passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223501 (2013)-- November 25, 2013
Y2O3 was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 μm, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO2 passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100 × 100 μm size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77 K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at −300 mV of 2.5 × 10−5 A/cm² and 1.3 × 104 Ω·cm², respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones. reprint
 
22.  Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of antimonide infrared lasers and detectors
Chuanle Zhou, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi, and M. Grayson
Optical Materials Express. 2013;3(10):1632-1640.-- October 1, 2013
The in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the cladding layers and active quantum wells of interband cascade lasers and type-II superlattice infrared detector are measured by the 2-wire 3ω method. The layers investigated include InAs/AlSb superlattice cladding layers, InAs/GaInSb/InAs/AlSb W-active quantum wells, an InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber, an InAs/GaSb/AlSb M-structure, and an AlAsSb digital alloy. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the InAs/AlSb superlattice is 4-5 times higher than the cross-plane value. The isotropic thermal conductivity of the AlAsSb digital alloy matches a theoretical expectation, but it is one order of magnitude lower than the only previously-reported experimental value. reprint
 
23.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. reprint
 
24.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. reprint
 
25.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. reprint
 

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