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201.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 18, p. 183502-- November 2, 2009
We present a hybrid photodetector design that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. The structure consists of a barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. By using the M-structure superlattice as a barrier region, the band alignments can be experimentally controlled, allowing for the efficient extraction of the photosignal with less than 50 mV bias. At 77 K, a 14 µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W, and the associated shot noise detectivity of 4×1010 Jones. reprint
202.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. reprint
203.  Noise analysis in Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 14-- October 5, 2009reprint
204.  Hybrid green LEDs with n-type ZnO substituted for N-type GaN in an inverted P-N junction
F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; D.J. Rogers; Can Bayram; R. McClintock
LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, LEOS '09. IEEE, [5343231] (2009) -- October 4, 2009
Recently, the GaN and ZnO materials systems have attracted considerable attention because of their use in a broad range of emerging applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. GaN and ZnO are similar materials with direct wide bandgaps, wurtzite crystal structure, high thermal stability and comparable thermal expansion coefficients, which makes them well suited for heterojunction fabrication. Two important advantages of GaN over ZnO are the reliable p-type doping and the mature know-how for bandgap engineering. Thus GaN-based LEDs can be made to emit from the deep UV right into the green through alloying with Al and In, respectively. The performance is not identical at all wavelengths, however, and the performance of InGaN-based green LEDs is still relatively poor. reprint
205.  Tunability of intersubband absorption from 4.5 to 5.3 µm in a GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
N. Péré-Laperne, C. Bayram, L. Nguyen-Thê, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 13, p. 131109-- September 28, 2009
Intersubband (ISB) absorption at wavelengths as long as 5.3 µm is realized in GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By employing low aluminum content Al0.2Ga0.8N barriers and varying the well width from 2.6 to 5.1 nm, ISB absorption has been tuned from 4.5 to 5.3 µm. Theoretical ISB absorption and interband emission models are developed and compared to the experimental results. The effects of band offsets and the piezoelectric fields on these superlattices are investigated. reprint
206.  Noise analysis in type-II InAs/GaSb focal plane arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 6, p. 063110-- September 15, 2009
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference in the array was measured as low as 23 mK for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The noise behavior of the detectors was properly described by a model based on thermal, shot, read out integrated circuit, and photon noises. The noise of the imager was dominated by photon noise for photon fluxes higher than 1.8×1015 ph·s−1·cm−2. At lower irradiance, the imager was limited by the shot noise generated by the dark current or the noise of the testing system. The superlattice detector did not create 1/f noise for frequencies above 4 mHz. As a result, the focal plane array did not require frequent calibrations. reprint
207.  Gain-length scaling in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors
T. Yamanaka, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Kuboya, A. Myzaferi and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- September 14, 2009reprint
208.  Nitrides push performance of UV photodiodes
Can Bayram; Manijeh Razeghi
Laser Focus World. 45(9), pp. 47-51 (2009)-- September 1, 2009
The nitrides are known to be useful for creating the UV single-photon detectors with efficiencies of 20%, with its considerable advantages that could further enable quantum computing and data encryption. Such detectors would be well suited for numerous applications in the defense, commercial, and scientific arenas, including covert space-to-space communications, early missile-threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy. The use of SAM regions is a common approach to reducing multiplication noise and enhancing gain through impact-ionization engineering that could benefit from the higher ionization coefficient by offering lower noise performance and higher gain. The ADPs also enables the realization of single-photon detection by using Geiger-mode operation, which entails operating the ADPs well above the breakdown voltage and using pulse-quenching circuitry.
209.  Gain-length scaling in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors
T. Yamanaka, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Kuboya, A. Myzaferi and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 9-- August 31, 2009
The gain in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors is investigated. The scaling of the gain with device length has been analyzed, and the behavior agrees with the previously proposed model. We conclude that we understand the gain in the low bias region, but in the high field region, discrepancies remain. An extension of the gain model is presented to cover the very high electric field region. The high field data are compared to the extended model and discussed. reprint
210.  State-of-the-art Type II Antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection and imaging
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, P. Manurkar, and S. Bogdanov
SPIE Proceedings, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments II, San Diego, CA, Vol. 7467, p. 74670T-1-- August 5, 2009
Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL), a system of multi interacting quantum wells was first introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this low dimensional system has drawn a lot of attention for its attractive quantum mechanics properties and its grand potential for the emergence into the application world, especially in infrared detection. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs and imaging applications which elevated the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art Mercury Cadmium Telluride. We will present in this talk the current status of the state-of-the-art Type II superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays, and the future outlook for this material system. reprint
211.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. reprint
212.  Stranski-Krastanov growth of InGaN quantum dots emitting in green spectra
C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 96, No. 2, p. 403-408-- August 1, 2009
Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on GaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. 2D–3D growth mode transition through Stranski–Krastanov mode was observed via atomic force microscopy. The critical thickness for In0.67Ga0.33N QDs was determined to be four monolayers. The effects of growth temperature, deposition thickness, and V/III ratio on QD formation were examined. The capping of InGaN QDs with GaN was analyzed. Optimized InGaN quantum dots emitted in green spectra at room temperature. reprint
213.  Photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with 12 W output power
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 3-- July 20, 2009
We demonstrate room temperature, high power, and diffraction limited operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting around 4.7 µm. PCDFB gratings with three distinctive periods are fabricated on the same wafer. Peak output power up to 12 W is demonstrated. Lasers with different periods show expected wavelength shifts according to the design. Dual mode spectra are attributed to a purer index coupling by putting the grating layer 100 nm away from the laser core. Single lobed diffraction limited far field profiles are observed. reprint
214.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
215.  High-Performance InP-Based Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 3, May-June 2009, p. 941-951.-- June 5, 2009
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were once considered as inefficient devices, as the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) was merely a few percent at room temperature. But this situation has changed in the past few years, as dramatic enhancements to the output power andWPE have been made for InP-based mid-IR QCLs. Room temperature continuous-wave (CW) output power as high as 2.8 W and WPE as high as 15% have now been demonstrated for individual devices. Along with the fundamental exploration of refining the design and improving the material quality, a consistent determination of important device performance parameters allows for strategically addressing each component that can be improved potentially. In this paper, we present quantitative experimental evidence backing up the strategies we have adopted to improve the WPE for QCLs with room temperature CW operation. reprint
216.  Recent Advances in LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 97, No. 6, p. 1056-1066-- June 1, 2009
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. reprint
217.  Comparison of ZnO nanostructures grown using pulsed laser deposition, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor transport
V.E. Sandana, D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, H-J Drouhin, M.C. Clochard, V. Sallett, G. Garry, and F. Falyouni
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1678-1683-- May 29, 2009
This article compares the forms and properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on Si (111) and c-plane sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates using three different growth processes: metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and physical vapor transport (PVT). A very wide range of ZnO nanostructures was observed, including nanorods, nanoneedles, nanocombs, and some novel structures resembelling “bevelled” nanowires. PVT gave the widest family of nanostructures. PLD gave dense regular arrays of nanorods with a preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane on both Si and c-Al2O3 substrates, without the use of a catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that nanostructures grown by PLD were better crystallized and more highly oriented than those grown by PVT and MOCVD. Samples grown on Si showed relatively poor XRD response but lower wavelength emission and narrower linewidths in PL studies. reprint
218.  Fabrication and characterization of novel hybrid green light emitting didoes based on substituting n-type ZnO for n-type GaN in an inverted p-n junction
C. Bayram, D. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1784-1788-- May 29, 2009
Details of the fabrication and characterization of hybrid green light emitting diodes, composed of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN on AlN/sapphire, are reported. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence were used to study the hybrid device. The effects of solvents, annealing, and etching on n-ZnO are discussed. Successful hybridization of ZnO and (In)GaN into a green light emitting diode was realized. reprint
219.  Microstructural compositional, and optical characterization of GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on ZnO epilayers
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, T. Moudakir, S. Gautier, F. Jomard, M. Molinari, M. Troyon, D. McGrouther, J.N. Chapman, M. Razeghi and A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1655-1657-- May 29, 2009
This article presents the results of microstructural, compositional, and optical characterization of GaN films grown on ZnO buffered c-sapphire substrates. Transmission electron microscopy showed epitaxy between the GaN and the ZnO, no degradation of the ZnO buffer layer, and no evidence of any interfacial compounds. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed negligible Zn signal in the GaN layer away from the GaN/ZnO interface. After chemical removal of the ZnO, room temperature (RT) cathodoluminescence spectra had a single main peak centered at ~ 368 nm (~3.37 eV), which was indexed as near-band-edge (NBE) emission from the GaN layer. There was no evidence of the ZnO NBE peak, centered at ~379 nm (~3.28 eV), which had been observed in RT photoluminescence spectra prior to removal of the ZnO. reprint
220.  Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications
M. Razeghi and C. Bayram
SPIE Proceedings, Dresden, Germany (May 4-6, 2009), Vol. 7366, p. 73661F-1-- May 20, 2009
Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region. reprint
221.  A Review of III-Nitride Research at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi and R. McClintock
Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 311, No. 10-- May 1, 2009
In this paper, we review the history of the Center for Quantum Devices’ (CQD) III-nitride research covering the past 15 years. We review early work developing III-nitride material growth. We then present a review of laser and light-emitting diode (LED) results covering everything from blue lasers to deep UV LEDs emitting at 250 nm. This is followed by a discussion of our UV photodetector research from early photoconductors all the way to current state of the art Geiger-mode UV single photon detectors. reprint
222.  High performance antimony based type-II superlattice photodiodes on GaAs substrates
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981T-- April 13, 2009
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on GaSb substrate have achieved significant advances in both structural design and material growth, making Type-II superlattice infrared detector a rival competitor to the state-of-the-art MCT technology. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost. The device performances of Type-II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. reprint
223.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from type-II InAs/GaSb M-structure superlattice
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981Q-- April 13, 2009
Recent advances in growth techniques, structure design and processing have lifted the performance of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. The introduction of a M-structure design improved both the dark current and R0A of Type-II photodiodes. This new structure combined with a thick absorbing region demonstrated background limited performance at 77K for a 300K background and a 2-π field of view. A focal plane array with a 9.6 μm 50% cutoff wavelength was fabricated with this design and characterized at 80K. The dark current of individual pixels was measured around 1.3 nA, 7 times lower than previous superlattice FPAs. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The quantum efficiency of detectors without anti-reflective coating was 72%. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK. The deposition of an anti-reflective coating improved the NEDT to 20 mK and the quantum efficiency to 89%. reprint
224.  Pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN/GaN superlattices for near-infrared intersubband transitions
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, R. McClintock, B. Fain and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 12, p. 121902-1-- March 23, 2009
A pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique is developed for the growth of high-quality AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) with intersubband (ISB) transitions at optical communications wavelengths. Tunability of the AlN and GaN layers is demonstrated. Indium is shown to improve SL surface and structural quality. Capping thickness is shown to be crucial for ISB transition characteristics. Effects of barrier- and well-doping on the ISB absorption are reported. reprint
225.  Characterization of ZnO thin films grown on c-sapphire by pulsed laser deposition as templates for regrowth of zno by metal organic chemical vapor deposition
D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; C. Sartel ; V. Sallet ; F. Jomard ; P. Galtier ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 7217, Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices IV, 72170F (February 17, 2009)-- February 17, 2009
The use of ZnO template layers grown Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has been seen to produce dramatic improvements in the surface morphology, crystallographic quality and optical properties of ZnO layers grown on c-sapphire substrates by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. This paper provides complementary details on the PLD-grown ZnO template properties. reprint

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