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176.  AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 4, p. 042103-1-- January 25, 2010
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. RTDs were fabricated via standard processing steps. RTDs demonstrate a clear negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature (RT). The NDR was observed around 4.7 V with a peak current density of 59 kA/cm² and a peak-to-valley ratio of 1.6 at RT. Dislocation-free material is shown to be the key for the performance of GaN RTDs. reprint
 
177.  High power photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting at 4.5 micron
B. Gokden, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760806-1-- January 22, 2010
Quantum cascade lasers possess very small linewidth enhancement factor, which makes them very prominent candidates for realization of high power, nearly diffraction limited and single mode photonic crystal distributed feedback broad area lasers in the mid-infrared frequencies. In this paper, we present room temperature operation of a two dimensional photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.5 µm. peak power up to ~0.9 W per facet is obtained from a 2 mm long laser with 100 µm cavity width at room temperature. The observed spectrum is single mode with a very narrow linewidth. Far-field profile has nearly diffraction limited single lobe with full width at half maximum of 3.5 degree normal to the facet. The mode selection and power output relationships are experimentally established with respect to different cavity lengths for photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers. reprint
 
178.  Current status and potential of high power mid-infrared intersubband lasers
S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76080B-1-- January 22, 2010
Some of the recent advances in high power quantum cascade laser development will be reviewed in this paper. Research areas explored include short wavelength (λ <4 µm) lasers, high performance strain-balanced heterostructures, and high power long wavelength (7< λ< 16 µm) lasers. Near λ=4.5 µm, highlights include demonstration of 18% continuous wave wallplug efficiency at room temperature, 53% pulsed wallplug efficiency at 40 K, and 120 W of peak power output from a single device at room temperature. Near λ ~10 µm, up to 0.6 W of continuous output power at room temperature has also been demonstrated, with pulsed efficiencies up to 9%. reprint
 
179.  Very high wall plug efficiency of quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76080F-1-- January 22, 2010
We demonstrate very high wall plug efficiency (WPE) of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in low temperature pulsed mode operation (53%), room temperature pulsed mode operation (23%), and room temperature continuous wave operation (18%). All of these values are the highest to date for any QCLs. The optimization of WPE takes the route of understanding the limiting factors of each sub-efficiency, exploring new designs to overcome the limiting factor, and constantly improving the material quality. reprint
 
180.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. reprint
 
181.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. reprint
 
182.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. reprint
 
183.  High power broad area quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, B. Gokden and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 22, p. 221104-1-- November 30, 2009
Broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are studied with ridge widths up to 400 µm, in room temperature pulsed mode operation at an emission wavelength around 4.45 µm. The peak output power scales linearly with the ridge width. A maximum total peak output power of 120 W is obtained from a single 400-µm-wide device with a cavity length of 3 mm. A stable far field emission characteristic is observed with dual lobes at ±38° for all tested devices, which suggests that these broad area QCLs are highly resistant to filamentation. reprint
 
184.  Effects of well width and growth temperature on optical and structural characteristics of AlN/GaN superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 20, p. 201906-1-- November 16, 2009
AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) employing various well widths (from 1.5 to 7.0 nm) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique at various growth temperatures (Ts) (from 900 to 1035 °C). The photoluminescence (PL), x-ray diffraction, and intersubband (ISB) absorption characteristics of these SLs and their dependency on well width and growth temperature are investigated. Superlattices with thinner wells (grown at the same Ts) or grown at lower Ts (employing the same well width) are shown to demonstrate higher strain effects leading to a higher PL energy and ISB absorption energy. Simulations are employed to explain the experimental observations. ISB absorptions from 1.04 to 2.15 µm are demonstrated via controlling well width and growth temperature. reprint
 
185.  Recent performance records for mid-IR quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi; Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S. Kuboya; S.R. Darvish
Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Basic Research and Practical Applications, 2009. TERA-MIR International Workshop [5379656], (2009) -- November 9, 2009
The wall plug efficiency of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in room temperature continuous wave operation is brought to 17%. Peak output power from a broad area (400 μm x 3 mm) device gives 120 W output power in pulsed mode operation at room temperature. Using a single-well-injector design, specifically made for low temperature operation, a record wall plug efficiency of 53% is demonstrated at 40 K. reprint
 
186.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 18, p. 183502-- November 2, 2009
We present a hybrid photodetector design that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. The structure consists of a barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. By using the M-structure superlattice as a barrier region, the band alignments can be experimentally controlled, allowing for the efficient extraction of the photosignal with less than 50 mV bias. At 77 K, a 14 µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W, and the associated shot noise detectivity of 4×1010 Jones. reprint
 
187.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. reprint
 
188.  Noise analysis in Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 14-- October 5, 2009reprint
 
189.  Hybrid green LEDs with n-type ZnO substituted for N-type GaN in an inverted P-N junction
F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; D.J. Rogers; Can Bayram; R. McClintock
LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, LEOS '09. IEEE, [5343231] (2009) -- October 4, 2009
Recently, the GaN and ZnO materials systems have attracted considerable attention because of their use in a broad range of emerging applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. GaN and ZnO are similar materials with direct wide bandgaps, wurtzite crystal structure, high thermal stability and comparable thermal expansion coefficients, which makes them well suited for heterojunction fabrication. Two important advantages of GaN over ZnO are the reliable p-type doping and the mature know-how for bandgap engineering. Thus GaN-based LEDs can be made to emit from the deep UV right into the green through alloying with Al and In, respectively. The performance is not identical at all wavelengths, however, and the performance of InGaN-based green LEDs is still relatively poor. reprint
 
190.  Tunability of intersubband absorption from 4.5 to 5.3 µm in a GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
N. Péré-Laperne, C. Bayram, L. Nguyen-Thê, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 13, p. 131109-- September 28, 2009
Intersubband (ISB) absorption at wavelengths as long as 5.3 µm is realized in GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By employing low aluminum content Al0.2Ga0.8N barriers and varying the well width from 2.6 to 5.1 nm, ISB absorption has been tuned from 4.5 to 5.3 µm. Theoretical ISB absorption and interband emission models are developed and compared to the experimental results. The effects of band offsets and the piezoelectric fields on these superlattices are investigated. reprint
 
191.  Noise analysis in type-II InAs/GaSb focal plane arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 6, p. 063110-- September 15, 2009
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference in the array was measured as low as 23 mK for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The noise behavior of the detectors was properly described by a model based on thermal, shot, read out integrated circuit, and photon noises. The noise of the imager was dominated by photon noise for photon fluxes higher than 1.8×1015 ph·s−1·cm−2. At lower irradiance, the imager was limited by the shot noise generated by the dark current or the noise of the testing system. The superlattice detector did not create 1/f noise for frequencies above 4 mHz. As a result, the focal plane array did not require frequent calibrations. reprint
 
192.  Gain-length scaling in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors
T. Yamanaka, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Kuboya, A. Myzaferi and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- September 14, 2009reprint
 
193.  Nitrides push performance of UV photodiodes
Can Bayram; Manijeh Razeghi
Laser Focus World. 45(9), pp. 47-51 (2009)-- September 1, 2009
The nitrides are known to be useful for creating the UV single-photon detectors with efficiencies of 20%, with its considerable advantages that could further enable quantum computing and data encryption. Such detectors would be well suited for numerous applications in the defense, commercial, and scientific arenas, including covert space-to-space communications, early missile-threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy. The use of SAM regions is a common approach to reducing multiplication noise and enhancing gain through impact-ionization engineering that could benefit from the higher ionization coefficient by offering lower noise performance and higher gain. The ADPs also enables the realization of single-photon detection by using Geiger-mode operation, which entails operating the ADPs well above the breakdown voltage and using pulse-quenching circuitry.
 
194.  Gain-length scaling in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors
T. Yamanaka, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Kuboya, A. Myzaferi and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 9-- August 31, 2009
The gain in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors is investigated. The scaling of the gain with device length has been analyzed, and the behavior agrees with the previously proposed model. We conclude that we understand the gain in the low bias region, but in the high field region, discrepancies remain. An extension of the gain model is presented to cover the very high electric field region. The high field data are compared to the extended model and discussed. reprint
 
195.  State-of-the-art Type II Antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection and imaging
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, P. Manurkar, and S. Bogdanov
SPIE Proceedings, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments II, San Diego, CA, Vol. 7467, p. 74670T-1-- August 5, 2009
Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL), a system of multi interacting quantum wells was first introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this low dimensional system has drawn a lot of attention for its attractive quantum mechanics properties and its grand potential for the emergence into the application world, especially in infrared detection. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs and imaging applications which elevated the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art Mercury Cadmium Telluride. We will present in this talk the current status of the state-of-the-art Type II superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays, and the future outlook for this material system. reprint
 
196.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. reprint
 
197.  Stranski-Krastanov growth of InGaN quantum dots emitting in green spectra
C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 96, No. 2, p. 403-408-- August 1, 2009
Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on GaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. 2D–3D growth mode transition through Stranski–Krastanov mode was observed via atomic force microscopy. The critical thickness for In0.67Ga0.33N QDs was determined to be four monolayers. The effects of growth temperature, deposition thickness, and V/III ratio on QD formation were examined. The capping of InGaN QDs with GaN was analyzed. Optimized InGaN quantum dots emitted in green spectra at room temperature. reprint
 
198.  Photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with 12 W output power
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 3-- July 20, 2009
We demonstrate room temperature, high power, and diffraction limited operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting around 4.7 µm. PCDFB gratings with three distinctive periods are fabricated on the same wafer. Peak output power up to 12 W is demonstrated. Lasers with different periods show expected wavelength shifts according to the design. Dual mode spectra are attributed to a purer index coupling by putting the grating layer 100 nm away from the laser core. Single lobed diffraction limited far field profiles are observed. reprint
 
199.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. reprint
 
200.  High-Performance InP-Based Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 3, May-June 2009, p. 941-951.-- June 5, 2009
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were once considered as inefficient devices, as the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) was merely a few percent at room temperature. But this situation has changed in the past few years, as dramatic enhancements to the output power andWPE have been made for InP-based mid-IR QCLs. Room temperature continuous-wave (CW) output power as high as 2.8 W and WPE as high as 15% have now been demonstrated for individual devices. Along with the fundamental exploration of refining the design and improving the material quality, a consistent determination of important device performance parameters allows for strategically addressing each component that can be improved potentially. In this paper, we present quantitative experimental evidence backing up the strategies we have adopted to improve the WPE for QCLs with room temperature CW operation. reprint
 

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