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101.  QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL
Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi and F. Tittel
Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 1008-- January 14, 2013
An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a stateof-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm−1, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection,respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed. reprint
 
102.  Demonstration of high performance bias-slectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011108-1-- January 7, 2013
High performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with designed cut-off wavelengths of 2 μm and 4 μm was demonstrated. At 150 K, the short-wave channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 55%, a dark current density of 1.0 × 10−9 A/cm² at −50 mV bias voltage, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 3.0 × 1013 Jones. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 33% and a dark current density of 2.6 × 10−5 A/cm² at 300 mV bias voltage, resulting in a detectivity of 4.0 × 1011 Jones. The spectral cross-talk between the two channels was also discussed for further optimization. reprint
 
103.  Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111)
Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Cho, E. Cicek, Z, Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011106-1-- January 7, 2013
We report on the growth, fabrication, and device characterization of AlGaN-based thin-film ultraviolet (UV) (λ ∼ 359 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). First, AlN/Si(111) template is patterned. Then, a fully coalesced 7-μm-thick lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of AlN layer is realized on patterned AlN/Si(111) template followed by UV LED epi-regrowth. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is employed to optimize LEO AlN and UV LED epitaxy. Back-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and flip-chip bonded to AlN heat sinks followed by Si(111) substrate removal. A peak pulsed power and slope efficiency of ∼0.6 mW and ∼1.3 μW/mA are demonstrated from these thin-film UV LEDs, respectively. For comparison, top-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and back-emission LEDs are shown to extract 50% more light than top-emission ones. reprint
 
104.  Active and passive infrared imager based on short-wave and mid-wave type-II superlattice dual-band detectors
E.K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 22-24-- January 1, 2013
A versatile dual-band detector capable of active and passive use is demonstrated using short-wave (SW) and midwave(MW) IR type-II superlattice photodiodes. A bilayer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated detectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ~1 × 10-5 A/cm² for the ∼4.2 μm cutoff MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F∕2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using tint  30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. Excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. reprint
 
105.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference-frequency generation
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 25, p. 251121-1-- December 17, 2012
We demonstrate room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference-frequency generation. Two mid-infrared active cores based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a THz nonlinearity specially optimized at the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. reprint
 
106.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. reprint
 
107.  Surface leakage investigation via gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, E.K. Huang, A.M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 21, p. 213501-1-- November 19, 2012
By using gating technique, surface leakage generated by SiO2 passivation in long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice photodetector is suppressed, and different surface leakage mechanisms are disclosed. By reducing the SiO2 passivation layer thickness, the saturated gated bias is reduced to −4.5 V. At 77 K, dark current densities of gated devices are reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, with 3071 Ω·cm² differential-resistance-area product at −100 mV. With quantum efficiency of 50%, the 11 μm 50% cut-off gated photodiode has a specific detectivity of 7 × 1011 Jones, and the detectivity stays above 2 × 1011 Jones from 0 to −500 mV operation bias. reprint
 
108.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. reprint
 
109.  Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Np. 8, p. 081106-1-- August 20, 2012
Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated with surface gratingbased distributed feedback (DFB) mechanisms. It is found that an angled cavity incorporating a one dimensional DFB with grating lines parallel to the laser facet offers the simplest solution for single mode and diffraction limited emission in the facet normal direction. A room temperature single mode QCL with the highest output power for wavelengths longer than 10 micron is demonstrated. This structure could be applied to a wide range of laser structures for power scaling along with spectral and spatial beam control. reprint
 
110.  Temperature dependence of the dark current and activation energy at avalanche onset of GaN Avalanche Photodiodes
M.P. Ulmer, E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8460, p. 84601G-1-- August 15, 2012
We report a study of the performance of an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a function of temperature from 564 K to 74 K. The dark current at avalanche onset decreases from 564 K to 74 K by approximately a factor of 125 and from 300 K to 74K the dark current at avalanche offset is reduced by a factor of about 10. The drop would have been considerably larger if the activation energy at avalanche onset (Ea) did not also decrease with decreasing temperature. These data give us insights into how to improve the single-photon counting performance of a GaN based ADP. reprint
 
111.  Thermal Conductivity of InAs/GaSb Type II Superlattice
C. Zhou, B.M. Nguyen, M. Razeghi and M. Grayson
Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, No. 9, p. 2322-2325-- August 1, 2012
The cross-plane thermal conductivity of a type II InAs/GaSb superlattice(T2SL) is measured from 13 K to 300 K using the 3x method. Thermal conductivity is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude relative to the GaSb bulk substrate. The low thermal conductivity of around 1 W/m K to 8 W/m K may serve as an advantage for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures, while presenting a challenge for T2SL interband cascade lasers and highpower photodiodes. We describe a power-law approximation to model nonlinearities in the thermal conductivity, resulting in increased or decreased peak temperature for negative or positive exponents, respectively. reprint
 
112.  Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 26, p. 261112-1-- June 25, 2012
A dual-section, single-mode quantum cascade laser is demonstrated in continuous wave at room temperature with up to 114 nm (50 cm−1) of tuning near a wavelength of 4.8 μm. Power above 100 mW is demonstrated, with a mean side mode suppression ratio of 24 dB. By changing the grating period, 270 nm (120 cm−1) of gap-free electrical tuning for a single gain medium has been realized. reprint
 
113.  Radiometric characterization of long-wavelength infrared type II strained layer superlattice focal plane array under low-photon irradiance conditions
J. Hubbs, V. Nathan, M. Tidrow, and M. Razeghi
Optical Engineering, Vol. 51, No. 6, p. 064002-1-- June 15, 2012
We present the results of the radiometric characterization of an “M” structure long wavelength infrared Type-II strained layer superlattice(SLS) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) developed by Northwestern University (NWU). The performance of the M-structure SLS IRFPA was radiometrically characterized as a function of photon irradiance, integration time, operating temperature, and detector bias. Its performance is described using standard figures of merit: responsivity, noise, and noise equivalent irradiance. Assuming background limited performance operation at higher irradiances, the detector quantum efficiency for the SLS detector array is approximately 57%. The detector dark density at 80 K is 142 μA∕cm², which represents a factor of seven reduction from previously measured devices. reprint
 
114.  Low irradiance background limited type-II superlattice MWIR M-barrier imager
E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, M.A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
OSA Optics Letters (OL), Vol. 37, No. 11, p. 2025-2027-- June 1, 2012
We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320 × 256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and ∼99%operability. The 280 K blackbody’s photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of ∼5 × 1012 ph·cm−2·s−1. Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a ∼5 pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of ∼5 × 1010 ph·cm−2·s−1 and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F∕2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array’s uniform responsivity. reprint
 
115.  High power, continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3.4 μm and λ ~ 3.55 μm InP-based quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 212104-1-- May 21, 2012
We report two highly strain-balanced InP-based AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers emitting near 3.39 and 3.56 . A pulsed threshold current density of only 1.1 kA/cm² has been achieved at room temperature for both lasers with characteristic temperatures (T0) of 166  K and 152  K, respectively. The slope efficiency is also relatively temperature insensitive with characteristic temperatures (T1) of 116 K and 191  K, respectively. Continuous wave powers of 504 mW and 576 mW are obtained at room temperature, respectively. This was accomplished without buried ridge processing. reprint
 
116.  Demonstration of shortwavelength infrared photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 211101-1-- May 21, 2012
We demonstrate the feasibility of the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice photodiodes operating at the short wavelength infrared regime below 3  μm. An n-i-p type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb photodiode was grown with a designed cut-off wavelength of 2 μm on a GaSb substrate. At 150  K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 5.6 × 10−8 A/cm² and a front-side-illuminated quantum efficiency of 40.3%, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 1.0 × 1013 Jones. The uncooled photodiode showed a dark current density of 2.2 × 10−3 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 41.5%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.7 × 1010 Jones reprint
 
117.  AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet 320 x 256 focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, E.K. Huang, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 896-898-- March 1, 2012
We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1−xN–based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition AlxGa1−xN layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ∼285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA∕W, which corresponds to an EQE of ∼37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. reprint
 
118.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength Type-II superlattice focal plane array
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 48, No. 2, p. 221-228-- February 10, 2012
Electrical and radiometric characterization results of a high-operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared type-II superlattice focal plane array are described. It demonstrates excellent quantum efficiency operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively. The external quantum efficiency is 81% without any antireflective coating. The dynamic range is 37 dB at 81 K and increases to 39 dB at 68 K operating temperature. The focal plane array has noise equivalent temperature difference as low as 27 mK and 19 mK at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively, using f/2 optics and an integration time of 0.13 ms. reprint
 
119.  Superlattice sees colder objects in two colors and high resolution
M. Razeghi
SPIE Newsroom-- February 10, 2012
A special class of semiconductor material can now detect two wavebands of light with energies less than a tenth of an electron volt in high resolution using the same IR camera. reprint
 
120.  Novel process for direct bonding of GaN onto glass substrates using sacrificial ZnO template layers to chemically lift-off GaN from c-sapphire
Rogers, D. J.; Ougazzaden, A.; Sandana, V. E.; Moudakir, T.; Ahaitouf, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Gautier, S.; Goubert, L.; Davidson, I. A.; Prior, K. A.; McClintock, R. P.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82630R (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012
GaN was grown on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. The ZnO then served as a sacrificial release layer, allowing chemical lift-off of the GaN from the c-Al2O3 substrate via selective wet etching of the ZnO. The GaN was subsequently direct-wafer-bonded onto a glass substrate. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Room Temperature Photoluminescence & optical microscopy confirmed bonding of several mm2 of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a soda lime glass microscope slide with no obvious deterioration of the GaN morphology. Using such an approach, InGaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming and reusing the substrate. reprint
 
121.  ZnO nanorod electrodes for hydrogen evolution and storage
Harinipriya, S.; Usmani, B.; Rogers, D. J.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Lusson, A.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82631Y (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012
Due to the attractive combination of a relatively high specific heat of combustion with a large specific energy capacity, molecular hydrogen (H2) is being investigated for use as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy-efficient H2 production and safe storage remain key technical obstacles to implementation of an H2 based economy, however. ZnO has been investigated for use as an alternative photocatalytic electrode to TiO2 for solarpowered photo-electro-chemical (PEC) electrolysis, in which H2 is generated by direct water splitting in a cell with a metal cathode and a semiconducting anode. In this investigation, ZnO NR grown on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition were investigated for use as electrodes in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The electrochemical potential and Fermi energy of the ZnO NR were estimated from the electrochemical current density in acid and alkaline solutions via phenomenological thermodynamic analysis. As well as acting as an effective electrocalytic cathode, the ZnO NR appear to operate as a hydrogen reservoir. These results indicate that the ZnO NR have excellent potential for the storage of evolved H2. reprint
 
122.  Substrate emission quantum cascade ring lasers with room temperature continuous wave operation
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680N-- January 22, 2012
We demonstrate room temperature, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade ring lasers around 5 μm with single mode operation up to 0.51 W output power. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. Light is coupled out of the ring cavity through the substrate with a second order distributed feedback grating. The substrate emission scheme allows for epilayer-down bonding, which leads to room temperature continuous wave operation. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. reprint
 
123.  Low frequency noise in 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680X-- January 22, 2012
Recently, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material platform is considered as a potential alternative for HgCdTe technology in long wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. In this paper, we report electrical low frequency noise measurement on a high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice 1024×1024 LWIR focal plane array. reprint
 
124.  World's first demonstration of type-II superlattice dual band 640 x 512 LWIR focal plane array
E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680Z-- January 22, 2012
High resolution multi-band infrared detection of terrestrial objects is useful in applications such as long range and high altitude surveillance. In this paper, we present a 640 x 512 type-II superlattice focal plane array (FPA) in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) suitable for such purposes, featuring 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red). The dual band camera is single-bump hybridized to an Indigo 30 μm pitch ISC0905 read-out integrated circuit. Test pixels revealed background limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5x1011 Jones at 7.9 μm (blue) and ~1x1011 Jones at 10.2 μm (red) at 77K. reprint
 
125.  Free-space optical communication using mid-infrared or solar-blind ultraviolet sources and detectors
R. McClintock, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826810-- January 22, 2012
Free-space optical communication is a promising solution to the “last mile” bottleneck of data networks. Conventional near infrared-based free-space optical communication systems suffer from atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which limit the performance of the data links. Using mid-infrared, we reduce the scattering and thus can improve the quality of the data links and increase their range. Because of the low scattering, the data link cannot be intercepted without a complete or partial loss in power detected by the receiver. This type of communications provides ultra-high bandwidth and highly secure data transfer for both short and medium range data links. Quantum cascade lasers are one of the most promising sources for mid-wavelength infrared sources and Type-II superlattice photodetectors are strong candidates for detection in this regime. The same way that that low scattering makes mid-wavelength infrared ideal for secure free space communications,high scattering can be used for secure short-range free-space optical communications. In the solar-blind ultraviolet (< 280 nm) light is strongly scattered and absorbed. This scattering makes possible non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications. The scattering and absorption also prevent remote eavesdropping. III-Nitride based LEDs and photodetectors are ideal for non-line-of-sight free-space optical communication. reprint
 

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