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76.  
Recent advances in mid infrared (3-5 μm) quantum cascade lasers
Recent advances in mid infrared (3-5 μm) quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi; Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay; Yanbo Bai; Quanyong Lu; Steven Slivken
Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1872-1884 (2013)-- November 2, 2013
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important source of electromagnetic radiation in mid infrared region. Recent research in mid-IR QCLs has resulted in record high wallplug efficiency (WPE), high continuous wave (CW) output power, single mode operation and wide tunability. CW output power of 5.1 W with 21% WPE has been achieved at room temperature (RT). A record high WPE of 53% at 40K has been demonstrated. Operation wavelength of QCL in CW at RT has been extended to as short as 3μm. Very high peak power of 190 W has been obtained from a broad area QCL of ridge width 400μm. 2.4W RT, CW power output has been achieved from a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. Wide tuning based on dual section sample grating DFB QCLs has resulted in individual tuning of 50cm-1 and 24 dB side mode suppression ratio with continuous wave power greater than 100 mW. reprint
 
77.  AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si substrate
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181113 (2013)-- October 30, 2013
We report on AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) grown on Si(111) substrate. First, Si(111) substrate is patterned, and then metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is implemented for a fully-coalesced ∼8.5 μm AlN template layer via a pulsed atomic layer epitaxial growth technique. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on the high quality AlN template layer. After processing and implementation of Si(111) substrate removal, the optical and electrical characteristic of PDs are studied. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 290 nm, 625 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼7% and 18.3 mA/W, respectively, with a UV and visible rejection ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density below 1.6 × 10−8 A/cm² at 10 V reverse bias. reprint
 
78.  SOLID-STATE DEEP UV EMITTERS/DETECTORS: Zinc oxide moves further into the ultraviolet
David J. Rogers; Philippe Bove; Eric V. Sandana; Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Ryan McClintock; Manijeh Razeghi
Laser Focus World. 2013;49(10):33-36.-- October 10, 2013
Latest advancements in the alloying of zinc oxide (ZnO) with magnesium (Mg) can offer an alternative to (Al) GaN-based emitters/detectors in the deep UV with reduced lattice and efficiency issues. The emerging potential of ZnO for UV emitter and detector applications is the result of a long, concerted, and fruitful R&D effort that has led to more than 7000 publications in 2012. ZnO is considered to be a potentially superior material for use in LEDs and laser diodes due to its larger exciton binding energy, as compared with 21 meV for GaN. Wet etching is also possible for ZnO with nearly all dilute acids and alkalis, while GaN requires hydrofluoric (HF) acid or plasma etching. High-quality ZnO films can be grown more readily on mismatched substrates and bulk ZnO substrates have better availability than their GaN equivalents.
 
79.  Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of antimonide infrared lasers and detectors
Chuanle Zhou, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi, and M. Grayson
Optical Materials Express. 2013;3(10):1632-1640.-- October 1, 2013
The in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the cladding layers and active quantum wells of interband cascade lasers and type-II superlattice infrared detector are measured by the 2-wire 3ω method. The layers investigated include InAs/AlSb superlattice cladding layers, InAs/GaInSb/InAs/AlSb W-active quantum wells, an InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber, an InAs/GaSb/AlSb M-structure, and an AlAsSb digital alloy. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the InAs/AlSb superlattice is 4-5 times higher than the cross-plane value. The isotropic thermal conductivity of the AlAsSb digital alloy matches a theoretical expectation, but it is one order of magnitude lower than the only previously-reported experimental value. reprint
 
80.  Growth of “moth-eye” ZnO nanostructures on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and steel substrates by pulsed laser deposition
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani, Philippe Bove, Michael Molinari, Michel Troyon, Alain Largeteau, Gérard Demazeau, Colin Scott, Gaelle Orsal, Henri-Jean Drouhin, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi C., 1-5 (2013)-- August 6, 2013
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, arrays of black-body-like ZnO moth-eye nanostructures were grown on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and high manganese austenitic steel substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nanostructures to be well-crystallised wurtzite ZnO with strong preferential c-axis crystallographic orientation along the growth direction for all the substrates. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies revealed emission characteristic of the ZnO near band edge for all substrates. Such moth-eye nanostructures have a graded effective refractive index and exhibit black-body characteristics. Coatings with these features may offer improvements in photovoltaic and LED performance. Moreover, since ZnO nanostructures can be grown readily on a wide range of substrates it is suggested that such an approach could facilitate growth of GaN-based devices on mismatched and/or technologically important substrates, which may have been inaccessible till present. reprint
 
81.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. reprint
 
82.  Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting
Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011101 (2013)-- July 1, 2013
We report room temperature terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser sources with high power based on difference frequency generation. The device is Čerenkov phase matched and spectrally purified with an integrated dual-period distributed-feedback grating. Symmetric current injection and epilayer-down mounting of the device onto a patterned submount are used to improve the electrical uniformity and heat removal, respectively. The epilayer-down mounting also allows for THz anti-reflective coating to enhance the THz outcoupling efficiency. Single mode emission at 3.5 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 30 dB and 215  μW are obtained, respectively. reprint
 
83.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. reprint
 
84.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. reprint
 
85.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. reprint
 
86.  Sensitive detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW 4.61 μm dfb-QCL based QEPAS sensor
Yufei Ma; Rafał Lewicki; Manijeh Razeghi; Xin Yu; Frank K. Tittel
CLEO: Science and Innovations, CLEO_SI 2013. 2013:JW2A.80-- June 9, 2013
A high power CW DFB-QCL based CO and N2O QEPAS sensor demonstrating the MDL of 1.5 ppbv and 23 ppbv, respectively was developed. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels were performed.
 
87.  Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111)
Chu-Young Cho, Yinjun Zhang, Erdem Cicek, Benjamin Rahnema, Yanbo Bai, Ryan McClintock, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 211110 (2013)-- May 31, 2013
We report on the development of surface plasmon (SP) enhanced AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon (111) substrates. In order to generate SP-coupling with the radiating dipoles in MQWs, an aluminum layer is selectively deposited in holes etched in the top p-AlGaN to p-GaN layers. After flip-chip bonding and substrate removal, an optical output power of ∼1.2 mW is achieved at an emission wavelength of 346 nm; the output power of these UV LEDs with Al layer is increased by 45% compared to that of conventional UV LEDs without Al layer. This enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate and improved internal quantum efficiency via resonance coupling between excitons in MQWs and SPs in the aluminum layer. reprint
 
88.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. reprint
 
89.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. reprint
 
90.  Graphene versus oxides for transparent electrode applications
Sandana, V. E.; Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Bove, P.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862603 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013
Due to their combination of good electrical conductivity and optical transparency, Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are the most common choice as transparent electrodes for optoelectronics applications. In particular, devices, such as LEDs, LCDs, touch screens and solar cells typically employ indium tin oxide. However, indium has some significant drawbacks, including toxicity issues (which are hampering manufacturing), an increasing rarefication (due to a combination of relative scarcity and increasing demand [1]) and resulting price increases. Moreover, there is no satisfactory option at the moment for use as a p-type transparent contact. Thus alternative materials solutions are actively being sought. This review will compare the performance and perspectives of graphene with respect to TCOs for use in transparent conductor applications. reprint
 
91.  Investigation of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; P. Bove ; A. Lusson ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86261X (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013
MgZnO thin films were grown on c-sapphire and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a ZnMgO target with 4 at% Mg. The MgZnO grown on the ZnO underlayer showed significantly better crystal quality than that grown directly on sapphire. AFM studies revealed a significant deterioration in surface morphology for the MgZnO layers compared with the ZnO underlayer. Optical transmission studies indicated a MgZnO bandgap of 3.61eV (compared with 3.34eV for the ZnO), which corresponds to a Mg content of about 16.1 at%. The MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction showed an anomalously low resistivity, which was more than two orders of magnitude less than the MgZnO layer and an order of magnitude lower than that for the ZnO layer. It was suggested that this may be attributable to the presence of a 2D electron gas at the ZnMgO/ZnO heterointerface. reprint
 
92.  Comparison of chemical and laser lift-off for the transfer of InGaN-based p-i-n junctions from sapphire to glass substrates
D. J. Rogers ; P. Bove ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; K. Pantzas ; T. Moudakir ; G. Orsal ; G. Patriarche ; S. Gautier ; A. Ougazzaden ; V. E. Sandana ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862611 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013
InGaN-based p-i-n structures were transferred from sapphire to soda-lime glass substrates using two approaches: (1) laser-lift-off (LLO) and thermo-metallic bonding and (2) chemical lift-off (LLO) by means sacrificial ZnO templates and direct wafer bonding. Both processes were found to function at RT and allow reclaim of the expensive single crystal substrate. Both approaches have also already been demonstrated to work for the wafer-scale transfer of III/V semiconductors. Compared with the industry-standard LLO, the CLO offers the added advantages of a lattice match to InGaN with higher indium contents, no need for an interfacial adhesive layer (which facilitates electrical, optical and thermal coupling), no damaged/contaminated GaN surface layer, simplified sapphire reclaim (GaN residue after LLO may complicate reclaim) and cost savings linked to elimination of the expensive LLO process. reprint
 
93.  Energy harvesting from millimetric ZnO single wire piezo-generators
Rogers, D. J.; Carroll, C.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Goubert, L.; Largeteau, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Demazeau, G.; McClintock, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Oxide-based Materials and Devices III. Edited by Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Look, David C.; Rogers, David J. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8263, article id. 82631X, 7 pp. (2012).-- February 9, 2013
This work reports on investigations into the possibility of harvesting energy from the piezoelectric response of millimetric ZnO rods to movement. SEM & PL studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO rods revealed sizes ranging from 1 - 3 mm x 100 - 400 microns and suggested that each was a wurtzite monocrystal. Studies of current & voltage responses as a function of time during bending with a probe arm gave responses coherent with those reported elsewhere in the literature for ZnO nanowires or micro-rod single wire generators. The larger scale of these rods provided some advantages over such nano- and microstructures in terms of contacting ease, signal level & robustness. reprint
 
94.  High performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86311K-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 5, 2013
Active and passive imaging in a single camera based on the combination of short-wavelength and mid-wavelength infrared detection is highly needed in a number of tracking and reconnaissance missions. Due to its versatility in band-gap engineering, Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice has emerged as a candidate highly suitable for this multi-spectral detection. In this paper, we report the demonstration of high performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with designed cut-off wavelengths of 2 μm and 4 μm. Taking advantages of the high performance short-wavelength and mid-wavelength single color photodetectors, back-to-back p-i-n-n-i-p photodiode structures were grown on GaSb substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. At 150 K, the short-wave channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 55%, a dark current density of 1.0x10-9 A/cm² at -50 mV bias voltage, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 3.0x1013 Jones. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 33% and a dark current density of 2.6x10-5 A/cm² at 300 mV bias voltage, resulting in a detectivity of 4.0x1011 Jones. The operations of the two absorber channels are selectable by changing the polarity of applied bias voltage. reprint
 
95.  Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area expitaxy
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei, Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C.Y. Cho and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 05, p. 051102-1-- February 4, 2013
We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1−xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ∼97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging. reprint
 
96.  Gallium nitride on silicon for consumer & scalable photonics
C. Bayram, K.T. Shiu, Y. Zhu, C.W. Cheng, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863112-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 4, 2013
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a unique material system that has been heavily exploited for photonic devices thanks to ultraviolet-to-terahertz spectral tunability. However, without a cost effective approach, GaN technology is limited to laboratory demonstrations and niche applications. In this investigation, integration of GaN on Silicon (100) substrates is attempted to enable widespread application of GaN based optoelectronics. Controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates is demonstrated via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). CMOS-compatible fabrication scheme is used to realize [SiO2-Si{111}-Si{100}] groove structures on conventional 200-mm Si(100) substrates. MOCVD growth (surface treatment, nucleation, initiation) conditions are studied to achieve controlled GaN epitaxy on such grooved Si(100) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to determine uniformity and defectivity of the GaN. Our results show that aforementioned groove structures along with optimized MOCVD growth conditions can be used to achieve controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates. reprint
 
97.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863108-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013
Room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference frequency generation are demonstrated. Two mid-infrared active cores in the longer mid-IR wavelength range (9-11 micron)based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a second-order difference frequency nonlinearity specially optimized for the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. reprint
 
98.  Dual section quantum cascade lasers with wide electrical tuning
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310P-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013
This paper describes our development efforts at Northwestern University regarding dual-section sampled grating distributed feedback (SGDFB) QCLs. These devices are the same size, but have much wider electrical tuning, than a traditional DFB laser. In this paper, I will show how we have dramatically extended the monolithic tuning range of high power quantum cascade lasers with high side mode suppression. This includes individual laser element tuning of up to 50 cm-1 and 24 dB average side mode suppression. These lasers are capable of room temperature continuous operation with high power (>100 mW) output. Additionally, we have demonstrated a broad spectral coverage of over 350 cm-1 on a single chip, which is equivalent to 87.5% of the gain bandwidth. The eventual goal is to realize an extended array of such laser modules in order to continuously cover a similar or broader spectral range, similar to an external cavity device without any external components. reprint
 
99.  Continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3μm quantum cascade laser
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310M-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013
Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), operating in continuous wave (CW) at room temperature(RT) in 3-3.5 μm spectral range, which overlaps the spectral fingerprint region of many hydrocarbons, is essential in spectroscopic trace gas detection, environment monitoring, and pollution control. A 3 μm QCL, operating in CW at RT is demonstrated. This initial result makes it possible, for the most popular material system (AlInAs/GaInAs on InP) used in QCLs in mid-infrared and long-infrared, to cover the entire spectral range of mid-infrared atmospheric window (3-5 μm). In0.79Ga0.21As/In0.11Al0.89As strain balanced superlattice, which has a large conduction band offset, was grown. The strain was balanced with composite barriers (In0.11Al0.89As /In0.4Al0.6As) in the injector region, to eliminate the need of extremely high compressively strained GaInAs, whose pseudomorphic growth is very difficult. reprint
 
100.  High performance terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on intracavity difference frequency generation
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 968-- January 14, 2013
We demonstrate high power, room temperature, single-mode THz emissions based on intracavity difference frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Dual active regions both featuring giant nonlinear susceptibilities are used to enhance the THz power and conversion efficiency. The THz frequency is lithographically tuned by integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings with different grating periods. Single mode emissions from 3.3 to 4.6 THz with side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 65 µW are obtained, with a narrow linewidth of 5 GHz. reprint
 

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