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626.  The correlation between x-ray diffraction patterns and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices
X.G. He, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (22)-- November 28, 1994
Strong correlation between x‐ray diffraction characteristics and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices has been reported. It is found that the symmetry of (002) diffraction patterns can be used to evaluate the interface strain status. A sample with no interfacial strains has a symmetric (002) diffraction pattern and weak (004) diffraction pattern. It is also demonstrated that strain distribution in superlattices can be readily estimated qualitatively by analyzing x-ray diffraction patterns. reprint
 
627.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. reprint
 
628.  Theoretical Investigation of Jth and hd vs. Cavity Length for InGaAsP/GaAs High Power Lasers
H.J. Yi, I. Eliashevich, J. Diaz, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
 
629.  Optimization of InGaAsP/GaAs Laser Diode Processing for High-Power Operation
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
 
630.  Theoretical investigation of minority carrier leakage of high-power 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs laser diodes
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, M. Stanton, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (18)-- October 31, 1994
We report a theoretical model that accurately describes the effects of minority carrier leakage from the InGaAsP waveguide into InGaP cladding layers in high‐power aluminum-free 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs separate confinement heterostructure lasers. Current leakage due to the relatively low band‐gap discontinuity between the active region and the InGaP barrier can be eliminated by employing laser diodes with cavity length longer than 500 μm. Experimental results for lasers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. reprint
 
631.  Interface roughness scattering in thin, undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
W. C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, S. Elhamri, M. Aboujja, K. Ravindran, R.S. Newrock, M. Razeghi, and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 65 (12)-- September 19, 1994
Electronic transport properties of very thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells have been measured by temperature dependent low field Hall effect and by Shubnikov–de Haas effect. Strong Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations were observed after increasing the electron concentration via the persistent photocurrent effect. Low temperature mobilities of up to 70 ,000 cm²/V· s at carrier concentrations of 6.5×1011 cm−2 were observed in a 20 Å quantum well. The results are compared with the theory of interface roughness scattering which indicates extremely smooth interfaces; however, discrepancies between experiment and theory are observed. reprint
 
632.  Intersubband hole absorption in GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Michel, O. Duchemin, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi with G. Brown and S.M. Hegde (Wright Laboratory)
Applied Physics Letters 65 (9)-- August 29, 1994
P-doped GaAs‐GaInP quantum wells have been grown on GaAs substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Structural quality has been evidenced by x-ray diffraction. A narrow low-temperature photoluminescence full width at half‐maximum has been measured. Strong hole intersubband absorption has been observed at 9 μm, and its dependence on light polarization has been investigated. reprint
 
633.  High-power InGaAsP/GaAs 0.8 μm laser diodes and peculiarities of operational characteristics
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, X. He, H. Yi, L. Wang, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (8)-- August 22, 1994
High-power operation of 3 W in pulse mode, 750 mW in quasi-continuous wave and 650 mW in continuous wave per uncoated facet from 100 μm aperture has been demonstrated for 1 mm long cavity InGaAsP/GaAs 808 nm laser diodes prepared by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Threshold current density of 300 A/cm², differential efficiency of 1.1 W/A, T0=155 °C, transverse beam divergence of 27°, and less than 2 nm linewidth at 808 nm have been measured. No degradation has been observed after 1000 h of operation in a quasi-continuous wave regime. reprint
 
634.  On the Description of the Collision Terms in Three-Valley Hydrodynamic Models for GaAs Device Modeling
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- August 1, 1994
 
635.  Efficiency of photoluminescence and excess carrier confinement in InGaAsP/GaAs structures prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
J. Diaz, H.J. Yi, M. Erdtmann, X. He, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (2)-- July 15, 1994
Special double‐ and separate‐confinement InGaAsP/GaAs heterostructures intended for photoluminescence measurements have been grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical‐vapor deposition. The band gap of the active region quaternary material was close to 1.5 eV, and the waveguide of the separate‐confinement structures was near 1.8 eV. Measurement of the integrated luminescence efficiency at 300 K has shown that over a wide range of excitation level (10–103 W/cm²) radiative transitions are the dominant mechanism for excess carrier recombination in the active region of the structures studied. As determined by spectral measurements, the excess carrier concentration in the waveguide of the separate‐confinement heterostructures and the intensity of the waveguide emission band correspond to a condition of thermal equilibrium of the excess carrier populations in the active region and the waveguide. The ratio of the intensity of the waveguide emission to the active region emission fits a model which assumes that the barrier height for minority carriers (holes) is equal to the difference in band gaps between the active region and the waveguide region. reprint
 
636.  Thermal stability of GaN thin films grown on (0001) Al2O3, (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H-SiC substrates
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and D.K. Gaskill
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1)-- July 1, 1994
Single crystals of GaN were grown on (0001), (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H‐SiC substrates using an atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical‐vapor‐deposition reactor. The relationship has been studied between the thermal stability of the GaN films and the substrate’s surface polarity. It appeared that the N‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001)Si 6H‐SiC has the most stable surface, followed by the nonpolar (1120) GaN surface grown on (0112) Al2O3, while the Ga‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001) Al2O3 has the least stable surface. This is explained with the difference in the atomic configuration of each of these surfaces which induces a difference in their thermal decomposition. reprint
 
637.  High-power laser diodes based on InGaAsP alloys
M. Razeghi
Nature, Vol.369, p.631-633-- June 23, 1994
HIGH-POWER, high-coherence solid-state lasers, based on dielectric materials such as ruby or Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), have many civilian and military applications. The active media in these lasers are insulating, and must therefore be excited (or ‘pumped’) by optical, rather than electrical, means. Conventional gas-discharge lamps can be used as the pumping source, but semiconductor diode lasers are more efficient, as their wavelength can be tailored to match the absorption properties of the lasing material. Semiconducting AlGaAs alloys are widely used for this purpose, but oxidation of the aluminium and the spreading of defects during device operation limit the lifetime of the diodes3, and hence the reliability of the system as a whole. Aluminium-free InGaAsP compounds, on the other hand, do not have these lifetime-limiting properties. We report here the fabrication of high-power lasers based on InGaAsP (lattice-matched to GaAs substrates), which operate over the same wavelength range as conventional AlGaAs laser diodes and show significantly improved reliability. The other optical and electrical properties of these diodes are either comparable or superior to those of the AlGaAs system. reprint
 
638.  Electron Transport Properties of Ga[0.51]In[0.49]P for Device Applications
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- June 1, 1994
 
639.  Crystallography of epitaxial growth of wurtzite-type thin films on sapphire substrates
P. Kung, C.J. Sun, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (9)-- May 1, 1994
In this article, we present a crystallographic model to describe the epitaxial growth of wurtzite‐type thin films such as gallium nitride (GaN) on different orientations of sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. Through this model, we demonstrate the thin films grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 have a better epilayer‐substrate interface quality than those grown on (01⋅2)Al2O3. We also show the epilayer grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 are gallium‐terminated, and both (00⋅1) and (01⋅2) surfaces of sapphire crystals are oxygen‐terminated. reprint
 
640.  A Crystallographic Model of (00*1) Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Thin Film Growth on (00*1) Sapphire Substrate
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and K. Haritos
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (8)-- April 15, 1994
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (011-bar 2) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (011-bar 2) sapphire. reprint
 
641.  Characterization of InTlSb/InSb Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition on GaAs Substrat
Y.H. Choi, P. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (6)-- March 15, 1994
Optical properties of InTlSb, a new long wavelength infrared material, are investigated. InTlSb/InSb epilayers grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition on semi‐insulating GaAs substrates were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Auger electron spectra confirm the presence of thallium. Transmission measurements at 77 K indicate an absorption shift from 5.5 μm for InSb up to 8 μm for InTlSb that is confirmed by photoconductivity measurements. reprint
 
642.  Characterization of high quality GaInP/GaAs superlattices grown on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, X.G. He, and M. Razeghi and S. Shastry
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 12 (2)-- March 1, 1994
We report an analysis of the heteroepitaxial interfaces in high quality GaInP–GaAs superlattices grown simultaneously on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. These two superlattices have been studied using high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Sharp superlattice satellites, with very little broadening, are observed within a 6° range for the sample on GaAs. Photoluminescence peaks with full widths at half-maximums of 5 and 7 meV are obtained at 4 K for samples with 58 Å wells on GaAs and Si, respectively. Room temperature exciton absorption is observed in the photovoltage measurements for a superlattice grown on Si substrate. The thicknesses determined by x-ray analysis are consistent with those obtained by a Kronig–Penny model fitting of the photovoltage spectroscopy. reprint
 
643.  InGaP/InGaAsP/GaAs 0.808 μm separate confinement laser diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, K. Mobarhan, L.J. Wang, D.Z. Garbuzov, and M. Razeghi
-- February 1, 1994
 
644.  Photoconductance measurements on InTlSb/InSb/GaAs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
P.T. Staveteig, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (4)-- January 24, 1994
We report infrared photoconductors based on InTlSb/InSb grown by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The photoresponse spectrum extends up to 8 μm at 77 K. The absolute magnitude of the photoresponse is measured as a function of bias. The specific detectivity is estimated to be 3×108 Hz½·cm·W-1 at 7 μm wavelength. reprint
 
645.  InTlSb alloys for infrared detection
E. Bigan, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, and M. Razeghi
Proceedings, SPIE Nonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion, Vol. 2145-- January 24, 1994
InTISb alloys have been grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, and characterized. Photoconductors exhibit a cutoff wavelength that can be tailored from 5.5 μm up to 9 μm by varying the thallium content. Experimental observations suggest that this can be further extended by increasing the thallium content. An InTISb photoconductor having a 9 μm cutoff wavelength exhibited a D* of 109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 7 μm operating wavelength. reprint
 
646.  High Quality Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates
A. Saxler, P. Kung, C.J. Sun, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (3)-- January 17, 1994
In this letter we report the growth of high quality AlN epitaxial layers on sapphire substrates. The AlN grown on (00·1) sapphire exhibited a better crystalline quality than that grown on (01·2) sapphire. An x-ray rocking curve of AlN on (00·1) Al2O3 yielded a full width at half-maximum of 97.2 arcsec, which is the narrowest value reported to our knowledge. The AlN peak on (01·2) Al2O3 was about 30 times wider. The absorption edge measured by ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy for AlN grown on (00·1) Al2O3 was about 197 nm. reprint
 
647.  AlxGa1-xN Grown on (00*1) and (01*2) Sapphire
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
-- November 1, 1993
 
648.  The Effects of V/III Ratio on Optical, Electrical and Structural Properties of InAs0.3Sb0.7Grown by LP-MOCVD
Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, P.T. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
-- October 15, 1993
 
649.  In1- x TlxSb for Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
Y.H. Choi, P.T. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
-- October 10, 1993
 
650.  Comparison of the Physical Properties of GaN Thin Films Deposited on (0112) and (0001) Sapphire Substrates
C.J. Sun and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (7)-- August 16, 1993
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (0112) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (0112) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (0112) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (0112) sapphire. reprint
 

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