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626.  Aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with p-type GaAs Wells and lattice-matched ternary and quaternary barriers
J. Hoff, E. Bigan, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
Acceptor doped Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with GaAs wells and lattice matched barriers of both ternary (In0.49Ga0.51P) and quaternary (In0.62Ga0.38As0.22P0.78) materials have been grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates by Low Pressure Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Mesa devices were fabricated and subjected to a series of tests to illuminate experimentally some of the detection capabilities of the lattice matched quaternary InxGa1-xAsyP1-y system with (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.52) and (0 ≤ y ≤ 1). The observed photoresponse cut-off wavelengths are in good agreement with the activation energies observed in the temperature dependence of the dark currents. Kronig-Penney calculations were used to model the intersubband transition energies. reprint
627.  Low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN and GaN thin films on sapphire and silicon substrates
P. Kung, X. Zhang, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
High quality AlN and GaN epilayers have been grown on basal plane sapphire by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The X-ray rocking curve linewidth of the AlN and GaN films were about 100 and 30 arcsecs respectively. Sharp absorption edges were determined at 6.1 and 3.4 eV respectively. Successful donor-bound excitonic luminescence emissions were detected for GaN films grown on sapphire and silicon. Two additional lines at 3.37 and 3.31 eV were observed on GaN on sapphire and assumed to be impurity-related. Doping of GaN layers was achieved with magnesium. Mg-related photoluminescence emissions were successfully detected on as-grown samples, without any post-growth treatment. reprint
628.  Temperature dependence of threshold current density Jth and differential efficiency of High Power InGaAsP/GaAs ( λ = 0.8 μm) lasers
H. Yi, J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, M. Stanton, M. Erdtmann, X. He, L. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 66 (3)-- January 16, 1995
An experimental and theoretical study on temperature dependence of the threshold current density Jth and differential efficiency ηd for the InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes emitting at λ=0.8 μm was performed. Threshold current density Jth increases and differential efficiency ηd decreases as temperature is increased mainly because of thermal broadening of the gain spectrum. However, the measured temperature dependence of Jth and ηd could not be explained when only this effect was considered. In this letter, the temperature dependence of momentum relaxation rate ℏ/τ of carriers was investigated by performing the photoluminescence study. At high temperature, increase of the momentum relaxation rate ℏ/τ leads to reduction of the gain and mobility and increase of the optical loss, causing higher Jth and lower ηd as experimentally observed. The resulting theoretical model provides a good explanation for the mechanism of the increase of Jth and decrease of ηd. reprint
629.  Persistent photoconductivity in thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
S. Elhamri, M. Ahoujja, K. Ravindran, D.B. Mast, R.S. Newrock, W.C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, M. Razeghi and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 66 (2)-- January 9, 1995
Persistent photoconductivity has been observed at low temperatures in thin, unintentionally doped GaInP/GaAs/GaInP quantum wells. The two‐dimensional electron gas was studied by low field Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects. After illumination with red light, the electron concentration increased from low 1011 cm−2 to more than 7×1011 cm−2 resulting in an enhancement of both the carrier mobility and the quantum lifetime. The persistent photocarriers cannot be produced by DX-like defects since the shallow dopant concentration in the GaInP layers is too low to produce the observed concentration. We suggest that the persistent carriers are produced by photoionization of deep intrinsic donors in the GaInP barrier layer. We also report observation of a parallel conduction path in GaInP induced by extended illumination. reprint
630.  Exploration of entire range of III-V semiconductors and their device applications
M. Razeghi, Y.H. Choi, X. He, and C.J. Sun
-- January 1, 1995
631.  Defects of 6H-SiC substrates made by Acheson's method and by modified Lely's method
T. Kato, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and T. Okuda
-- January 1, 1995
632.  Analysis of Spectral Response in p-type GaAs/GaInP QWIPs
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
-- January 1, 1995
633.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb
E. Michel, G. Singh, S. Slivken, C. Besikci, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (26)-- December 26, 1994
In this letter we report on the growth of high quality InSb by molecular beam epitaxy that has been optimized using reflection high energy electron diffraction. A 4.8 µm InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 °C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an x-ray rocking curve of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92,300 cm²·V−1 at 77 K. This is the best material quality obtained for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs reported to date. reprint
634.  The correlation between x-ray diffraction patterns and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices
X.G. He, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (22)-- November 28, 1994
Strong correlation between x‐ray diffraction characteristics and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices has been reported. It is found that the symmetry of (002) diffraction patterns can be used to evaluate the interface strain status. A sample with no interfacial strains has a symmetric (002) diffraction pattern and weak (004) diffraction pattern. It is also demonstrated that strain distribution in superlattices can be readily estimated qualitatively by analyzing x-ray diffraction patterns. reprint
635.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. reprint
636.  Theoretical Investigation of Jth and hd vs. Cavity Length for InGaAsP/GaAs High Power Lasers
H.J. Yi, I. Eliashevich, J. Diaz, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
637.  Optimization of InGaAsP/GaAs Laser Diode Processing for High-Power Operation
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
638.  Theoretical investigation of minority carrier leakage of high-power 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs laser diodes
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, M. Stanton, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (18)-- October 31, 1994
We report a theoretical model that accurately describes the effects of minority carrier leakage from the InGaAsP waveguide into InGaP cladding layers in high‐power aluminum-free 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs separate confinement heterostructure lasers. Current leakage due to the relatively low band‐gap discontinuity between the active region and the InGaP barrier can be eliminated by employing laser diodes with cavity length longer than 500 μm. Experimental results for lasers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. reprint
639.  Interface roughness scattering in thin, undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
W. C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, S. Elhamri, M. Aboujja, K. Ravindran, R.S. Newrock, M. Razeghi, and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 65 (12)-- September 19, 1994
Electronic transport properties of very thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells have been measured by temperature dependent low field Hall effect and by Shubnikov–de Haas effect. Strong Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations were observed after increasing the electron concentration via the persistent photocurrent effect. Low temperature mobilities of up to 70 ,000 cm²/V· s at carrier concentrations of 6.5×1011 cm−2 were observed in a 20 Å quantum well. The results are compared with the theory of interface roughness scattering which indicates extremely smooth interfaces; however, discrepancies between experiment and theory are observed. reprint
640.  Intersubband hole absorption in GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Michel, O. Duchemin, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi with G. Brown and S.M. Hegde (Wright Laboratory)
Applied Physics Letters 65 (9)-- August 29, 1994
P-doped GaAs‐GaInP quantum wells have been grown on GaAs substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Structural quality has been evidenced by x-ray diffraction. A narrow low-temperature photoluminescence full width at half‐maximum has been measured. Strong hole intersubband absorption has been observed at 9 μm, and its dependence on light polarization has been investigated. reprint
641.  High-power InGaAsP/GaAs 0.8 μm laser diodes and peculiarities of operational characteristics
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, X. He, H. Yi, L. Wang, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (8)-- August 22, 1994
High-power operation of 3 W in pulse mode, 750 mW in quasi-continuous wave and 650 mW in continuous wave per uncoated facet from 100 μm aperture has been demonstrated for 1 mm long cavity InGaAsP/GaAs 808 nm laser diodes prepared by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Threshold current density of 300 A/cm², differential efficiency of 1.1 W/A, T0=155 °C, transverse beam divergence of 27°, and less than 2 nm linewidth at 808 nm have been measured. No degradation has been observed after 1000 h of operation in a quasi-continuous wave regime. reprint
642.  On the Description of the Collision Terms in Three-Valley Hydrodynamic Models for GaAs Device Modeling
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- August 1, 1994
643.  Efficiency of photoluminescence and excess carrier confinement in InGaAsP/GaAs structures prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
J. Diaz, H.J. Yi, M. Erdtmann, X. He, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (2)-- July 15, 1994
Special double‐ and separate‐confinement InGaAsP/GaAs heterostructures intended for photoluminescence measurements have been grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical‐vapor deposition. The band gap of the active region quaternary material was close to 1.5 eV, and the waveguide of the separate‐confinement structures was near 1.8 eV. Measurement of the integrated luminescence efficiency at 300 K has shown that over a wide range of excitation level (10–103 W/cm²) radiative transitions are the dominant mechanism for excess carrier recombination in the active region of the structures studied. As determined by spectral measurements, the excess carrier concentration in the waveguide of the separate‐confinement heterostructures and the intensity of the waveguide emission band correspond to a condition of thermal equilibrium of the excess carrier populations in the active region and the waveguide. The ratio of the intensity of the waveguide emission to the active region emission fits a model which assumes that the barrier height for minority carriers (holes) is equal to the difference in band gaps between the active region and the waveguide region. reprint
644.  Thermal stability of GaN thin films grown on (0001) Al2O3, (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H-SiC substrates
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and D.K. Gaskill
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1)-- July 1, 1994
Single crystals of GaN were grown on (0001), (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H‐SiC substrates using an atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical‐vapor‐deposition reactor. The relationship has been studied between the thermal stability of the GaN films and the substrate’s surface polarity. It appeared that the N‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001)Si 6H‐SiC has the most stable surface, followed by the nonpolar (1120) GaN surface grown on (0112) Al2O3, while the Ga‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001) Al2O3 has the least stable surface. This is explained with the difference in the atomic configuration of each of these surfaces which induces a difference in their thermal decomposition. reprint
645.  High-power laser diodes based on InGaAsP alloys
M. Razeghi
Nature, Vol.369, p.631-633-- June 23, 1994
HIGH-POWER, high-coherence solid-state lasers, based on dielectric materials such as ruby or Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), have many civilian and military applications. The active media in these lasers are insulating, and must therefore be excited (or ‘pumped’) by optical, rather than electrical, means. Conventional gas-discharge lamps can be used as the pumping source, but semiconductor diode lasers are more efficient, as their wavelength can be tailored to match the absorption properties of the lasing material. Semiconducting AlGaAs alloys are widely used for this purpose, but oxidation of the aluminium and the spreading of defects during device operation limit the lifetime of the diodes3, and hence the reliability of the system as a whole. Aluminium-free InGaAsP compounds, on the other hand, do not have these lifetime-limiting properties. We report here the fabrication of high-power lasers based on InGaAsP (lattice-matched to GaAs substrates), which operate over the same wavelength range as conventional AlGaAs laser diodes and show significantly improved reliability. The other optical and electrical properties of these diodes are either comparable or superior to those of the AlGaAs system. reprint
646.  Electron Transport Properties of Ga[0.51]In[0.49]P for Device Applications
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- June 1, 1994
647.  Crystallography of epitaxial growth of wurtzite-type thin films on sapphire substrates
P. Kung, C.J. Sun, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (9)-- May 1, 1994
In this article, we present a crystallographic model to describe the epitaxial growth of wurtzite‐type thin films such as gallium nitride (GaN) on different orientations of sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. Through this model, we demonstrate the thin films grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 have a better epilayer‐substrate interface quality than those grown on (01⋅2)Al2O3. We also show the epilayer grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 are gallium‐terminated, and both (00⋅1) and (01⋅2) surfaces of sapphire crystals are oxygen‐terminated. reprint
648.  A Crystallographic Model of (00*1) Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Thin Film Growth on (00*1) Sapphire Substrate
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and K. Haritos
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (8)-- April 15, 1994
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (011-bar 2) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (011-bar 2) sapphire. reprint
649.  Characterization of InTlSb/InSb Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition on GaAs Substrat
Y.H. Choi, P. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (6)-- March 15, 1994
Optical properties of InTlSb, a new long wavelength infrared material, are investigated. InTlSb/InSb epilayers grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition on semi‐insulating GaAs substrates were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Auger electron spectra confirm the presence of thallium. Transmission measurements at 77 K indicate an absorption shift from 5.5 μm for InSb up to 8 μm for InTlSb that is confirmed by photoconductivity measurements. reprint
650.  Characterization of high quality GaInP/GaAs superlattices grown on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, X.G. He, and M. Razeghi and S. Shastry
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 12 (2)-- March 1, 1994
We report an analysis of the heteroepitaxial interfaces in high quality GaInP–GaAs superlattices grown simultaneously on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. These two superlattices have been studied using high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Sharp superlattice satellites, with very little broadening, are observed within a 6° range for the sample on GaAs. Photoluminescence peaks with full widths at half-maximums of 5 and 7 meV are obtained at 4 K for samples with 58 Å wells on GaAs and Si, respectively. Room temperature exciton absorption is observed in the photovoltage measurements for a superlattice grown on Si substrate. The thicknesses determined by x-ray analysis are consistent with those obtained by a Kronig–Penny model fitting of the photovoltage spectroscopy. reprint

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