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626.  High-power laser diodes based on InGaAsP alloys
M. Razeghi
Nature, Vol.369, p.631-633-- June 23, 1994
HIGH-POWER, high-coherence solid-state lasers, based on dielectric materials such as ruby or Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), have many civilian and military applications. The active media in these lasers are insulating, and must therefore be excited (or ‘pumped’) by optical, rather than electrical, means. Conventional gas-discharge lamps can be used as the pumping source, but semiconductor diode lasers are more efficient, as their wavelength can be tailored to match the absorption properties of the lasing material. Semiconducting AlGaAs alloys are widely used for this purpose, but oxidation of the aluminium and the spreading of defects during device operation limit the lifetime of the diodes3, and hence the reliability of the system as a whole. Aluminium-free InGaAsP compounds, on the other hand, do not have these lifetime-limiting properties. We report here the fabrication of high-power lasers based on InGaAsP (lattice-matched to GaAs substrates), which operate over the same wavelength range as conventional AlGaAs laser diodes and show significantly improved reliability. The other optical and electrical properties of these diodes are either comparable or superior to those of the AlGaAs system. reprint
 
627.  Electron Transport Properties of Ga[0.51]In[0.49]P for Device Applications
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- June 1, 1994
 
628.  Crystallography of epitaxial growth of wurtzite-type thin films on sapphire substrates
P. Kung, C.J. Sun, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (9)-- May 1, 1994
In this article, we present a crystallographic model to describe the epitaxial growth of wurtzite‐type thin films such as gallium nitride (GaN) on different orientations of sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. Through this model, we demonstrate the thin films grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 have a better epilayer‐substrate interface quality than those grown on (01⋅2)Al2O3. We also show the epilayer grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 are gallium‐terminated, and both (00⋅1) and (01⋅2) surfaces of sapphire crystals are oxygen‐terminated. reprint
 
629.  A Crystallographic Model of (00*1) Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Thin Film Growth on (00*1) Sapphire Substrate
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and K. Haritos
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (8)-- April 15, 1994
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (011-bar 2) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (011-bar 2) sapphire. reprint
 
630.  Characterization of InTlSb/InSb Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition on GaAs Substrat
Y.H. Choi, P. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (6)-- March 15, 1994
Optical properties of InTlSb, a new long wavelength infrared material, are investigated. InTlSb/InSb epilayers grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical vapor deposition on semi‐insulating GaAs substrates were characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Auger electron spectra confirm the presence of thallium. Transmission measurements at 77 K indicate an absorption shift from 5.5 μm for InSb up to 8 μm for InTlSb that is confirmed by photoconductivity measurements. reprint
 
631.  Characterization of high quality GaInP/GaAs superlattices grown on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, X.G. He, and M. Razeghi and S. Shastry
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 12 (2)-- March 1, 1994
We report an analysis of the heteroepitaxial interfaces in high quality GaInP–GaAs superlattices grown simultaneously on GaAs and Si substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. These two superlattices have been studied using high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Sharp superlattice satellites, with very little broadening, are observed within a 6° range for the sample on GaAs. Photoluminescence peaks with full widths at half-maximums of 5 and 7 meV are obtained at 4 K for samples with 58 Å wells on GaAs and Si, respectively. Room temperature exciton absorption is observed in the photovoltage measurements for a superlattice grown on Si substrate. The thicknesses determined by x-ray analysis are consistent with those obtained by a Kronig–Penny model fitting of the photovoltage spectroscopy. reprint
 
632.  InGaP/InGaAsP/GaAs 0.808 μm separate confinement laser diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, K. Mobarhan, L.J. Wang, D.Z. Garbuzov, and M. Razeghi
-- February 1, 1994
 
633.  Photoconductance measurements on InTlSb/InSb/GaAs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
P.T. Staveteig, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (4)-- January 24, 1994
We report infrared photoconductors based on InTlSb/InSb grown by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The photoresponse spectrum extends up to 8 μm at 77 K. The absolute magnitude of the photoresponse is measured as a function of bias. The specific detectivity is estimated to be 3×108 Hz½·cm·W-1 at 7 μm wavelength. reprint
 
634.  InTlSb alloys for infrared detection
E. Bigan, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, and M. Razeghi
Proceedings, SPIE Nonlinear Optics for High-Speed Electronics and Optical Frequency Conversion, Vol. 2145-- January 24, 1994
InTISb alloys have been grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, and characterized. Photoconductors exhibit a cutoff wavelength that can be tailored from 5.5 μm up to 9 μm by varying the thallium content. Experimental observations suggest that this can be further extended by increasing the thallium content. An InTISb photoconductor having a 9 μm cutoff wavelength exhibited a D* of 109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 7 μm operating wavelength. reprint
 
635.  High Quality Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates
A. Saxler, P. Kung, C.J. Sun, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (3)-- January 17, 1994
In this letter we report the growth of high quality AlN epitaxial layers on sapphire substrates. The AlN grown on (00·1) sapphire exhibited a better crystalline quality than that grown on (01·2) sapphire. An x-ray rocking curve of AlN on (00·1) Al2O3 yielded a full width at half-maximum of 97.2 arcsec, which is the narrowest value reported to our knowledge. The AlN peak on (01·2) Al2O3 was about 30 times wider. The absorption edge measured by ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy for AlN grown on (00·1) Al2O3 was about 197 nm. reprint
 
636.  AlxGa1-xN Grown on (00*1) and (01*2) Sapphire
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
-- November 1, 1993
 
637.  The Effects of V/III Ratio on Optical, Electrical and Structural Properties of InAs0.3Sb0.7Grown by LP-MOCVD
Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, P.T. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
-- October 15, 1993
 
638.  In1- x TlxSb for Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
Y.H. Choi, P.T. Staveteig, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
-- October 10, 1993
 
639.  Comparison of the Physical Properties of GaN Thin Films Deposited on (0112) and (0001) Sapphire Substrates
C.J. Sun and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (7)-- August 16, 1993
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (0112) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (0112) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (0112) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (0112) sapphire. reprint
 
640.  Transport properties in n-type InSb films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
S.N. Song, J.B. Ketterson, Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (7)-- August 16, 1993
We have measured the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall mobility and transverse magnetoresistance in n-type InSb films epitaxially grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The films show a giant magnetoresistance: e.g., at 240 K the resistivity increases over 20 times at a magnetic field of 5 T; the low field coefficient of resistivity at 77 K is as high as 47.5 μ·Ω· cm/G. The Hall mobility decreases with magnetic field and saturates at higher fields. By taking the interface carrier transport into account, the observed field dependence of the Hall mobility and magnetoresistance may be understood based on a two-layer model. reprint
 
641.  Growth of In1-xTlxSb, a New Infrared Material, by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, C, Besikci, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (3)-- July 19, 1993
We report the growth of In1-xTlxSb, a new III-V alloy for long-wavelength infrared detector applications, by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. In1-xTlxSb with good surface morphology was obtained on both GaAs and InSb substrates at a growth temperature of 455 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed resolved peaks of In1-xTlxSb and InSb films. Infrared absorption spectrum of In1-xTlxSb showed a shift toward lower energies compared to InSb spectrum. Hall mobility data on In1-xTlxSb/InSb/GaAs structure showed enhanced mobility at low temperatures compared to InSb/GaAs structure. reprint
 
642.  GaInAsP/InP 1.35 μm Double Heterostructure Laser Grown on Silicon Substrate by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
K. Mobarhan, C. Jelen, E. Kolev, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 74 (1)-- July 1, 1993
A 1.35 μm GaInAsP/InP double heterostructure laser has been grown on a Si substrate using low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. This was done without the use of a superlattice layer or a very thick InP buffer layer, which are used to prevent the dislocations from spreading into the active layer. Pulsed operation with output power of over 200 mW per facet was achieved at room temperature for broad area lasers with 20 μm width and 170 μm cavity length. The threshold current density of a 350 μm cavity length device was 9.8 kA/cm². The characteristic temperature was 66 K. reprint
 
643.  Anomalous Hall Effect in InSb Layers Grown by MOCVD on GaAs Substrates
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 73 (10)-- May 15, 1993
InSb epitaxial layers have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A 3.15 μm thick film yielded an x‐ray full width at half maximum of 171 arcsec. A Hall mobility of 76  200 cm²/V· s at 240 K and a full width at half maximum of 174 arcsec have been measured for a 4.85 μm thick epilayer. Measured Hall data have shown anomalous behavior. A decrease in Hall mobility with decreasing temperature has been observed and room‐temperature Hall mobility has increased with thickness. In order to explain the anomalous Hall data, and the thickness dependence of the measured parameters, the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility have been simulated using a three‐layer model including a surface layer, a bulklike layer, and an interface layer with a high density of defects. Theoretical analysis has shown that anomalous behavior can be attributed to donor-like defects caused by the large lattice mismatch and to a surface layer which dominates the transport in the material at low temperatures.   reprint
 
644.  Investigation of the Heteroepitaxial Interfaces in the GaInP/GaAs Superlattices by High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction and Dynamical Solutions
Xiaoguang He and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 73 (7)-- April 1, 1993
Two GaAs/GaInP superlattices grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition have been studied using high resolution x‐ray diffraction measurements and simulations by solving Tagaki–Taupin equations. The strained layers at both interfaces of the GaAs well are identified from the simulations of the measured diffraction patterns. The purging of indium at the interface of GaInP/GaAs accounts for the strained layer at the GaInP/GaAs interface while the pressure difference in the gas lines, which results in the different traveling time to the sample surface, is attributed to the indium‐poor strained layer at the GaAs/GaInP interface. It is shown that high‐resolution x‐ray diffraction measurements combined with a dynamical simulation, are sensitive tools to study the heteroepitaxial interfaces on an atomic layer scale. In addition, the influence of a miscut of the substrate on the measurement is discussed in the article. It is shown that even though the miscut is small, the diffraction geometry is already an asymmetric one. More than 10% error in the superlattice period for a 2° miscut substrate can result when the miscut substrate is considered a symmetric geometry. reprint
 
645.  Well Resolved Room Temperature Photovoltage Spectra of GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells and Superlattices
Xiaoguang He and Manijeh Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 62 (6)-- February 8, 1993
We report the first well resolved room‐temperature photovoltage spectra due to the sublevel transitions in the GaInP‐GaAs superlattices and multiquantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Sharp well resolved peaks attributed to exciton absorption of the electron‐to‐light hole and electron‐to‐heavy hole have been observed at room temperature. This indicates that GaAs‐GaInP is a promising material for the application of the modulators, optical switches, and optical bistable divices. Satisfactory agreements between experimental measurements and theoretical results have been obtained. These results demonstrate that photovoltage spectroscopy is a simple, but very powerful tool to study quantum confinement structures.   reprint
 
646.  Intermixing of GaInP/GaAs Multiple Quantum Wells
C. Francis, M.A. Bradley, P. Boucaud, F.H. Julien and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 62 (2)-- January 11, 1993
The intermixing of GaInP‐GaAs superlattices induced by a heat treatment is investigated as a function of the annealing temperature and duration. Photoluminescence experiments reveal a large red shift of the effective band gap of the annealed quantum wells thus indicating a dominant self‐diffusion of the group III atoms which is confirmed by secondary ion mass spectroscopic measurements. For long enough annealing durations, the red shift saturates and even decreases due to the competing slower self‐diffusion of the group V atoms. Experiments are well understood based on a simple diffusion model. reprint
 
647.  Finite-Size Scaling in the Dissipative Transport Regime Between Quantum Hall Plateaus
Razeghi M., S. Koch, R.J. Hang, K.V. Klitzing, K. Ploog
-- January 1, 1993
 
648.  Splitting of the Landau Level Coincidence: A Novel Phase Transition in Tilted Magnetic Fields
Razeghi M., S. Koch, R.J. Hang, K.V. Klitzing
-- January 1, 1993
 
649.  Growth of InSb/GaAs layers on YIG-coated GGG substrate
C. Jelen, S. Charriere, M. Razeghi, and V.J. Leppert
-- January 1, 1993
 
650.  High Power 0.98 μm GaInAs/GaAs/GaInP Multiple Quantum Well Laser
K. Mobarhan, M. Razeghi, G. Marquebielle and E. Vassilaki
Journal of Applied Physics 72 (9)-- November 1, 1992
We report the fabrication of high quality Ga0.8In0.2As/GaAs/Ga0.51In0.49P multiple quantum well laser emitting at 0.98 μm grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Continuous wave operation with output power of 500 mW per facet was achieved at room temperature for a broad area laser with 130 μm width and 300 μm cavity length. This is an unusually high value of output power for this wavelength laser in this material system. The differential quantum efficiency exceeded 75% with excellent homogeneity and uniformity. The characteristic temperature, T0 was in the range of 120–130 K. reprint
 

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