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601.  Second harmonic generation in hexagonal silicon carbide
P.M. Lundquist, W.P. Lin, G.K. Wong, M. Razeghi, and J.B. Ketterson
Applied Physics Letters 66 (15)-- April 10, 1995
We report optical second harmonic generation measurements in single crystal α-SiC of polytype 6H. The angular dependence of second harmonic intensity was consistent with two independent nonvanishing second order susceptibility components, as expected for a crystal with hexagonal symmetry. For the fundamental wavelength of 1.064 μm the magnitudes of the two components were determined to be χzzz(2)=±1.2×10−7 and χzxx(2)=∓1.2×10−8 esu. The corresponding linear electro‐optic coefficient computed from this value is rzzz=±100 pm/V. The wavelength dependence of the nonlinear susceptibility was examined for second harmonic wavelengths between the bandgap (400 nm) and the red (700 nm), and was found to be relatively uniform over this region. The refractory nature of this compound and its large nonlinear optical coefficients make it an attractive candidate for high power nonlinear optical waveguide applications. reprint
 
602.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb for p-i-n Photodetectors
G. Singh, E. Michel, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, J. Xu, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 13 (2)-- March 1, 1995
The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-inch Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsitivity at 4 μm is about 1.0×103 V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8×1010 cm·Hz½/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA's in the future. reprint
 
603.  Ultraviolet Detectors for AstroPhysics Present and Future
M. Ulmer, M. Razeghi, and E. Bigan
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 239-- February 6, 1995
Astronomical instruments for the study of UV astronomy have been developed for NASA missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The systems that are `blind to the visible' (`solar-blind') yet sensitive to the UV that have been flown in satellites have detective efficiencies of about 10 to 20%, although typically electron bombardment charge coupled devices are higher at 30 - 40% and ordinary CCDs achieve 1 - 5%. Therefore, there is a large payoff still to be gained by further improvements in the performance of solar blind UV detectors. We provide a brief review of some aspects of UV astronomy, UV detector development, and possible technologies for the future. We suggest that a particularly promising future technology is one based on the ability of investigators to produce high quality films made of wide bandgap III-V semiconductors. reprint
 
604.  Improved performance of IR photodetectors with 3D gap engineering
J. Piotrowski and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
The ultimate signal-to-noise performance of the semiconductor photodetector is limited by the statistical fluctuations of the thermal generation and recombination rates in photodetector material. Cooling is an effective but impractical way of suppression of the thermal processes. The performance of uncooled detectors can be improved by minimizing the thermal generation and recombination rates and reducing the actual volume of photodetector. This can be realized in 3D heterostructure devices. In these devices, the incident radiation is absorbed in small regions of narrow gap semiconductor, buried in wide gap volume and supplied with wide gap electric contacts and radiation concentrators. The practical near room-temperature 1 - 12 μm IR heterostructure photodetectors are reported. The devices are based on variable gap Hg1-xCdxTe. The 3D heterostructures have been obtained by Isothermal Vapor Growth Epitaxy in a reusable growth system which enables in situ doping during growth with foreign impurities. Ion milling was extensively used in preparation of the devices. Monolithic optical immersion has been applied for further improvement of performance. The 3D heterostructure devices exhibit performance exceeding that of conventional photodetectors. reprint
 
605.  Investigation of 0.8 μm InGaAsP-GaAs laser diodes with Multiple Quantum Wells
J. Diaz, H. Yi, S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, L.J. Wang, I. Eliashevich, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
In this paper, we studied the effects of the active region structure (one, two and three quantum wells with same total thickness) for high-power InGaAsP-GaAs separate confinement heterostructure lasers emitting at 0.8 μm wavelength. Experimental results for the lasers grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition show excellent agreement with the theoretical model. Total output power of 47 W from an uncoated 1 cm-wide laser bar was achieved in quasi-continuous wave operation reprint
 
606.  Molecular beam epitaxial growth of InSb p-i-n photodetectors on GaAs and Si
E. Michel, R. Peters, S. Slivken, C. Jelen, P. Bove, J. Xu, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
High quality InSb has been grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and optimized using Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction. A 4.8 micrometers InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 degree(s)C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an X-ray rocking curve FWHM of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92300 cm2V-1s-1 at 77 K, the best reported to date for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs. InSb p-i-n structures of 5.8 micrometers grown under the same conditions demonstrated a X-ray Full Width at Half Maximum of 101 arcsec and 131 arcsec for GaAs and Si substrates, respectively, and exhibited excellent uniformity of +/- 3 arcsec over a 3' substrate. Prototype InSb p-i-n detectors on Si have been fabricated and have demonstrated photovoltaic response at 6.5 micrometers up to 200 K. These p-i-n detectors have also exhibited the highest D* for a device grown onto Si. reprint
 
607.  Aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with p-type GaAs Wells and lattice-matched ternary and quaternary barriers
J. Hoff, E. Bigan, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
Acceptor doped Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors with GaAs wells and lattice matched barriers of both ternary (In0.49Ga0.51P) and quaternary (In0.62Ga0.38As0.22P0.78) materials have been grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates by Low Pressure Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. Mesa devices were fabricated and subjected to a series of tests to illuminate experimentally some of the detection capabilities of the lattice matched quaternary InxGa1-xAsyP1-y system with (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.52) and (0 ≤ y ≤ 1). The observed photoresponse cut-off wavelengths are in good agreement with the activation energies observed in the temperature dependence of the dark currents. Kronig-Penney calculations were used to model the intersubband transition energies. reprint
 
608.  Low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN and GaN thin films on sapphire and silicon substrates
P. Kung, X. Zhang, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995
High quality AlN and GaN epilayers have been grown on basal plane sapphire by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The X-ray rocking curve linewidth of the AlN and GaN films were about 100 and 30 arcsecs respectively. Sharp absorption edges were determined at 6.1 and 3.4 eV respectively. Successful donor-bound excitonic luminescence emissions were detected for GaN films grown on sapphire and silicon. Two additional lines at 3.37 and 3.31 eV were observed on GaN on sapphire and assumed to be impurity-related. Doping of GaN layers was achieved with magnesium. Mg-related photoluminescence emissions were successfully detected on as-grown samples, without any post-growth treatment. reprint
 
609.  Temperature dependence of threshold current density Jth and differential efficiency of High Power InGaAsP/GaAs ( λ = 0.8 μm) lasers
H. Yi, J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, M. Stanton, M. Erdtmann, X. He, L. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 66 (3)-- January 16, 1995
An experimental and theoretical study on temperature dependence of the threshold current density Jth and differential efficiency ηd for the InGaAsP/GaAs laser diodes emitting at λ=0.8 μm was performed. Threshold current density Jth increases and differential efficiency ηd decreases as temperature is increased mainly because of thermal broadening of the gain spectrum. However, the measured temperature dependence of Jth and ηd could not be explained when only this effect was considered. In this letter, the temperature dependence of momentum relaxation rate ℏ/τ of carriers was investigated by performing the photoluminescence study. At high temperature, increase of the momentum relaxation rate ℏ/τ leads to reduction of the gain and mobility and increase of the optical loss, causing higher Jth and lower ηd as experimentally observed. The resulting theoretical model provides a good explanation for the mechanism of the increase of Jth and decrease of ηd. reprint
 
610.  Persistent photoconductivity in thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
S. Elhamri, M. Ahoujja, K. Ravindran, D.B. Mast, R.S. Newrock, W.C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, M. Razeghi and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 66 (2)-- January 9, 1995
Persistent photoconductivity has been observed at low temperatures in thin, unintentionally doped GaInP/GaAs/GaInP quantum wells. The two‐dimensional electron gas was studied by low field Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects. After illumination with red light, the electron concentration increased from low 1011 cm−2 to more than 7×1011 cm−2 resulting in an enhancement of both the carrier mobility and the quantum lifetime. The persistent photocarriers cannot be produced by DX-like defects since the shallow dopant concentration in the GaInP layers is too low to produce the observed concentration. We suggest that the persistent carriers are produced by photoionization of deep intrinsic donors in the GaInP barrier layer. We also report observation of a parallel conduction path in GaInP induced by extended illumination. reprint
 
611.  Exploration of entire range of III-V semiconductors and their device applications
M. Razeghi, Y.H. Choi, X. He, and C.J. Sun
-- January 1, 1995
 
612.  Defects of 6H-SiC substrates made by Acheson's method and by modified Lely's method
T. Kato, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and T. Okuda
-- January 1, 1995
 
613.  Analysis of Spectral Response in p-type GaAs/GaInP QWIPs
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
-- January 1, 1995
 
614.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb
E. Michel, G. Singh, S. Slivken, C. Besikci, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (26)-- December 26, 1994
In this letter we report on the growth of high quality InSb by molecular beam epitaxy that has been optimized using reflection high energy electron diffraction. A 4.8 µm InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 °C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an x-ray rocking curve of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92,300 cm²·V−1 at 77 K. This is the best material quality obtained for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs reported to date. reprint
 
615.  The correlation between x-ray diffraction patterns and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices
X.G. He, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (22)-- November 28, 1994
Strong correlation between x‐ray diffraction characteristics and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices has been reported. It is found that the symmetry of (002) diffraction patterns can be used to evaluate the interface strain status. A sample with no interfacial strains has a symmetric (002) diffraction pattern and weak (004) diffraction pattern. It is also demonstrated that strain distribution in superlattices can be readily estimated qualitatively by analyzing x-ray diffraction patterns. reprint
 
616.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. reprint
 
617.  Theoretical Investigation of Jth and hd vs. Cavity Length for InGaAsP/GaAs High Power Lasers
H.J. Yi, I. Eliashevich, J. Diaz, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
 
618.  Optimization of InGaAsP/GaAs Laser Diode Processing for High-Power Operation
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
-- October 31, 1994
 
619.  Theoretical investigation of minority carrier leakage of high-power 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs laser diodes
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, H.J. Yi, M. Stanton, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (18)-- October 31, 1994
We report a theoretical model that accurately describes the effects of minority carrier leakage from the InGaAsP waveguide into InGaP cladding layers in high‐power aluminum-free 0.8 μm InGaAsP/InGaP/GaAs separate confinement heterostructure lasers. Current leakage due to the relatively low band‐gap discontinuity between the active region and the InGaP barrier can be eliminated by employing laser diodes with cavity length longer than 500 μm. Experimental results for lasers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. reprint
 
620.  Interface roughness scattering in thin, undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
W. C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, S. Elhamri, M. Aboujja, K. Ravindran, R.S. Newrock, M. Razeghi, and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 65 (12)-- September 19, 1994
Electronic transport properties of very thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells have been measured by temperature dependent low field Hall effect and by Shubnikov–de Haas effect. Strong Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations were observed after increasing the electron concentration via the persistent photocurrent effect. Low temperature mobilities of up to 70 ,000 cm²/V· s at carrier concentrations of 6.5×1011 cm−2 were observed in a 20 Å quantum well. The results are compared with the theory of interface roughness scattering which indicates extremely smooth interfaces; however, discrepancies between experiment and theory are observed. reprint
 
621.  Intersubband hole absorption in GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Michel, O. Duchemin, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi with G. Brown and S.M. Hegde (Wright Laboratory)
Applied Physics Letters 65 (9)-- August 29, 1994
P-doped GaAs‐GaInP quantum wells have been grown on GaAs substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Structural quality has been evidenced by x-ray diffraction. A narrow low-temperature photoluminescence full width at half‐maximum has been measured. Strong hole intersubband absorption has been observed at 9 μm, and its dependence on light polarization has been investigated. reprint
 
622.  High-power InGaAsP/GaAs 0.8 μm laser diodes and peculiarities of operational characteristics
J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, X. He, H. Yi, L. Wang, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (8)-- August 22, 1994
High-power operation of 3 W in pulse mode, 750 mW in quasi-continuous wave and 650 mW in continuous wave per uncoated facet from 100 μm aperture has been demonstrated for 1 mm long cavity InGaAsP/GaAs 808 nm laser diodes prepared by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Threshold current density of 300 A/cm², differential efficiency of 1.1 W/A, T0=155 °C, transverse beam divergence of 27°, and less than 2 nm linewidth at 808 nm have been measured. No degradation has been observed after 1000 h of operation in a quasi-continuous wave regime. reprint
 
623.  On the Description of the Collision Terms in Three-Valley Hydrodynamic Models for GaAs Device Modeling
C. Besikci and M. Razeghi
-- August 1, 1994
 
624.  Efficiency of photoluminescence and excess carrier confinement in InGaAsP/GaAs structures prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
J. Diaz, H.J. Yi, M. Erdtmann, X. He, E. Kolev, D. Garbuzov, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (2)-- July 15, 1994
Special double‐ and separate‐confinement InGaAsP/GaAs heterostructures intended for photoluminescence measurements have been grown by low‐pressure metal‐organic chemical‐vapor deposition. The band gap of the active region quaternary material was close to 1.5 eV, and the waveguide of the separate‐confinement structures was near 1.8 eV. Measurement of the integrated luminescence efficiency at 300 K has shown that over a wide range of excitation level (10–103 W/cm²) radiative transitions are the dominant mechanism for excess carrier recombination in the active region of the structures studied. As determined by spectral measurements, the excess carrier concentration in the waveguide of the separate‐confinement heterostructures and the intensity of the waveguide emission band correspond to a condition of thermal equilibrium of the excess carrier populations in the active region and the waveguide. The ratio of the intensity of the waveguide emission to the active region emission fits a model which assumes that the barrier height for minority carriers (holes) is equal to the difference in band gaps between the active region and the waveguide region. reprint
 
625.  Thermal stability of GaN thin films grown on (0001) Al2O3, (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H-SiC substrates
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and D.K. Gaskill
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1)-- July 1, 1994
Single crystals of GaN were grown on (0001), (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H‐SiC substrates using an atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical‐vapor‐deposition reactor. The relationship has been studied between the thermal stability of the GaN films and the substrate’s surface polarity. It appeared that the N‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001)Si 6H‐SiC has the most stable surface, followed by the nonpolar (1120) GaN surface grown on (0112) Al2O3, while the Ga‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001) Al2O3 has the least stable surface. This is explained with the difference in the atomic configuration of each of these surfaces which induces a difference in their thermal decomposition. reprint
 

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