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576.  AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire
D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, S. Javadpour, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 68 (15)-- April 8, 1996
AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤0.50) ultraviolet photoconductors with a minimum cutoff wavelength shorter than 260 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The AlGaN active layers were grown on (00⋅1) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The spectral responsivity of the GaN detector at 360 nm is about 1 A/W biased at 8 V at room temperature. The carrier lifetime derived from the voltage‐dependent responsivity is 0.13–0.36 ms. reprint
 
577.  Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and silicon
K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics79 (5)-- March 1, 1996
The details of epitaxial growth and microstrictural characteristics of AlN films grown on sapphire (0001), (1012) and Si (100), (111) substrates were investigated using plan‐view and cross‐sectional high‐resolution transmission electron microscopy and x‐ray diffraction techniques. The films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMA1+NH3+N2 gas mixtures. Different degrees of epitaxy were observed for the films grown on α‐Al2O3 and Si substrates in different orientations. The epitaxial relationship for (0001) sapphire was found to be (0001)AlN∥(0001)sap with in‐plane orientation relationship of [0110]AlN∥[1210]sap. This is equivalent to a 30° rotation in the basal (0001) plane. For (1012) sapphire substrates, the epitaxial relationship was determined to be (1120)AlN∥(1012)sap with the in‐plane alignment of [0001]AlN∥[1011]sap. The AlN films on (0001) α‐Al2O3 were found to contain inverted domain boundaries and a/3〈1120〉 threading dislocations with the estimated density of 1010 cm−2. The density of planar defects (stacking faults) found in AlN films was considerably higher in the case of (1012) compared to (0001) substrates. Films on Si substrates were found to be highly textured c axis oriented when grown on (111) Si, and c axis textured with random in‐plane orientation on (100) Si. The role of thin‐film defects and interfaces on device fabrication is discussed. reprint
 
578.  Optical Absorption and Photoresponse in fully Quaternary p-type Quantum Well Detectors
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996
Acceptor doped, non-strained aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors lattice matched to GaAs with Ga0.79In0.21As0.59P0.41 wells and Ga0.62In0.38As0.22P0.78 barriers have been demonstrated on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. These devices which operate at normal incidence demonstrate a unique spectral response which extends from approximately 2 μm up to 10 μm. To explain such a broad spectral shape, a detailed theoretical analysis based on the 8 x 8 Kane Hamiltonian was necessary to probe all aspect of optical absorption. The results of this analysis revealed that spectral shape results from the influence of the Spin Split-off band on the band structure and the optical matrix. reprint
 
579.  Sb-based infrared materials and photodetectors for the 3-5 and 8-12 μm range
E. Michel, J.D. Kim, S. Park, J. Xu, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Photonics West '96 'Photodetectors: Materials and Devices'; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996
In this paper, we report on the growth of InSb on (100) Si and (111)B GaAs substrates and the growth of InAsSb alloys for longer wavelength applications. The fabrication and characterization of photodetectors based on these materials are also reported. Both photoconductive and photovoltaic devices are investigated. The photodiodes are InSb p-i-n structures and InSb/InAs1-xSbx/InSb double heterostructures grown on (100) and (111)B semi-insulating GaAs and Si substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and solid source molecular beam epitaxy. The material parameters for device structures have been optimized through theoretical calculations based on fundamental mechanisms. InSb p-i-n photodiodes with peak responsivities approximately 103 V/W were grown on Si and (111) GaAs substrates. An InAsSb photovoltaic detector with a composition of x equals 0.85 showed photoresponse up to 13 micrometers at 300 K with a peak responsivity of 9.13 X 10-2 V/W at 8 micrometers . The R0A product of InAsSb detectors has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. reprint
 
580.  Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996
This paper presents an overview of semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) detectors that are currently available and associated technologies that are undergoing further development. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further consideration are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the current state-of-the-art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main effort are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide-band-gap semiconductors between them the most promising are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is finally described in detail. reprint
 
581.  GaN, GaAlN, and AlN for use in UV Detectors for Astrophysics: An Update
P. Kung, A. Saxler, X. Zhang, D. Walker, M. Razeghi, and M. Ulmer
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996
In SPIE Proceeding 2397 we demonstrated that there is a large payoff still to be gained by further improvements in the performance of solar blind UV detectors for astronomical purposes. We suggested that a particularly promising future technology is one based on the ability of investigators to produce high-quality films made of wide bandgap III-IV semiconductors. Here we report on significant progress we have made over the past year to fabricate and test single-pixel devices. The next step will be to measure and improve detective efficiency, measure the solar blindness over a larger dynamic range, and begin developing multiple-pixel designs. reprint
 
582.  UV photodetectors based on AlxGa1-xN grown by MOCVD
A. Saxler, D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996
Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit AlxGa1-xN active layers with varying aluminum compositions on basal plane sapphire substrate. AlxGa1-xN (x < 0.5) ultraviolet photodetectors have been fabricated and characterized with cut-off wavelengths as short as 260 nm. Carrier lifetimes on the order of 10 milliseconds were estimated from frequency dependent measurements of the responsivity. reprint
 
583.  Long-Wavelength InAsSb Photoconductors Operated at Near Room Temperatures (200-300 K)
J.D. Kim, D. Wu, J. Wojkowski, J. Piotrowski, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters., 68 (1),-- January 1, 1996
Long-wavelength InAs1−xSbx photoconductors operated without cryogenic cooling are reported. The devices are based on p-InAs1−xSbx/p-InSb heterostructures grown on (100) semi-insulating GaAs substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP‐MOCVD). Photoreponse up to 14 μm has been obtained in a sample with x=0.77 at 300 K, which is in good agreement with the measured infrared absorption spectra. The corresponding effective lifetime of ≊0.14 ns at 300 K has been derived from stationary photoconductivity. The Johnson noise limited detectivity at λ=10.6 μm is estimated to be about 3.27×107 cm· Hz½/W at 300 K. reprint
 
584.  High-Temperature Reliability of Aluminum-free 980nm and 808nm Laser Diodes
J. Diaz, H. Yi, C. Jelen, S. Kim, S. Slivken, I. Eliashevich, M. Erdtmann, D. Wu, G. Lukas, and M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 1996
 
585.  New Infrared Materials and Detectors
M. Razeghi, J.D. Kim, S.J. Park, Y.H. Choi, D. Wu, E. Michel, J. Xu, and E. Bigan
-- January 1, 1996
 
586.  Background limited performance in p-doped quantum well intersubband photodetectors
J. Hoff, J. Piotrowski, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
-- January 1, 1996
 
587.  GaN Based Semiconductors for Future Optoelectronics
D. Walker, P. Kung, A. Saxler, X. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 1996
 
588.  MOCVD Growth of Ga1-xInxAsyP1-y-GaAs Quantum Structures
M. Razeghi, J. Hoff, M. Erdtmann, S. Kim, D. Wu, E. Kaas, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, I. Eliashevich, J. Diaz, E. Bigan, G.J. Brown, S. Javadpour
-- January 1, 1996
 
589.  Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors
A. Rogalski and M. Razeghi
-- January 1, 1996
 
590.  Kinetics of photoconductivity in n-type GaN photodetector
P. Kung, X. Zhang, D. Walker, A. Saxler, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 67 (25)-- December 18, 1995
High-quality ultraviolet photoconductive detectors have been fabricated using GaN layers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (11⋅0) sapphire substrates. The spectral responsivity remained nearly constant for wavelengths from 200 to 365 nm and dropped sharply by almost three orders of magnitude for wavelengths longer than 365 nm. The kinetics of the photoconductivity have been studied by the measurements of the frequency‐dependent photoresponse and photoconductivity decay. Strongly sublinear response and excitation‐dependent response time have been observed even at relatively low excitation levels. This can be attributed to redistribution of the charge carriers with increased excitation level. reprint
 
591.  MOVPE Growth of High Electron Mobility AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures
J.M. Redwing, J.S. Flynn, M.A. Tischler, W. Mitchel, and A. Saxler
-- November 27, 1995
 
592.  The Microstructural Study of Aluminum Nitride Thin Films: Epitaxy on the Two Orientations of Sapphire and Texturing on Si
K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi
-- November 27, 1995
 
593.  Spectral response on GaN p-n junction photovoltaic structures
D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, J. Xu and M. Razeghi
-- November 27, 1995
 
594.  Growth of GaN without yellow luminescence
X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi
-- November 27, 1995
 
595.  8-13 μm InAsSb heterojunction photodiode operating at near room temperature
J.D. Kim, S. Kim, D. Wu, J. Wojkowski, J. Xu, J. Piotrowski, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 67 (18)-- October 30, 1995
p+-InSb/π-InAs1−xSbx/n+-InSb heterojunction photodiodes operating at near room temperature in the 8–13 μm region of infrared (IR) spectrum are reported. A room‐temperature photovoltaic response of up to 13 μm has been observed at 300 K with an x≊0.85 sample. The voltage responsivity‐area product of 3×10−5 V· cm²/W has been obtained at 300 K for the λ=10.6 μm optimized device. This was close to the theoretical limit set by the Auger mechanism, with a detectivity at room temperature of ≊1.5×108 cm ·Hz½/W. reprint
 
596.  Photovoltaic effects in GaN structures with p-n junction
X. Zhang, P. Kung, D. Walker, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 67 (14)-- October 2, 1995
Large-area GaN photovoltaic structures with p-n junctions have been fabricated using atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The photovoltaic devices typically exhibit selective spectral characteristics with two narrow peaks of opposite polarity. This can be related to p-n junction connected back‐to‐back with a Schottky barrier. The shape of the spectral characteristic is dependent on the thickness of the n- and p-type regions. The diffusion length of holes in the n-type GaN region, estimated by theoretical modeling of the spectral response shape, was about 0.1 μm. reprint
 
597.  Growth of AlxGa1-xN:Ge on sapphire and silicon substrates
X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, T.C. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 67 (12)-- September 18, 1995
AlxGa1–xN were grown on (00.1) sapphire and (111) silicon substrates in the whole composition range (0 <= x <= 1). The high optical quality of the epilayers was assessed by room-temperature optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements. Layers with higher Al composition are more resistive. Resistive AlxGa1–xN epilayers were successfully doped with Ge and free-electron concentration as high as 3 × 1019 cm–3 was achieved. reprint
 
598.  Epitaxial Growth of Aluminum Nitride on Sapphire and Silicon
K. Dovidenko, S. Oktyabrsky, J. Narayan, and M. Razeghi
-- September 1, 1995
 
599.  InGaAsP-based High Power Laser Diodes
M. Razeghi
-- August 1, 1995
 
600.  p-doped GaAs/Ga0.51In0.49P quantum well intersub-band photodetectors
J. Hoff, X. He, M. Erdtmann, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Journal of Applied Physics 78 (3)-- August 1, 1995
Lattice‐matched p-doped GaAs–Ga0.51In0.49P quantum well intersub‐band photodetectors with three different well widths have been grown on GaAs substrates by metal‐organic chemical‐vapor deposition and fabricated into mesa structures. The photoresponse cutoff wavelength varies between 3.5 and 5.5 μm by decreasing the well width from 50 down to 25 Å. Dark current measurements as a function of temperature reveal activation energies for thermionic emission that closely correspond to measured cutoff wavelengths. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with Kronig–Penney calculations. reprint
 

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