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451.  Future Trends of III-Nitrides Using Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, X. Zhang, K. Mi, D. Walker, V. Kumar, and J. Diaz
-- December 14, 1999
 
452.  Pulse Autocorrelation Measurements Based on Two- and Three-Photon Conductivity in a GaN Photodiode
A. Streltsov, K.D. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 75 (24)-- December 13, 1999
We characterize the performance of a GaN p-i-n photodiode as a nonlinear sensor for second- and third-order femtosecond pulse autocorrelation measurements in the visible and near-infrared regimes, respectively. The two- and three-photon absorption coefficients for GaN are also determined. reprint
 
453.  Kinetics of Quantum States in Quantum Cascade Lasers: Device Design Principles and fabrication
M. Razeghi
-- October 1, 1999
 
454.  Uncooled InAs/GaSb Type-II infrared detectors grown on GaAs substrate for the 8–12 μm atmospheric window
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. Brown, and W. Mitchel
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 35 (7)-- July 1, 1999
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2×108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays reprint
 
455.  Exploration of Novel InSbBi Alloy for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
 
456.  Growth and characterization of InGaAs/InGaP quantum dots for mid-infrared photodetectors
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
 
457.  Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of High Power Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (808 nm) Laser Diodes
H.J. Yi and M. Razeghi
-- July 1, 1999
 
458.  InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice injection lasers operating at 4.0 μm grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
B. Lane, Z. Wu, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (23)-- June 7, 1999
We report high power mid-infrared electrical injection operation of laser diodes based on InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices grown on InAs substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The broad-area laser diodes with 100 μm aperture and 1800 μm cavity length demonstrate peak output powers of 546 and 94 mW in pulsed and cw operation respectively at 100 K with a threshold current density as low as 100 A/cm². reprint
 
459.  Development of High-performance III-Nitride-based Semiconductor Devices
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, and P. Sandvik
-- June 1, 1999
 
460.  Low-Threshold 7.3 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken, A. Matlis, A. Rybaltowski, Z. Wu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (19)-- May 19, 1999
We report low-threshold 7.3 μm superlattice-based quantum cascade lasers. The threshold current density is 3.4 kA/cm² at 300 K and 1.25 kA/cm² at 79 K in pulsed mode for narrow (∼20 μm), 2 mm-long laser diodes. The characteristic temperature (T0) is 210 K. The slope efficiencies are 153 and 650 mW/A at 300 and 100 K, respectively. Power output is in excess of 100 mW at 300 K. Laser far-field intensity measurements give divergence angles of 64° and 29° in the growth direction and in the plane of the quantum wells, respectively. Far-field simulations show excellent agreement with the measured results. reprint
 
461.  Exciton localization in group-III nitride quantum wells
V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 59 (15)-- May 15, 1999
Exciton density of states broadened by compositional disorder in the group-III nitride quantum well is calculated. The excitonic photoluminescence linewidth is estimated and related to the material parameters of the alloy for two limiting cases of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional excitons in the quantum well. It is shown that the effect of the compositional fluctuations depends on dimensionality of the exciton: the 2D excitons are more sensitive to the inhomogeneities than 3D ones. The broad near-band-gap energy states distribution for quasi-two-dimensional excitons is consistent with the experimental evidence of the spontaneous and stimulated emissions from excitonic states localized on compositional fluctuations. reprint
 
462.  Aluminum gallium nitride short-period superlattices doped with magnesium
A. Saxler, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (14)-- April 9, 1999
Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short-period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. reprint
 
463.  High power asymmetrical InAsSb/InAsSbP/AlAsSb double heterostructure lasers emitting at 3.4 μm
D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Mohseni, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (9)-- March 1, 1999
Midinfrared lasers with an asymmetrical InPAsSb/InAsSb/AlAsSb double heterostructure are reported. Using the asymmetrical double heterostructure, p- and n-cladding layers are separately optimized; high energy-gap AlAsSb (Eg ≈ 1.5 eV) for the p-type cladding layer to reduce the leakage current, and thus to increase To, and low energy-gap InPAsSb (Eg ≈ 0.5 eV) for the n-cladding layer to have low turn-on voltage. 100-μm-width broad-area lasers with 1000 μm cavity length exhibited peak output powers of 1.88 W in pulse and 350 mW in continuous wave modes per two facets at T=80 K with To of 54 K and turn-on voltage of 0.36 V. Maximum peak output powers up to 6.7 W were obtained from a laser bar of total aperture of 400 μm width and cavity length of 1000 μm, with a differential efficiency of 34% and far-field beam divergence narrower than 40° at 80 K. reprint
 
464.  Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides
D.N. Hahn, G.T. Kiehne, G.K.L. Wong, J.B. Ketterson, P. Kung, A. Saxler and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (5)-- March 1, 1999
Phase-matched optical second-harmonic (SH) generation was observed in GaN and AlN slab waveguides. Phase matching was achieved by waveguide modal dispersion. By tuning the output wavelength of an optical parametric amplifier, several phased-matched SH peaks were observed in the visible spectrum covering blue to red wavelengths. The peak positions are in agreement with the values calculated using the dispersive refractive indices of the film and substrate materials. reprint
 
465.  AlGaInAs/InP-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
 
466.  Novel InTlSb Alloy for Uncooled Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
 
467.  Recent Advance in Semiconductor Mid-Infrared Lasers Emitting at 3–12 μm
M. Razeghi
-- March 1, 1999
 
468.  High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes
E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (8)-- February 22, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1−xN p-i-n photodiodes (0 < x < 0.15) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible rejection of six orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 365 to 338 nm. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances, the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. This behavior is justified by the strong frequency dependence of the device capacitance. By an admittance analysis, we conclude that speed is not limited by deep levels, but by substitutional Mg capture and emission time. reprint
 
469.  High-speed, low-noise metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN
D. Walker, E. Monroy, P. Kung, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, F.J. Sanchez, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (5)-- February 1, 1999
We present the fabrication and characterization of nonintentionally doped GaN and GaN:Mg Schottky metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, grown on sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Low-leakage, Schottky contacts were made with Pt/Au. The devices are visible blind, with an ultraviolet/green contrast of about five orders of magnitude. The response times of the MSM devices were <10 ns and about 200 ns for GaN and GaN:Mg, respectively. The noise power spectral density remains below the background level of the system (10−24  A²/Hz) up to 5 V, for the undoped GaN MSM detector. reprint
 
470.  Recent achievement in MIR high power injection laser diodes (3 to 5 μm)
M. Razeghi, D. Wu, B. Lane, A. Rybaltowski, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and H. Yi
-- February 1, 1999
 
471.  Roadmap of Semiconductor Infrared Lasers and Detectors for the 21st Century
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
Since the first discovery, semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors have found many various applications in military, communications, medical, and industry sections. In this paper, the current status of semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors will be reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods and techniques is discussed later. Some basic physical limitations of current technology are studied and the direction to overcome these problems will be suggested. reprint
 
472.  Multi-color 4–20 μm In-P-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
In order to tune the wavelength of lattice-matched QWIP detectors over the range from 4 - 20 &mum, new designs are demonstrated for the first time which combine InGaAlAs and InGaAsP layers lattice-matched to InP and grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate the first long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors using the lattice-matched n-doped InGaAlAs/InP materials system. Samples with AlAs mole fractions of 0.0, 0.1, and 0.15 result in cutoff wavelengths of 8.5, 13.3, and 19.4 μm, respectively. A 45 degree facet coupled illumination responsivity of R equals 0.37 A/W and detectivity of D*(λ) equals 1x109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at T = 77 K, for a cutoff wavelength λc equals 13.3 μm have been achieved. Based on the measured intersubband photoresponse wavelength, a null conduction band offset is expected for In0.52Ga0.21Al0.27As/InP heterojunctions. We also report quantum well infrared photodetector structures of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As grown on InP substrate with photoresponse at 4 μm suitable for mid-wavelength infrared detectors. These detectors exhibit a constant peak responsivity of 30 mA/W independent of temperature in the range from T equals 77 K to T equals 200 K. Combining these two materials, we report the first multispectral detectors that combine lattice-matched quantum wells of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InP. Utilizing two contacts, a voltage tunable detector with (lambda) p equals 8 micrometer at a bias of V equals 5 V and λp equals 4 μm at V equals 10 V is demonstrated. reprint
 
473.  AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodiodes on Sapphire Substrates
D. Walker, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, I.H. Lee, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1-xN p-i-n photodiodes (0.05 ≤ to X ≤ 0.30) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible-rejection of about four orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 350 nm to 291 nm. They also exhibit a constant responsivity for five decades (30 mW/m² to 1 kW/m²) of optical power density. Using capacitance measurements, the values for the acceptor concentration in the p-AlxGa1-xN region and the unintentional donor concentration in the intrinsic region are found. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. reprint
 
474.  Electrical Characterization of AlxGa1-xN for UV Photodetector Applications
A. Saxler, M. Ahoujja, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
Ultraviolet photodetectors have many military and commercial applications. However, for many of these applications, the photodetectors must be solar blind. This means that the photodetectors must have a cutoff wavelength of less than about 270 nm. Semiconductor based devices would then need energy gaps of over 4.6 eV. In the AlxGa1-xN system, the aluminum mole fraction, x, required is over 40%. As the energy gap is increased, doping becomes much more difficult, especially p-type doping. This report is a study of the electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN to enable better control of the doping. Magnesium doped p-type AlxGa1-xN has been studied using high-temperature Hall effect measurements. The acceptor ionization energy has been found to increase substantially with the aluminum content. Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were also grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short- period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. Silicon doped n-type films have also been studied. reprint
 
475.  Schottky MSM Photodetectors on GaN Films Grown on Sapphire by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
P. Kung, D. Walker, P. Sandvik, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, I.H. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999
We report the growth and characterization of Schottky based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN films. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN was carried out on basal plane sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and exhibited lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates. The spectral responsivity, the dependence on bias voltage, on incident optical power, and the time response of these photodetectors have been characterized. Two detector orientations were investigated: one with the interdigitated finger pattern parallel and the other perpendicular to the underlying SiOx mask stripes. reprint
 

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