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351.  High performance InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetector achieved through doping level optimization
S. Tsao, K. Mi, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, H. Lim, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 334-- January 22, 2005
We report an InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with detectivity of 1.3x1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77K and 1.2x1010 ccm·Hz½/W at 120K. Modeling of the Quantum dot energy levels showed us that increased photoresponse could be obtained by doping the quantum dots to 4 electrons per dot instead of the usual 2 electrons per dot. This happens because the primary photocurrent transition is from the first excited state to a higher excited state. Increasing the quantum doping in our device yielded significant responsivity improvement and much higher detectivity as a result. This paper discusses the performance of this higher doping device and compares it to our previously reported device with lower doping. reprint
 
352.  GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays for long wavelength infrared detection
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 350-- January 22, 2005
Nanopillar devices have been fabricated from GaInAs/InP QWIP material grown by MOCVD. Using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching techniques, large, regular arrays of nanopillars with controllable diameters ranging from 150 nm to less than 40 nm have been reproducibly formed. Photoluminescence experiments demonstrate a strong peak wavelength blue shift for nanopillar structures compared to the as-grown quantum well material. Top and bottom metal contacts have been realized using a polyimide planarization and etchback procedure. I-V and noise measurements have been performed. Optical measurements indicate photoconductive response in selected nanopillar arrays. Device peak wavelength response occurs at about 8 µm with peak device responsivity of 420 mA/W. Peak detectivity of 3×108 cm·Hz½/W has been achieved at -1V bias and 30 K. reprint
 
353.  ZnO Thin Film Templates for GaN-based Devices
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung, M. Razeghi and G. Garry
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 412-- January 22, 2005
GaN-based optoelectronic devices are plagued by a tendency to non-radiative transitions linked to defects in the active layers. ZnO is promising as a substrate material for GaN because it has the same wurtzite structure and a relatively small lattice mismatch (~1.8%). In this paper, we discuss use of ZnO thin films as templates for GaN based LED. reprint
 
354.  Transport and Photodetection in Self-Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, K. Mi, and B. Movaghar
Nanotechnology, 16-- January 7, 2005
A great step forward in science and technology was made when it was discovered that lattice mismatch can be used to grow highly ordered, artificial atom-like structures called self-assembled quantum dots. Several groups have in the meantime successfully demonstrated useful infrared photodetection devices which are based on this technology. The new physics is fascinating, and there is no doubt that many new applications will be found when we have developed a better understanding of the underlying physical processes, and in particular when we have learned how to integrate the exciting new developments made in nanoscopic addressing and molecular self-assembly methods with semiconducting dots. In this paper we examine the scientific and technical questions encountered in current state of the art infrared detector technology and suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. Promoting simple physical pictures, we focus in particular on the problem of high temperature detector operation and discuss the origin of dark current, noise, and photoresponse. reprint
 
355.  320x256 Solar-Blind Focal Plane Arrays based on AlxGa1-xN
R. McClintock, K. Mayes, A. Yasan, D. Shiell, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (1)-- January 3, 2005
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet focal plane arrays operating at a wavelength of 280 nm. The electrical characteristics of the individual pixels are discussed, and the uniformity of the array is presented. The p–i–n photodiode array was hybridized to a 320×256 read-out integrated circuit entirely within our university research lab, and a working 320×256 camera was demonstrated. Several example solar-blind images from the camera are also provided. reprint
 
356.  Advanced Monolithic Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Integrated with Silicon Readout Integrated Circuit
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, C. Jelen and M.Z. Tidrow
Infrared Physics and Technology, 46 (3)-- January 1, 2005
Today, most infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilize a hybrid scheme. To achieve higher device reliability and lower cost, monolithic FPAs with Si based readout integrated circuits (ROICs) are the trend of the future development. In this paper, two approaches for monolithic FPAs are proposed: double sided integration and selective epitaxy integration. For comparison, the fabrication process for hybrid quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) FPAs are also described. Many problems, such as the growth of QWIPs on Si substrate and processing incompatibility between Si and III–V semiconductors, need to be solved before monolithic FPAs can be realized. Experimental work on GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si is given in this paper. A record high detectivity of 2.3×109 jones was obtained for one QWIP-on-Si detector at 77 K. reprint
 
357.  Continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.8 µm quantum-cascade lasers at room temperature
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 85 (12)-- September 20, 2004
Continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ~4.8 µm is reported up to a temperature of 323 K. Accurate control of layer thickness and strain-balanced material composition is demonstrated using x-ray diffraction. cw output power is reported to be in excess of 370 mW per facet at 293 K, and 38 mW per facet at 323 K. Room-temperature average power measurements are demonstrated with over 600 mW per facet at 50% duty cycle with over 300 mW still observed at 100% (cw) duty cycle. reprint
 
358.  Review of III-Nitride Optoelectronic Materials for light Emission and Detection
M. Razeghi, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, and P. Kung
Physica Status Solidi C S141 - S148-- September 10, 2004
We review the significant achievements relating to optoelectronic devices based on III-nitrides at the center for quantum devices (CQD). Based on GaN/InGaN multiple-quantum well structures, we demonstrated blue laser diodes at a wavelength of 405 nm. This achievement was particularly significant at the time, because while no defect reduction technique was used, a fairly low threshold current density was achieved (3.8 kA/cm²). In the past few years, however, the interest has shifted towards shorter wavelength light emitters, i.e. ultraviolet LEDs and LDs. Lower crystalline quality and unsatisfactory doping levels of AlGaN compound semiconductors posed serious challenges en route to the realization of UV light emitters. However, steady progress in the growth of AlGaN and AlN epilayers made it possible to overcome some of the difficulties. To date, we have been able to demonstrate UV LEDs at wavelengths as short as 265 nm (corresponding to 45% Al in AlxGa1-xN) with optical output powers of over 5 mW. We have addressed the n-type AlGaN doping problem by using a Si-In co-doped scheme. We also employed high-quality AlGaN/AlN superlattice templates for the reduction of defects. We have also demonstrated 280 nm UV LEDs with output powers of over 6 mW and external quantum efficiencies of over 0.25%. Despite all the success in the realization of short-wavelength UV LEDs, UV laser diodes at these short wavelengths are yet to be realized. The main difficulties are the low material quality, high device resistance leading to excessive heating of the device, realization of smooth cavity mirrors, and issues related to the cracking of the material. We have also demonstrated different types of photodetectors in the UV range of the spectrum: photoconductors, MSM photodetector, Schottky barrier photodetectors, and p-i-n photodiodes to name a few. The most promising type of photodetector for realization of UV imaging focal plane arrays is the p-i-n photodiode. Realization of high-efficiency AlGaN-based p-i-n photodiodes becomes more difficult when considering the need for the collection of the light from the backside of the substrate. However, similar to our back-emission UV LED structure, we have demonstrated back-illuminated p-i-n solar-blind photodiodes with external quantum efficiencies as high as 68% under no applied bias and 74% under -5 V of bias. reprint
 
359.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (13)-- April 29, 2004
We report a demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The middle-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown via low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W was achieved at T = 95 K and a bias of –1.4 V. The background limited temperature of our QDIP was 140 K with a 45° field of view. A 256×256 detector array was fabricated with dry etching, and hybridized to a Litton readout chip by indium bumps. Thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T = 77 K, the noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 0.509 K with a 300 K background and f/2.3 optics. reprint
 
360.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- April 22, 2004
We report a high detectivity middle-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The InGaAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on an InGaP matrix via low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures above 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 µm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 µm. The background limited performance temperature was 140 K, and this was attributed to the super low dark current observed in this QDIP. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art quantum well infrared photodetectors in a similar wavelength range, was obtained for this InGaAs/InGaP QDIP at both T = 77 K and T = 95 K at biases of –1.6 and –1.4 V, reprint
 
361.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (13)-- April 5, 2004reprint
 
362.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (12)-- March 29, 2004reprint
 
363.  Ammonium Sulfide Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Bajowala, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- March 22, 2004
We report on the surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors using various ammonium sulfide solutions. Compared to unpassivated detectors, zero-bias resistance of treated 400 µm×400 µm devices with 8 µm cutoff wavelength was improved by over an order of magnitude to ~20 kΩ at 80 K. Reverse-bias dark current density was reduced by approximately two orders of magnitude to less than 10 mA/cm2 at –2 V. Dark current modeling, which takes into account trap-assisted tunneling, indicates greater than 70 times reduction in bulk trap density for passivated detectors. reprint
 
364.  Fabrication of Indium Bumps for Hybrid Infrared Focal Plane Array Applications
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Infrared Physics and Technology, 45 (2)-- March 1, 2004
Hybrid infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) have found many applications. In hybrid IR FPAs, FPA and Si read out integrated circuits (ROICs) are bonded together with indium bumps by flip-chip bonding. Taller and higher uniformity indium bumps are always being pursued in FPA fabrication. In this paper, two indium bump fabrication processes based on evaporation and electroplating techniques are developed. Issues related to each fabrication technique are addressed in detail. The evaporation technique is based on a unique positive lithography process. The electroplating method achieves taller indium bumps with a high aspect ratio by a unique “multi-stack” technique. This technique could potentially benefit the fabrication of multi-color FPAs. Finally, a proposed low-cost indium bump fabrication technique, the “bump transfer”, is given as a future technology for hybrid IR FPA fabrication. reprint
 
365.  High-Power Continuous-Wave Operation of Quantum-Cascade Lasers Up to 60 °C
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, J. David, L. Doris, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16 (3)-- March 1, 2004
High-temperature high-power continuous-wave (CW) operation of high-reflectivity-coated 12 μm wide quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ = 6 μm with a thick electroplated Au top contact layer is reported for different cavity lengths. For a 3 mm long laser, the CW optical output powers of 381 mW at 293 K and 22 mW at maximum operating temperature of 333 K (60°C) are achieved with threshold current densities of 1.93 and 3.09 kA/cm2, respectively. At 298 K, the same cavity gives a maximum wall plug efficiency of 3.17% at 1.07 A. An even higher CW optical output power of 424 mW at 293 K is obtained for a 4-mm-long laser and the device also operates up to 332 K with an output power of 14 mW. Thermal resistance is also analyzed at threshold as a function of cavity length. reprint
 
366.  Ridge-Width Dependence on High-Temperature Continuous-Wave Quantum-Cascade Laser Operation
S. Slivken, J.S. Yu, A. Evans, L. Doris, J. David, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16 (3)-- March 1, 2004
We report continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers (λ=6 μm) up to a temperature of 313 K (40°C). The maximum CW optical output powers range from 212 mW at 288 K to 22 mW at 313 K and are achieved with threshold current densities of 2.21 and 3.11 kA/cm2, respectively, for a high-reflectivity-coated 12-μm-wide and 2-mm-long laser. At room temperature (298 K), the power output is 145 mW at 0.87 A, corresponding to a power conversion efficiency of 1.68%. The maximum CW operating temperature of double-channel ridge waveguide lasers mounted epilayer-up on copper heatsinks is analyzed in terms of the ridge width, which is varied between 12 and 40 μm. A clear trend of improved performance is observed as the ridge narrows. reprint
 
367.  High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (8)-- February 23, 2004
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetectors with a peak responsivity of 136 mA/W at 282 nm without bias. This corresponds to a high external quantum efficiency of 60%, which improves to a value as high as 72% under 5 V reverse bias. We attribute the high performance of these devices to the use of a very-high quality AlN and Al0.87Ga0.13N/AlN superlattice material and a highly conductive Si–In co-doped Al0.5Ga0.5N layer reprint
 
368.  High Power 280 nm AlGaN Light Emitting Diodes Based on an Asymmetric Single Quantum Well
K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (7)-- February 16, 2004
We demonstrate high-power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on sapphire with an emission wavelength of 280 nm using an asymmetric single-quantum-well active layer configuration on top of a high-quality AlGaN/AlN template layer. An output power of 1.8 mW at a pulsed current of 400 mA was achieved for a single 300 µm×300 µm diode. This device reached a high peak external quantum efficiency of 0.24% at 40 mA. An array of four diodes produced 6.5 mW at 880 mA of pulsed current. reprint
 
369.  Modeling of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method and Interface Engineering
Y. Wei and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 69 (8)-- February 15, 2004
We report the most recent work on the modeling of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using the empirical tight binding method in an sp3s* basis. After taking into account the antimony segregation in the InAs layers, the modeling accuracy of the band gap has been improved. Our calculations agree with our experimental results within a certain growth uncertainty. In addition, we introduce the concept of GaxIn1-x type interface engineering in order to reduce the lattice mismatch between the superlattice and the GaSb (001) substrate to improve the overall superlattice material quality. reprint
 
370.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Hood, J. Nah, and M. Razeghi
International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF), San Diego, CA; Thin Solid Films 447-448-- January 30, 2004
Recently, excellent infrared detectors have been demonstrated using Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials sensitive at wavelengths from 3 μm to greater than 32 μm. These results indicate that Type-II superlattice devices may challenge the preponderance of HgCdTe and other state-of-the-art infrared material systems. As such, surface passivation is becoming an increasingly important issue as progress is made towards the commercialization of Type-II devices and focal plane array applications. This work focuses on initial attempts at surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes using PECVD-grown thin layers of SiO2. Our results indicate that silicon dioxide coatings deposited at various temperatures improve photodetector resistivity by several times. Furthermore, reverse-bias dark current has been reduced significantly in passivated devices. reprint
 
371.  High Quantum Efficiency Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 434-- January 25, 2004
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind p-i-n photodetectors with a record peak responsivity of 150 mA/W at 280 nm, corresponding to a high external quantum efficiency of 68%, increasing to 74% under 5 volts reverse bias. Through optimization of the p-AlGaN layer, we were able to remove the out-of-band negative photoresponse originating from the Schottky-like p-type metal contact, and hence significantly improve the degree of solar-blindness reprint
 
372.  Growth of Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 400-- January 25, 2004
We demonstrate high power AlGaN based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with an emission wavelength of 280 nm using an asymmetric single quantum well active layer configuration on top of a high-quality AlGaN/AlN template layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). An output power of 1.8 mW at a pulsed current of 400 mA was achieved for a single 300 µm × 300 µm diode. This device reached a high peak external quantum efficiency of 0.24% at 40 mA. An array of four diodes produced 6.5 mW at 880 mA of pulsed current. reprint
 
373.  Modeling Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method: New Aspects
Y. Wei, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 301-- January 25, 2004
The recent advances in the experimental work on the Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices necessitate a modeling that can handle arbitrary layer thickness as well as different types of interfaces in order to guide the superlattice design. The empirical tight-binding method (ETBM) is a very good candidate since it builds up the Hamiltonian atom by atom. There has been a lot of research work on the modeling of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using the ETBM. However, different groups generate very different accuracy comparing with experimental results. We have recently identified two major aspects in the modeling: the antimony segregation and the interface effects. These two aspects turned out to be of crucial importance governing the superlattice properties, especially the bandgap. We build the superlattice Hamiltonian using antimony segregated atomic profile taking into account the interface. Our calculations agree with our experimental results within growth uncertainties. In addition we introduced the concept of GaxIn1-x type interface engineering, which will add another design freedom especially in the mid-wavelength infrared range (3~7 µm) in orderto reduce the lattice mismatch. reprint
 
374.  High Power, Room Temperature, Continuous-Wave Operation of Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by GasMBE
A. Evans, J. David, L. Doris, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 188-- January 25, 2004
Very high power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers are demonstrated in the mid-infrared (3 - 6 µm) wavelength range. λ~6 µm high-reflectivity coated QCLs are demonstrated producing over 370 mW continuous-wave power at room temperature with continuous-wave operation up to 333 K. Advanced heterostructure geometries, including the use of a thick electroplated gold, epilayer-side heat sink and a buried-ridge heterostructure are demonstrated to improve laser performance significantly when combined with narrow laser ridges. Recent significant improvements in CW operation are presented and include the development if narrow (9 µm-wide) ridges for high temperature CW operation. GasMBE growth of the strain-balanced λ~6 µm QCL heterostructure is discussed. X-ray diffraction measurements are presented and compared to computer simulations that indicate excellent layer and compositional uniformity of the structure. reprint
 
375.  High-temperature high-power continuous-wave operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, J. David, L. Doris, K. Mi, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (3)-- January 19, 2004
We report cw operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers (λ=6 µm) using a thick electroplated Au top contact layer and epilayer-up bonding on a copper heat sink up to a temperature of 333 K (60 °C). The high cw optical output powers of 446 mW at 293 K, 372 mW at 298 K, and 30 mW at 333 K are achieved with threshold current densities of 2.19, 2.35, and 4.29 kA/cm2 respectively, for a high-reflectivity-coated, 9-µm-wide and 3-mm-long laser reprint
 

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