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251.  InP-based quantum-dot infrared photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high temperature imaging
S. Tsao, H. Lim, H. Seo, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 936-941-- June 1, 2008
We report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor depositon. The detectivity was 6 x 1010cm·Hz1/2·W-1 at 150 K and a bias of 5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.0 micron and a quantum efficiency of 48%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature. A 320 x 256 middle wavelength infrared focal plane array operating at temperatures up to 200 K was also demonstrated. The focal plane array had 34 mA/W responsivity, 1.1% conversion efficiency, and noise equivalent temperature difference of 344 mK at 120 K operating temperature. reprint
 
252.  New frontiers in InP based quantum devices
Manijeh Razeghi
Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 2008. IPRM 2008. 20th International Conference on, pp.1,4, (2008)-- May 29, 2008
Recent research activities taking place at center for quantum devices (CQD) based on InP material system, especially the exploration and demonstration of the state-of-art high performance quantum cascade lasers (QCL), greatly facilitate the understanding of the underlining physical principles governing the device operation. Thanks to the endless effort putting into the semiconductor epitaxy technologies, including the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD), the world has seen a close approaching to the ultimate band gap engineering. Highly sophisticated man-made heterostructure, which incorporates hundreds of alternating layers of GaInAs/AlInAs with each layer thickness and composition specifically designed, can be created within a single growth. The material quality is evidenced by the atomically abrupt interfaces. The versatility of the band gap engineering is greatly enhanced by the strain-balanced technique, which allows for growing structures with continuously tunable conduction band offset with little defects. As a result, the room temperature continuous wave (CW) wall plug efficiency (WPE) and the maximum achievable output optical power from a single device have been constantly improving. Novel waveguide incorporating the photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) mechanism is also investigated with satisfactory preliminary results. reprint
 
253.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. reprint
 
254.  High Optical Response in Forward Biased (In,Ga)N-GaN Multiquantum-Well Diodes Under Barrier Illumination
J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, K. Minder, D. Silversmith and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 4, p. 346-353.-- April 1, 2008
The authors report on the current–voltage (I–V) characteristic under forward biases obtained in low leakage, small size p-(In,Ga)N–GaN-n multiquantum well diodes. Under barrier illumination, the devices present a high optical response with capabilities to detect optical powers in the pW range without further amplification. This response is attributed to the screening of the internal electric fields. Recombination times of a few seconds are found to be associated to this mechanism. Moreover, a step-like feature is found in the I– V characteristic before the diode turn-on voltage. Our model proposes tunneling current through the multi-quantum-well structure as responsible of this feature. Fast modulation of the tunneling effect under barrier illumination is used to evaluate the detection of low photon fluxes. reprint
 
255.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. reprint
 
256.  Recent advances in LWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 6940, Orlando, FL 2008, p. 694009-- March 17, 2008
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices,we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. reprint
 
257.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101105-1-- March 10, 2008
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers at an emitting wavelength of 4.6 µm, which are capable of room temperature, high power continuous wave (cw) operation. Buried ridge geometry with a width of 9.8 µm was utilized. A device with a 3 mm cavity length that was epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount exhibited a maximum output power of 1.3 W at room temperature in cw operation. The maximum output power at 80 K was measured to be 4 W, with a wall plug efficiency of 27%. reprint
 
258.  Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101120-1-- March 10, 2008
The performance of back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes with separate absorption and multiplication regions is presented. Devices with an active area of 225 µm2 show a maximum multiplication gain of 41,200. The calculation of the noise equivalent power yields a minimum value of 3.3×10−14 W·Hz−1/2 at a gain of 3000, increasing to 2.0×10−13 W·Hz−1/2 at a gain of 41,200. The broadening of the response edge has been analyzed as a function of bias. reprint
 
259.  MOCVD Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Using Au Droplets as Catalysts
V.E. Sandana, D.J. Rogers, F.H. Teherani, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, H.J. Drouhin, M.C. Clochard, V. Sallett, G. Garry and F. Fayoud
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices III, Vol. 6895, p. 68950Z-1-6.-- February 1, 2008
ZnO nanostructures were synthesised by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition growth on Si (100) and c-Al2O3 substrates coated with a 5nm thick layer of Au. The Au coated substrates were annealed in air prior to deposition of ZnO so as to promote formation of Au nanodroplets. The development of the nanodroplets was studied as a function of annealing duration and temperature. Under optimised conditions, a relatively homogeneous distribution of regular Au nanodroplets was obtained. Using the Au nanodroplets as a catalyst, MOCVD growth of ZnO nanostructures was studied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nanostructures with various forms including commonly observed structures such as nanorods, nanoneedles and nanotubes. Some novel nanostructures were also observed, however, which resembled twist pastries and bevelled-multifaceted table legs. reprint
 
260.  Type-II Superlattices and Quantum Cascade Lasers for MWIR and LWIR Free-Space Communications
A. Hood, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 690005-1-9.-- February 1, 2008
Free-space optical communications has recently been touted as a solution to the "last mile" bottleneck of high-speed data networks providing highly secure, short to long range, and high-bandwidth connections. However, commercial near infrared systems experience atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which can adversely affect a link's operating budget. By moving the operating wavelength into the mid- or long-wavelength infrared enhanced link uptimes and increased operating range can be achieved due to less susceptibility to atmospheric affects. The combination of room-temperature, continuous-wave, high-power quantum cascade lasers and high operating temperature type-II superlattice photodetectors offers the benefits of mid- and long-wavelength infrared systems as well as practical operating conditions for next generation free-space communications systems. reprint
 
261.  Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang, A. Evans, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000A-1-8.-- February 1, 2008
We demonstrate electrically pumped, room temperature, single mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting at ~ 4.75 µm. Ridge waveguides of 50 µm and 100 µm width were fabricated with both PCDFB and Fabry-Perot feedback mechanisms. The Fabry-Perot device has a broad emitting spectrum and a broad far-field character. The PCDFB devices have primarily a single spectral mode and a diffraction limited far field characteristic with a full angular width at half-maximum of 4.8 degrees and 2.4 degrees for the 50 µm and 100 µm ridge widths, respectively. reprint
 
262.  Overview of Quantum Cascade Laser Research at the Center for Quantum Devices
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000B-1-8.-- February 1, 2008
Over the past several years, our group has endeavored to develop high power quantum cascade lasers for a variety of remote and high sensitivity infrared applications. The systematic optimization of laser performance has allowed for demonstration of high power, continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature. In the past year alone, the efficiency and power of our short wavelength lasers (~4.8 µm) has doubled. In continuous wave at room temperature, we have now separately demonstrated ~10% wallplug efficiency and ~700 mW of output power. Up to now, we have been able to show that room temperature continuous wave operation with > 100 mW output power in the 3.8 < λ < 11.5 µm wavelength range is possible. reprint
 
263.  High performance focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterostructures
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000M-1-10.-- February 1, 2008
Recent progress in growth techniques, structure design and processing has lifted the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. A double heterostructure design, based on a low band gap (11 µm) active region and high band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts, reduced the sensitivity of the superlattice to surface effects. The heterodiodes with an 11 µm cutoff, passivated with SiO2, presented similar performances to unpassivated devices and a one order of magnitude increase of the resistivity of the sidewalls, even after flip-chip bonding and underfill. Thanks to this new design and to the inversion of the polarity of the devices, a high performance focal plane array with an 11 µm cutoff was demonstrated. The noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 26 mK and 19 mK for operating temperatures of 81 K and 67 K. At an integration time of 0.08 ms, the FPA presented a quantum efficiency superior to 50%. reprint
 
264.  III-Nitride photon counting avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000N-1-11.-- February 1, 2008
In order for solar and visible blind III-Nitride based photodetectors to effectively compete with the detective performance of PMT there is a need to develop photodetectors that take advantage of low noise avalanche gain. Furthermore, in certain applications, it is desirable to obtain UV photon counting performance. In this paper, we review the characteristics of III-nitride visible-blind avalanche photodetectors (APDs), and present the state-of-the-art results on photon counting based on the Geiger mode operation of GaN APDs. The devices are fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination in order to enhance hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance are analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated in smaller devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind APDs and Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and solutions to the major problems are described where available. Finally, future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. reprint
 
265.  Substrate removal for high quantum efficiency back side illuminated type-II InAs/GaSb photodetectors
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 23, p. 231106-- December 3, 2007
A substrate removal technique using an InAsSb etch stop layer improves by a factor of 2 the quantum efficiency of back side illuminated type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. After etching of the GaSb substrate with a CrO3 based solution, the quantum efficiency of the diodes presents Fabry-Pérot oscillations averaging at 56%. Due to the confinement of the infrared light inside the devices, the quantum efficiency for certain devices reaches 75% at 8.5 µm. The implementation of this new technique to a focal plane array resulted in a decrease of the integration time from 0.23 to 0.08 ms. reprint
 
266.  Advances in APDs for UV astronomy
Melville P. Ulmer; Ryan M. McClintock; Jose L. Pau; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6686, UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV, 668605 (September 13, 2007)-- November 13, 2007
We report the most recent work of our group of the development of avalanche photo diodes based on (Al)GaN. The goal of this group is to achieve single photon counting. In this paper we first give the scientific motivation for making such a device in the context of UV astronomy and then describe current work and plans for future development. The development includes improving the sensitivity to be able to carry out single photon detection and the fabrication of arrays. reprint
 
267.  Research activity on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice for LWIR detection and imaging at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi and B.M. Nguyen
American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings Vol. 949, Issue 1, p. 35-42, 6th International Workshop on Information Optics (WIO'07), Reykjavik, Iceland, June 25-30, 2007-- October 24, 2007
Type-II superlattice photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method was initiated and developed for Type-II superlattice. A new Type-II structure, called M-structure, was introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design and growth condition were optimized to improve the performance. As a result, a 54% quantum efficiency, a 12 Ω·cm2 R0A were achieved for 11 µm cut-off photodetector at 77 K. Effective surface passivation techniques for MWIR and LWIR Type-II superlattice were developed. FPA imaging at MWIR and LWIR were demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to room temperature and 211 K respectively. The noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 50 mK for MWIR FPA at 121 K and 26 mK for LWIR FPA at 81 K. reprint
 
268.  Thermal imaging based on high-performance InAs/InP quantum-dot infrared photodetector operating at high temperature
M. Razeghi; H. Lim; S. Tsao; H. Seo; W. Zhang
Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS.15-16:[4382251] (2007).-- October 21, 2007
We report a room temperature operating and high-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector on InP substrate and thermal imaging of 320times256 focal plane array based on this device up to 200 K. reprint
 
269.  Dark current suppression in Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice long wavelength infrared photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 16, p. 163511-1-- October 15, 2007
We presented an alternative design of Type-II superlattice photodiodes with the insertion of a mid-wavelength infrared M-structure AlSb/GaSb/InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice for the reduction of dark current. The M-structure superlattice has a larger carrier effective mass and a greater band discontinuity as compared to the standard Type-II superlattices at the valence band. It acts as an effective medium that weakens the diffusion and tunneling transport at the depletion region. As a result, a 10.5 µm cutoff Type-II superlattice with 500 nm M-superlattice barrier exhibited a R0A of 200 cm2 at 77 K, approximately one order of magnitude higher than the design without the barrier. The quantum efficiency of such structures does not show dependence on either barrier thickness or applied bias. reprint
 
270.  Beryllium compensation doping of InAs/GaSb infrared superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, M. Razeghi and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 143507-1-- October 1, 2007
Capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with dark current measurements on InAs/GaSb long wavelength infrared superlattice photodiodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates are reported. By varying the beryllium concentration in the InAs layer of the active region, the residually n-type superlattice is compensated to become slightly p-type. By adjusting the doping, the dominant dark current mechanism can be varied from diffusion to Zener tunneling. Minimization of the dark current leads to an increase of the zero-bias differential resistance from less than 4 to 32 cm2 for a 100% cutoff of 12.05 µm reprint
 
271.  Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 141123-1-- October 1, 2007
We demonstrate electrically pumped, room temperature, single mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting at ~4.75 µm. Ridge waveguides of 100 µm width were fabricated with both PCDFB and Fabry-Pérot feedback mechanisms. The Fabry-Pérot device has a broad emitting spectrum and a double lobed far-field character. The PCDFB device, as expected, has primarily a single spectral mode and a diffraction limited far field characteristic with a full angular width at half maximum of 2.4°. This accomplishment represents the first step in power scaling of single mode, midinfrared laser diodes operating at room temperature. reprint
 
272.  ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process
J.M. Jung, C.R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi and W.G. Jung
Journal of Alloys and Compounds-- September 15, 2007
The 3D type, flower-like ZnO nanostructures from particle to flower-like or chestnut bur are fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layer substrate through the simple-route hydrothermal process. Structural characterization was made for the ZnO 3D nanostructures synthesized in different pH ranging from 9.5 to 11.0. The growth model was proposed and discussed regarding the fabrication mechanism and morphology of ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure. The flower-like ZnO is composed of many thin single crystals ZnO nanorods. Bigger and thicker ZnO structure is fabricated with the increase of pH in solution. The enhanced UV emission in the PL measurement and the spectra in the Raman spectroscopy for ZnO–GaN heterojunction material were discussed. reprint
 
273.  Polarity inversion of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and V. Nathan
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 10, p. 103503-1-- September 3, 2007
The authors demonstrated the realization of p-on-n Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. Growth condition for high quality InAsSb layer lattice matched to GaSb was established for the use of an effective n-contact layer. By studying the effect of various GaSb capping layer thicknesses on the optical and electrical performances, an optimized thickness of 160 nm was determined. In comparison to as grown n-on-p superlattice photodiodes, this inverted design of p on n has shown similar quality. Finally, by analyzing Fabry-Perot interference fringes in the front side illuminated spectral measurement, the refractive index of the superlattice was determined to be approximately 3.8. reprint
 
274.  Passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb double heterostructure
P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 9, p. 091112-1-- August 27, 2007
Focal plane array fabrication requires a well passivated material that is resistant to aggressive processes. The authors report on the ability of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes to be more resilient than homojunctions diodes in improving sidewall resistivity through the use of various passivation techniques. The heterostructure consisting of two wide band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts and a low band gap active region (11 µm) exhibits an R0A averaging of 13·Ω cm2. The devices passivated with SiO2, Na2S and SiO2 or polyimide did not degrade compared to the unpassivated sample and the resistivity of the sidewalls increased to 47 kΩ·cm. reprint
 
275.  Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high continuous-wave wall plug efficiency
A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 071101-1-- August 13, 2007
The authors report on the development of ~4.7 µm strain-balanced InP-based quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency and room temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of narrow-ridge buried heterostructure waveguides and thermally optimized packaging is presented. Over 9.3% wall plug efficiency is reported at room temperature from a single device producing over 0.675 W of continuous-wave output power. Wall plug efficiencies greater than 18% are also reported for devices at a temperature of 150 K, with continuous-wave output powers of more than 1 W. reprint
 

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