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226.  Fabrication of nanostructured heterojunction LEDs using self-forming Moth-Eye Arrays of n-ZnO Nanocones Grown on p-Si (111) by PLD
D.J. Rogers; V.E. Sandana; F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; H.-J. Drouhin
Proc. SPIE 7217, Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices IV, 721708 (February 17, 2009)-- February 17, 2009
ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (111) substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. The impact of growth temperature (Ts) and Ar pressure (PAr) on the morphology, crystal structure and photoluminescence was investigated. Various types of ZnO nanostructures were obtained. Self-forming arrays of vertically-aligned nanorods and nanocones with strong c-axis crystallographic orientation and good optical response were obtained at higher Ts. The nanocone, or "moth-eye" type structures were selected for LED development because of their graded effective refractive index, which could facilitate improved light extraction at the LED/air interface. Such moth-eye arrays were grown on p-type Si (111) substrates to form heteroj unction LEDs with the n-type ZnO nanocones acting as an active component of the device. These nanostructured LEDs gave rectifying I/V characteristics with a threshold voltage of about 6V and a blueish-white electroluminescence, which was clearly visible to the naked eye. reprint
227.  Surface leakage reduction in narrow band gap type-II antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes
E.K. Huang, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 5, p. 053506-1-- February 2, 2009
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching rendered structural and electrical enhancements on type-II antimonide-based superlattices compared to those delineated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) with a regenerative chemical wet etch. The surface resistivity of 4×105 Ω·cm is evidence of the surface quality achieved with ICP etching and polyimide passivation. By only modifying the etching technique in the fabrication steps, the ICP-etched devices with a 9.3 µm cutoff wavelength revealed a diffusion-limited dark current density of 4.1×10−6 A/cm2 and a maximum differential resistance at zero bias in excess of 5300 Ω·cm2 at 77 K, which are an order of magnitude better in comparison to the ECR-etched devices. reprint
228.  Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
H.K. Lee, K.S. Chung, J.S. Yu and M. Razeghi
Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 206, p. 356-362-- February 1, 2009
We have theoretically investigated and compared the thermal characteristics of 10.6 μm InGaAs/InAlAs/InP buried heterostructure (BH) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with different heat-sinking configurations by a steady-state heat-transfer analysis. The heat-source densities were obtained from laser threshold power densities measured experimentally under room-temperature continuous-wave mode. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat-dissipation model was used to calculate the temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance (Gth) inside the device. For good thermal characteristics, the QCLs in the long-wavelength infrared region require the relatively narrow BH structure in combination with epilayer-down bonding due to thick active core/cladding layers and high insulator losses. The single-ridge BH structure results in slightly higher thermal conductance by 2-4% than the double-channel (DC) ridge BH structure. For W = 12 m with 5 μm thick electroplated Au, the single-ridge BH laser with epilayer-down bonding exhibited the highest Gth value of 201.9 W/K cm2, i.e. increased by nearly 36% with respect to the epilayer-up bonded DC ridge waveguide laser. This value is improved by 50% and 62% with respect to the single-ridge BH laser and DC ridge waveguide laser with W = 20 μm in the epilayer-up bonding scheme, respectively. reprint
229.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from M-structure InAs-GaSb superlattices
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 45, No. 2, p. 157-162.-- February 1, 2009
The recent introduction of a M-structure design improved both the dark current and R0A performances of Type-II InAs-GaSb photodiodes. A focal plane array fabricated with this design was characterized at 81 K. The dark current of individual pixels was measured between 1.1 and 1.6 nA, 7 times lower than previous superlattice FPAs. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The quantum efficiency of detectors without antireflective coating was 74%. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK, limited only by the performance of the testing system and the read out integrated circuit. Background limited performances were demonstrated at 81 K for a 300 K background. reprint
230.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. reprint
231.  Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, S.A. Pour, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0O-- January 26, 2009
We demonstrate optimization of continuous wave (cw) operation of 4.6 µm quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). A 19.7 µm by 5 mm, double channel processed device exhibits 33% cw WPE at 80 K. Room temperature cw WPE as high as 12.5% is obtained from a 10.6 µm by 4.8 mm device, epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount. With the semi-insulating regrowth in a buried ridge geometry, 15% WPE is obtained with 2.8 W total output power in cw mode at room temperature. This accomplishment is achieved by systematically decreasing the parasitic voltage drop, reducing the waveguide loss and improving the thermal management. reprint
232.  Pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN/GaN superlattices for intersubband transitions
C. Bayram, B. Fain, N. Pere-Laperne, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-12-- January 26, 2009
A pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, specifically designed for high quality AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) is introduced. Optical quality and precise controllability over layer thicknesses are investigated. Indium is shown to improve interface and surface quality. An AlN/GaN SL designed for intersubband transition at a telecommunication wavelength of ~1.5 µm, is grown, and processed for intersubband (ISB) absorption measurements. Room temperature measurements show intersubband absorption centered at 1.49 µm. Minimal (n-type) silicon doping of the well is shown to be crucial for good ISB absorption characteristics. The potential to extend this technology into the far infrared and even the terahertz (THz) region is also discussed. reprint
233.  GaN-based nanostructured photodetectors
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, P. Giedraitis, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-14-- January 26, 2009
The use of nanostructures in semiconductor technology leads to the observation of new phenomena in device physics. Further quantum and non-quantum effects arise from the reduction of device dimension to a nanometric scale. In nanopillars, quantum confinement regime is only revealed when the lateral dimensions are lower than 50 nm. For larger mesoscopic systems, quantum effects are not observable but surface states play a key role and make the properties of nanostructured devices depart from those found in conventional devices. In this work, we present the fabrication of GaN nanostructured metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) and p-i-n photodiodes (PIN PDs) by e-beam lithography, as well as the investigation of their photoelectrical properties at room temperature. The nanopillar height and diameter are about 520 nm and 200 nm, respectively. MSMs present dark currents densities of 0.4 A/cm2 at ±100 V. A strong increase of the optical response with bias is observed, resulting in responsivities higher than 1 A/W. The relationship between this gain mechanism and surface states is discussed. PIN PDs yield peak responsivities (Rpeak) of 35 mA/W at -4 V and show an abnormal increase of the response (Rpeak > 100 A/W) under forward biases. reprint
234.  The importance of band alignment in VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb heterodiodes containing the M-structure barrier
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manukar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-15-- January 26, 2009
The Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photon detector is an attractive alternative to HgCdTe photodiodes and QWIPS. The use of p+ - pi - M - N+ heterodiode allows for greater flexibility in enhancing the device performance. The utilization of the Empirical Tight Binding method gives the band structure of the InAs/GaSb superlattice and the new M- structure (InAs/GaSb/AlSb/GaSb) superlattice allowing for the band alignment between the binary superlattice and the M- superlattice to be determined and see how it affects the optical performance. Then by modifying the doping level of the M- superlattice an optimal level can be determined to achieve high detectivity, by simultaneously improving both photo-response and reducing dark current for devices with cutoffs greater than 14.5 µm. reprint
235.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from M-structure InAs/GaSb superlattices
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0W-- January 26, 2009
Recent advances in the design and fabrication of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices allowed the realization of high performance long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays. The introduction of an Mstructure barrier between the n-type contact and the pi active region reduced the tunneling component of the dark current. The M-structure design improved the noise performance and the dynamic range of FPAs at low temperatures. At 81K, the NEDT of the focal plane array was 23 mK. The noise of the camera was dominated by the noise component due to the read out integrated circuit. At 8 µm, the median quantum efficiency of the detectors was 71%, mainly limited by the reflections on the backside of the array. reprint
236.  Inductively coupled plasma etching and processing techniques for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices infrared detectors toward high fill factor focal plane arrays
E.K. Huang, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0Z-- January 26, 2009
A challenge for Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors is to achieve high fill factor, high aspect ratio etching for third generation focal plane arrays (FPAs). Initially, we compare the morphological and electrical results of single element T2SL photodiodes after BCl3/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) dry etching. Using a Si3N4 hard mask, ICP-etched structures exemplify greater sidewall verticality and smoothness, which are essential toward the realization of high fill factor FPAs. ICP-etched single element devices with SiO2 passivation that are 9.3 µm in cutoff wavelength achieved vertical sidewalls of 7.7 µm in depth with a resistance area product at zero bias of greater than 1,000 Ω·cm2 and maximum differential resistance in excess of 10,000 Ω·cm2 at 77 K. By only modifying the etching technique in the fabrication steps, the ICP-etched photodiodes showed an order of magnitude decrease in their dark current densities in comparison to the ECR-etched devices. Finally, high aspect ratio etching is demonstrated on mutli-element arrays with 3 µm-wide trenches that are 11 µm deep. reprint
237.  Hybrid green LEDs based on n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN
C. Bayram, F. Hosseini Teherani, D.J. Rogers and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7217-0P-- January 26, 2009
Hybrid green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprised of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN were grown on semi-insulating AlN/sapphire using pulsed laser deposition for the n-ZnO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition for the other layers. X-ray diffraction revealed that high crystallographic quality was preserved after the n- ZnO growth. LEDs showed a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V and a room temperature electroluminescence (EL) centered at 510 nm. A blueshift and narrowing of the EL peak with increasing current was attributed to bandgap renormalization. The results indicate that hybrid LED structures could hold the prospect for the development of green LEDs with superior performance. reprint
238.  High-power high-wall plug efficiency mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers based on InP/GaInAs/InAlAs material system
M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7230-11-- January 26, 2009
The latest result at the Center for Quantum Devices about high power, high wall plug efficiency, mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. At an emitting wavelength of 4.8 µm, an output power of 3.4 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16.5% are demonstrated from a single device operating in continuous wave at room temperature. At a longer wavelength of 10.2 µm, average power as high as 2.2 W is demonstrated at room temperature. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is used to grow the QCL core in an InP/GaInAs/InAlAs material system. Fe-doped semiinsulating regrowth is performed by metal organic chemical vapor deposition for efficient heat removal and low waveguide loss. This accomplishment marks an important milestone in the development of high performance midinfrared QCLs. reprint
239.  Quantum dot in a well infrared photodetectors for high operating temperature focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, T. Yamanaka, S. Abdollahi Pour, I-K Park, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7234-0V-- January 25, 2009
InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs quantum wells with InAlAs barriers on InP substrate grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are utilized for high operating temperature detectors and focal plane arrays in the middle wavelength infrared. This dot-well combination is unique because the small band offset between the InAs dots and the InGaAs well leads to weak dot confinement of carriers. As a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in the more common dot systems that have stronger confinement. Here, we present energy level modeling of our QD-QW system and apply these results to interpret the detector behavior. Detectors showed high performance with D* over 1010 cm·Hz1/2W-1 at 150 K operating temperature and with high quantum efficiency over 50%. Focal plane arrays have been demonstrated operating at high temperature due to the low dark current observed in these devices. reprint
240.  GaN nanostructured p-i-n photodiodes
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, P. Giedraitis, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 22, p. 221104-1-- December 1, 2008
We report the fabrication of nanostructured p-i-n photodiodes based on GaN. Each device comprises arrays of ~200 nm diameter and 520 nm tall nanopillars on a 1 µm period, fabricated by e-beam lithography. Strong rectifying behavior was obtained with an average reverse current per nanopillar of 5 fA at −5 V. In contrast to conventional GaN diodes, nanostructured devices reproducibly show ideality factors lower than 2. Enhanced tunneling through sidewall surface states is proposed as the responsible mechanism for this behavior. Under backillumination, the quantum efficiency in nanostructured devices is partly limited by the collection efficiency of holes into the nanopillars. reprint
241.  Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, Vol. 95, p. 307-314-- November 29, 2008
Growths of blue and green multi-quantum wells (MQWs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are realized on lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN, and compared with identical structures grown on conventional GaN. Atomic force microscopy is used to confirm the significant reduction of dislocations in the wing region of our LEO samples before active-region growth. Differences between surface morphologies of blue and green MQWs are analyzed. These MQWs are integrated into LEDs. All devices show a blue shift in the electroluminescence (EL) peak and narrowing in EL spectra with increasing injection current, both characteristics attributed to the band-gap renormalization. Green LEDs show a larger EL peak shift and a broader EL spectrum due to larger piezoelectric field and more indium segregation in the MQWs, respectively. Blue LEDs on LEO GaN show a higher performance than those on conventional GaN; however, no performance difference is observed for green LEDs on LEO GaN versus conventional GaN. The performance of the green LEDs is shown to be primarily limited by the active layer growth quality. reprint
242.  High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M.P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 21, p. 211107-1-- November 24, 2008
Back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) composed of heterojunctions of either p-GaN/i-GaN/n-AlGaN or p-GaN/i-GaN/n-GaN/n-AlGaN were fabricated on AlN templates. At low voltage, an external quantum efficiency of 57% at 352 nm with a bandpass response was achieved by using AlGaN in the n-layer. Dependency of gain and leakage current on mesa area for these heterojunction APDs were studied. Back-illumination via different wavelength sources was used to demonstrate the advantages of hole-initiated multiplication in GaN APDs. reprint
243.  High-performance, continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 85° C at λ ~ 8.8 μm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vo. 93, No. 2, p. 405-408-- November 1, 2008
High-temperature, high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers with 35 active/injector stages at λ∼8.85 μm above room temperature is achieved without using a buried heterostructure. At this long wavelength, the use of a wider ridge waveguide in an epilayer-down bonding scheme leads to a superior performance of the laser. For a high-reflectivity-coated 21 μm×3 mm laser, the output power of 237 mW and the threshold current density of 1.44 kA·cm-2 at 298 K under CW mode are obtained with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.7%. Further improvements were observed by using a 4-mm-long cavity. The device exhibits 294 mW of output power at 298 K and it operates at a high temperature, even up to 358 K (85°C). The full widths at half-maximum of the laser beam in CW operation for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 25°and 63°, respectively. reprint
244.  Band edge tunability of M-structure for heterojunction design in Sb based Type-II superlattice photodiodes
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 16, p. 163502-1-- October 20, 2008
We present theoretically and experimentally the effect of the band discontinuity in Type-II misaligned InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes. Calculations using the empirical tight binding method have shown the great flexibility in tuning the energy levels of the band edge in M-structure superlattice as compared to the standard InAs/GaSb superlattice. Through the experimental realization of several p-pi-M-n photodiodes, the band discontinuity alignment between the standard binary-binary superlattice and the M-structured superlattice was investigated via optical characterization. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurement confirms the capability of controlling the M-structure band edges and suggests a way to exploit this advantage for the realization of heterostructures containing an M-structured superlattice without bias dependent operation. reprint
245.  Delta-doping optimization for high qualityp-type GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, No. 8-- October 15, 2008
Delta-doping is studied in order to achieve high quality p-type GaN. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Hall measurements are performed on the samples to optimize the delta-doping characteristics. The effect of annealing on the electrical, optical, and structural quality is also investigated for different delta-doping parameters. Optimized pulsing conditions result in layers with hole concentrations near 1018 cm−3 and superior crystal quality compared to conventional p-GaN. This material improvement is achieved thanks to the reduction in the Mg activation energy and self-compensation effects in delta-doped p-GaN. reprint
246.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: the quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, Vol. 18, No. 14-- October 6, 2008reprint
247.  Background limited long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes operating at 110 K
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 12, p. 123502-1-- September 22, 2008
The utilization of the P+-pi-M-N+ photodiode architecture in conjunction with a thick active region can significantly improve long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. By studying the effect of the depletion region placement on the quantum efficiency in a thick structure, we achieved a topside illuminated quantum efficiency of 50% for an N-on-P diode at 8.0 µm at 77 K. Both the double heterostructure design and the application of polyimide passivation greatly reduce the surface leakage, giving an R0A of 416 Ω·cm2 for a 1% cutoff wavelength of 10.52 µm, a Shot–Johnson detectivity of 8.1×1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K, and a background limited operating temperature of 110 K with 300 K background. reprint
248.  Quantum Devices Based on Modern Band Structure Engineering and Epitaxial Technology
M. Razeghi
Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 22, No. 24, p. 2343-2371-- September 20, 2008
Modern band structure engineering is based both on the important discoveries of the past century and modern epitaxial technology. The general goal is to control the behavior of charge carriers on an atomic scale, which affects how they interact with each other and their environment. Starting from the basic semiconductor heterostructure, band structure engineering has evolved into a powerful discipline, employing lower dimensionality to demonstrate new material properties. Several modern technologies under development are used as examples of how this discipline is enabling new types of devices and new functionality in areas with immediate application.
249.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: The quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, Vol. 78, No. 11-- September 15, 2008
We consider the problem of charge transport and recombination in semiconductor quantum well infrared photodetectors and quantum-dot-in-a-well infrared detectors. The photoexcited carrier relaxation is calculated using rigorous random-walk and diffusion methods, which take into account the finiteness of recombination cross sections, and if necessary the memory of the carrier generation point. In the present application, bias fields are high and it is sufficient to consider the drift limited regime. The photoconductive gain is discussed in a quantum-mechanical language, making it more transparent, especially with regard to understanding the bias and temperature dependence. Comparing experiment and theory, we can estimate the respective recombination times. The method developed here applies equally well to nanopillar structures, provided account is taken of changes in mobility and trapping. Finally, we also derive formulas for the photocurrent time decays, which in a clean system at high bias are sums of two exponentials. reprint
250.  Very high performance LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708205-- September 3, 2008
LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have for long time suffered from a high dark current level and a low dynamic resistance which hampers the its emergence to the infrared detection and imaging industry. However, with the use of M-structure superlattice, a new Type-II binary InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice design, as an effective blocking barrier, the dark current in type-II superlattice diode has been significantly reduced. We have obtained comparable differential resistance product to the MCT technology at the cut-off wavelength of 10 and 14μm. Also, this new design is compatible with the optical optimization scheme, leading to high quantum efficiency, high special detectivity devices for photon detectors and focal plane arrays. reprint

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