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1.  Novel Method for Reclaim/Reuse of Bulk GaN Substrates using Sacrifical ZnO Release Layers
A. Rajan, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, P. L. Voss, K. Pantzas, T. Moudakir, A. Ougazzaden, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V. E. Sandana, P. Bove, K. Prior, R. McClintock & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8987, Oxide-based Materials and Devices V, 898719-- April 2, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-standing (0002)-oriented GaN substrates (f = 2”) were coated with 200 nm of ZnO and used as templates for the growth of GaN thin films. SEM and AFM revealed that such GaN layers had a relatively homogenous surface morphology with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of less than 4nm. XRD studies revealed strained ZnO growth on the GaN substrate and the reproduction of the substrate rocking curve for the GaN overlayers after only a hundred nm of growth, thus indicating that the GaN films had superior crystallographic quality compared to those grown on sapphire or ZnO/sapphire substrates. Quarter-wafer areas of GaN were removed from the GaN substrate (by selective chemical etching away of the ZnO interlayer). The expensive GaN substrates were then reclaimed/reused (without the need for polishing) for a second cycle of ZnO and GaN growth, which gave similar XRD, SEM, CL and AFM results to the first cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Evaluating the size-dependent quantum efficiency loss in a SiO2-Y2O3 hybrid gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen , A. M. Hoang , and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 104 , 103509 (2014)-- March 14, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Growing Y2O3 on 20 nm SiO2 to passivate a 11 μm 50% cut-off wavelength long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array reduces its saturated gate bias (VGsat ) to −7 V. Size-dependent quantum efficiency (QE) losses are evaluated from 400 μm to 57 μm size gated photodiode. Evolution of QE of the 57 μm gated photodiode with gate bias and diode operation bias reveals different surface recombination mechanisms. At 77 K and VG,sat , the 57 μm gated photodiode exhibits QE enhancement from 53% to 63%, and it has 1.2 × 10−5 A/cm² dark current density at −200 mV, and a specific detectivity of 2.3 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling in long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb superlattice
F. Callewaert, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 104, 053508 (2014)-- February 6, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetector based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices is demonstrated. At 77 K, a dark current of 3 × 10−5 A/cm² and a differential resistance-area of 3 700 Ω·cm² are achieved at the turn-on bias, with a 50%-cutoff of 10.0 μm and a specific detectivity of 6.2 × 1011 Jones. The dark current is fitted as a function of bias and temperature using a model combining generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling. Good agreement was observed between the theory and the experimental dark current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Investigation of the factors influencing nanostructure array growth by PLD towards reproducible wafer-scale growth
Vinod E. Sandana; David. J. Rogers; Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Philippe Bove; Manijeh Razeghi
physica status solidi (a) Applications and Materials Science. Volume 211, Issue 2, pages 449–454, (February 2014)-- January 14, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of catalyst-free ZnO nanostructure arrays on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was investigated. Without an underlayer, randomly oriented, micron-scale structures were obtained. Introduction of a c-axis oriented ZnO underlayer resulted in denser arrays of vertically oriented nanostructures with either tapering, vertical-walled or broadening forms, depending on background Ar pressure. Nanostructure pitch seemed to be determined by underlayer grain size while nanostructure widths could be narrowed from ∼100–500 to ∼10–50 nm by a 50 °C increase in growth temperature. A dimpled underlayer topography correlated with the moth-eye type arrays while a more granular surface was linked to vertically walled nanocolumns. Between-wafer reproducibility was demonstrated for both moth-eye and vertical nanocolumn arrays. Broadening nanostructures proved difficult to replicate, however. Full 2 inch wafer coverage was obtained by rastering the target with the laser beam. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231110 (2013)-- December 6, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
In this report, the sampled grating distributed feedback laser architecture is modified with digital concatenated gratings to partially compensate for the wavelength dependence of optical gain in a standard high efficiency quantum cascade laser core. This allows equalization of laser threshold over a wide wavelength range and demonstration of wide electrical tuning. With only two control currents, a full tuning range of 500 nm (236 cm−1) has been demonstrated. Emission is single mode, with a side mode suppression of >20 dB. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y2O3 passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223501 (2013)-- November 25, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Y2O3 was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 μm, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO2 passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100 × 100 μm size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77 K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at −300 mV of 2.5 × 10−5 A/cm² and 1.3 × 104 Ω·cm², respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Room temperature compact THz sources based on quantum cascade laser technology
M. Razeghi; Q.Y. Lu; N. Bandyopadhyay; S. Slivken; Y. Bai
Proc. SPIE 8846, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications IV, 884602 (September 24, 2013)-- November 24, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the high performance THz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Room temperature single-mode operation in a wide THz spectral range of 1-4.6 THz is demonstrated from our Čerenkov phase-matched THz sources with dual-period DFB gratings. High THz power up to 215 μW at 3.5 THz is demonstrated via epi-down mounting of our THz device. The rapid development renders this type of THz sources promising local oscillators for many astronomical and medical applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
9.  AlxGa1-xN-based back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors with external quantum efficiency of 89%
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191108 (2013)-- November 5, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on high performance AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector (PD) array grown on sapphire substrate. First, high quality, crack-free AlN template layer is grown via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Then, we systematically optimized the device design and material doping through the growth and processing of multiple devices. After optimization, uniform and solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 275 nm, 729 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼80% and ∼176 mA/W, respectively, increasing to 89% under 5 V of reverse bias. Taking the reflection loses into consideration, the internal quantum efficiency of these optimized PD can be estimated to be as high as ∼98%. The visible rejection ratio measured to be more than six orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density: <2 × 10−9 A/cm², at 10 V of reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
10.  Recent advances in mid infrared (3-5 μm) quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi; Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay; Yanbo Bai; Quanyong Lu; Steven Slivken
Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1872-1884 (2013)-- November 2, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important source of electromagnetic radiation in mid infrared region. Recent research in mid-IR QCLs has resulted in record high wallplug efficiency (WPE), high continuous wave (CW) output power, single mode operation and wide tunability. CW output power of 5.1 W with 21% WPE has been achieved at room temperature (RT). A record high WPE of 53% at 40K has been demonstrated. Operation wavelength of QCL in CW at RT has been extended to as short as 3μm. Very high peak power of 190 W has been obtained from a broad area QCL of ridge width 400μm. 2.4W RT, CW power output has been achieved from a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. Wide tuning based on dual section sample grating DFB QCLs has resulted in individual tuning of 50cm-1 and 24 dB side mode suppression ratio with continuous wave power greater than 100 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
11.  AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si substrate
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181113 (2013)-- October 30, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) grown on Si(111) substrate. First, Si(111) substrate is patterned, and then metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is implemented for a fully-coalesced ∼8.5 μm AlN template layer via a pulsed atomic layer epitaxial growth technique. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on the high quality AlN template layer. After processing and implementation of Si(111) substrate removal, the optical and electrical characteristic of PDs are studied. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 290 nm, 625 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼7% and 18.3 mA/W, respectively, with a UV and visible rejection ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density below 1.6 × 10−8 A/cm² at 10 V reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
12.  SOLID-STATE DEEP UV EMITTERS/DETECTORS: Zinc oxide moves further into the ultraviolet
David J. Rogers; Philippe Bove; Eric V. Sandana; Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Ryan McClintock; Manijeh Razeghi
Laser Focus World. 2013;49(10):33-36.-- October 10, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Latest advancements in the alloying of zinc oxide (ZnO) with magnesium (Mg) can offer an alternative to (Al) GaN-based emitters/detectors in the deep UV with reduced lattice and efficiency issues. The emerging potential of ZnO for UV emitter and detector applications is the result of a long, concerted, and fruitful R&D effort that has led to more than 7000 publications in 2012. ZnO is considered to be a potentially superior material for use in LEDs and laser diodes due to its larger exciton binding energy, as compared with 21 meV for GaN. Wet etching is also possible for ZnO with nearly all dilute acids and alkalis, while GaN requires hydrofluoric (HF) acid or plasma etching. High-quality ZnO films can be grown more readily on mismatched substrates and bulk ZnO substrates have better availability than their GaN equivalents.
 
13.  Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of antimonide infrared lasers and detectors
Chuanle Zhou, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi, and M. Grayson
Optical Materials Express. 2013;3(10):1632-1640.-- October 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
The in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the cladding layers and active quantum wells of interband cascade lasers and type-II superlattice infrared detector are measured by the 2-wire 3ω method. The layers investigated include InAs/AlSb superlattice cladding layers, InAs/GaInSb/InAs/AlSb W-active quantum wells, an InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber, an InAs/GaSb/AlSb M-structure, and an AlAsSb digital alloy. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the InAs/AlSb superlattice is 4-5 times higher than the cross-plane value. The isotropic thermal conductivity of the AlAsSb digital alloy matches a theoretical expectation, but it is one order of magnitude lower than the only previously-reported experimental value. [reprint (PDF)]
 
14.  Growth of “moth-eye” ZnO nanostructures on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and steel substrates by pulsed laser deposition
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani, Philippe Bove, Michael Molinari, Michel Troyon, Alain Largeteau, Gérard Demazeau, Colin Scott, Gaelle Orsal, Henri-Jean Drouhin, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi C., 1-5 (2013)-- August 6, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, arrays of black-body-like ZnO moth-eye nanostructures were grown on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and high manganese austenitic steel substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nanostructures to be well-crystallised wurtzite ZnO with strong preferential c-axis crystallographic orientation along the growth direction for all the substrates. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies revealed emission characteristic of the ZnO near band edge for all substrates. Such moth-eye nanostructures have a graded effective refractive index and exhibit black-body characteristics. Coatings with these features may offer improvements in photovoltaic and LED performance. Moreover, since ZnO nanostructures can be grown readily on a wide range of substrates it is suggested that such an approach could facilitate growth of GaN-based devices on mismatched and/or technologically important substrates, which may have been inaccessible till present. [reprint (PDF)]
 
15.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. [reprint (PDF)]
 
16.  Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting
Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011101 (2013)-- July 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report room temperature terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser sources with high power based on difference frequency generation. The device is Čerenkov phase matched and spectrally purified with an integrated dual-period distributed-feedback grating. Symmetric current injection and epilayer-down mounting of the device onto a patterned submount are used to improve the electrical uniformity and heat removal, respectively. The epilayer-down mounting also allows for THz anti-reflective coating to enhance the THz outcoupling efficiency. Single mode emission at 3.5 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 30 dB and 215  μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
17.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
18.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
19.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
20.  Sensitive detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW 4.61 μm dfb-QCL based QEPAS sensor
Yufei Ma; Rafał Lewicki; Manijeh Razeghi; Xin Yu; Frank K. Tittel
CLEO: Science and Innovations, CLEO_SI 2013. 2013:JW2A.80-- June 9, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
A high power CW DFB-QCL based CO and N2O QEPAS sensor demonstrating the MDL of 1.5 ppbv and 23 ppbv, respectively was developed. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels were performed.
 
21.  Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111)
Chu-Young Cho, Yinjun Zhang, Erdem Cicek, Benjamin Rahnema, Yanbo Bai, Ryan McClintock, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 211110 (2013)-- May 31, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the development of surface plasmon (SP) enhanced AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon (111) substrates. In order to generate SP-coupling with the radiating dipoles in MQWs, an aluminum layer is selectively deposited in holes etched in the top p-AlGaN to p-GaN layers. After flip-chip bonding and substrate removal, an optical output power of ∼1.2 mW is achieved at an emission wavelength of 346 nm; the output power of these UV LEDs with Al layer is increased by 45% compared to that of conventional UV LEDs without Al layer. This enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate and improved internal quantum efficiency via resonance coupling between excitons in MQWs and SPs in the aluminum layer. [reprint (PDF)]
 
22.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Téherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 
23.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
24.  Graphene versus oxides for transparent electrode applications
Sandana, V. E.; Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Bove, P.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862603 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to their combination of good electrical conductivity and optical transparency, Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are the most common choice as transparent electrodes for optoelectronics applications. In particular, devices, such as LEDs, LCDs, touch screens and solar cells typically employ indium tin oxide. However, indium has some significant drawbacks, including toxicity issues (which are hampering manufacturing), an increasing rarefication (due to a combination of relative scarcity and increasing demand [1]) and resulting price increases. Moreover, there is no satisfactory option at the moment for use as a p-type transparent contact. Thus alternative materials solutions are actively being sought. This review will compare the performance and perspectives of graphene with respect to TCOs for use in transparent conductor applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
25.  Investigation of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; P. Bove ; A. Lusson ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86261X (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
MgZnO thin films were grown on c-sapphire and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a ZnMgO target with 4 at% Mg. The MgZnO grown on the ZnO underlayer showed significantly better crystal quality than that grown directly on sapphire. AFM studies revealed a significant deterioration in surface morphology for the MgZnO layers compared with the ZnO underlayer. Optical transmission studies indicated a MgZnO bandgap of 3.61eV (compared with 3.34eV for the ZnO), which corresponds to a Mg content of about 16.1 at%. The MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction showed an anomalously low resistivity, which was more than two orders of magnitude less than the MgZnO layer and an order of magnitude lower than that for the ZnO layer. It was suggested that this may be attributable to the presence of a 2D electron gas at the ZnMgO/ZnO heterointerface. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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