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5.  High performance LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and infrared focal plane array
Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Gin, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 309-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattices grown on n-type GaSb substrate with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Tunability of intersubband absorption from 4.5 to 5.3 µm in a GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
N. Péré-Laperne, C. Bayram, L. Nguyen-Thê, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 13, p. 131109-- September 28, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Intersubband (ISB) absorption at wavelengths as long as 5.3 µm is realized in GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By employing low aluminum content Al0.2Ga0.8N barriers and varying the well width from 2.6 to 5.1 nm, ISB absorption has been tuned from 4.5 to 5.3 µm. Theoretical ISB absorption and interband emission models are developed and compared to the experimental results. The effects of band offsets and the piezoelectric fields on these superlattices are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetecto
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- December 4, 2006 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Electroluminescence of InAs/GaSb heterodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E. Michel, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 42 (2)-- February 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The electroluminescence of a Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice heterodiode has been studied as a function of injection current and temperature in the spectral range between 3 and 13 μm. The heterodiode comprises a Be-doped midwavelength infrared (MWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap around 270 meV and an undoped long wavelength infrared (LWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap of 115 meV. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86311K-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 5, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Active and passive imaging in a single camera based on the combination of short-wavelength and mid-wavelength infrared detection is highly needed in a number of tracking and reconnaissance missions. Due to its versatility in band-gap engineering, Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice has emerged as a candidate highly suitable for this multi-spectral detection. In this paper, we report the demonstration of high performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with designed cut-off wavelengths of 2 μm and 4 μm. Taking advantages of the high performance short-wavelength and mid-wavelength single color photodetectors, back-to-back p-i-n-n-i-p photodiode structures were grown on GaSb substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. At 150 K, the short-wave channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 55%, a dark current density of 1.0x10-9 A/cm² at -50 mV bias voltage, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 3.0x1013 Jones. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 33% and a dark current density of 2.6x10-5 A/cm² at 300 mV bias voltage, resulting in a detectivity of 4.0x1011 Jones. The operations of the two absorber channels are selectable by changing the polarity of applied bias voltage. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Demonstration of high performance bias-slectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011108-1-- January 7, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
High performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with designed cut-off wavelengths of 2 μm and 4 μm was demonstrated. At 150 K, the short-wave channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 55%, a dark current density of 1.0 × 10−9 A/cm² at −50 mV bias voltage, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 3.0 × 1013 Jones. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 33% and a dark current density of 2.6 × 10−5 A/cm² at 300 mV bias voltage, resulting in a detectivity of 4.0 × 1011 Jones. The spectral cross-talk between the two channels was also discussed for further optimization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Negative and positive luminescence in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (12)-- December 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum efficiency of negative and positive luminescence in binary type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been investigated in the midinfrared spectral range around the 5-μm wavelength. The negative luminescence efficiency is nearly independent on temperature in the entire range from 220 to 325 K. For infrared diodes with a 2-μm absorbing layer, processed without anti-reflection coating, a negative luminescence efficiency of 45% is found, indicating very efficient minority carrier extraction. The temperature dependent measurements of the quantum efficiency of the positive luminescence enables for the determination of the capture cross section of the Shockley-Read-Hall centers involved in the competing nonradiative recombination. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors
A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 316-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Leakage currents limit the operation of high performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode technology. Surface leakage current becomes a dominant limiting factor, especially at the scale of a focal plane array pixel (< 25 µm) and must be addressed. A reduction of the surface state density, unpinning the Fermi level at the surface, and appropriate termination of the semiconductor crystal are all aims of effective passivation. Recent work in the passivation of Type-II InAs\GaSb superlattice photodetectors with aqueous sulfur-based solutions has resulted in increased R0A products and reduced dark current densities by reducing the surface trap density. Additionally, photoluminescence of similarly passivated Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice and InAs GaSb bulk material will be discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting
Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011101 (2013)-- July 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report room temperature terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser sources with high power based on difference frequency generation. The device is Čerenkov phase matched and spectrally purified with an integrated dual-period distributed-feedback grating. Symmetric current injection and epilayer-down mounting of the device onto a patterned submount are used to improve the electrical uniformity and heat removal, respectively. The epilayer-down mounting also allows for THz anti-reflective coating to enhance the THz outcoupling efficiency. Single mode emission at 3.5 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 30 dB and 215  μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Effects of substrate quality and orientation on the characteristics of III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol 7945, p. 79451A-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Al(Ga)N/GaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effects of material quality on room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of RTDs are investigated by growing the RTD structure on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. This reveals that NDR characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness and dislocations density). The effects of the aluminum content of AlGaN double barriers (DB) and polarization fields on NDR characteristic of AlGaN/GaN RTDs were also investigated by employing low dislocation density c-plane (polar) and m-plane (nonpolar) freestanding GaN substrates. Lower aluminum content in the DB RTD active layer and minimization of dislocations and polarization fields enabled a more reliable and reproducible NDR behaviour at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 74 (20)-- November 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper we present a theory of diffusion and recombination in QDIPs which is an attempt to explain the recently reported values of gain in these devices. We allow the kinetics to encompass both the diffusion and capture rate limited regimes of carrier relaxation using rigorous random walk and diffusion methods. The photoconductive gains are calculated and compared with the experimental values obtained from InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs and InAs/InP QDIPs using the generation-recombination noise analysis. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y2O3 passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223501 (2013)-- November 25, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Y2O3 was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 μm, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO2 passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100 × 100 μm size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77 K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at −300 mV of 2.5 × 10−5 A/cm² and 1.3 × 104 Ω·cm², respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Watt level performance of quantum cascade lasers in room temperature continuous wave operation at λ ∼ 3.76 μm
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, A. Myzaferi, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 13-- September 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
An InP-based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 3.76 μm is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The laser core is composed of strain balanced In0.76Ga0.24As/In0.26Al0.74As. Pulsed testing at room temperature exhibits a low threshold current density (1.5 kA/cm²) and high wall plug efficiency (10%). Room temperature continuous wave operation gives 6% wall plug efficiency with a maximum output power of 1.1 W. Continuous wave operation persists up to 95 °C. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Very high wall plug efficiency of quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76080F-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate very high wall plug efficiency (WPE) of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in low temperature pulsed mode operation (53%), room temperature pulsed mode operation (23%), and room temperature continuous wave operation (18%). All of these values are the highest to date for any QCLs. The optimization of WPE takes the route of understanding the limiting factors of each sub-efficiency, exploring new designs to overcome the limiting factor, and constantly improving the material quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Negative luminescence of long-wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 87 (20)-- November 14, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The electrically pumped emission behavior of binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 µm and 13 µm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental setup, the internal and external quantum efficiency has been determined in the temperature range between 80 K and 300 K for both, the negative and positive luminescence. The negative luminescence efficiency approaches values as high as 35% without antireflection coating. The temperature dependence of the internal quantum efficiency near zero-bias voltage allows for the determination of the electron-hole-electron Auger recombination coefficient of Γn=1×1024 cm6 s–1. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Modeling Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method: New Aspects
Y. Wei, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 301-- January 25, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
The recent advances in the experimental work on the Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices necessitate a modeling that can handle arbitrary layer thickness as well as different types of interfaces in order to guide the superlattice design. The empirical tight-binding method (ETBM) is a very good candidate since it builds up the Hamiltonian atom by atom. There has been a lot of research work on the modeling of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using the ETBM. However, different groups generate very different accuracy comparing with experimental results. We have recently identified two major aspects in the modeling: the antimony segregation and the interface effects. These two aspects turned out to be of crucial importance governing the superlattice properties, especially the bandgap. We build the superlattice Hamiltonian using antimony segregated atomic profile taking into account the interface. Our calculations agree with our experimental results within growth uncertainties. In addition we introduced the concept of GaxIn1-x type interface engineering, which will add another design freedom especially in the mid-wavelength infrared range (3~7 µm) in orderto reduce the lattice mismatch. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb
E. Michel, G. Singh, S. Slivken, C. Besikci, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (26)-- December 26, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter we report on the growth of high quality InSb by molecular beam epitaxy that has been optimized using reflection high energy electron diffraction. A 4.8 µm InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 °C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an x-ray rocking curve of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92,300 cm²·V−1 at 77 K. This is the best material quality obtained for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs reported to date. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From Ultraviolet Toward Terahertz
M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Journal-Breakthroughs in Photonics 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 263-267-- April 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We review III-Nitride optoelectronic device technologies with an emphasis on recent breakthroughs. We start with a brief summary of historical accomplishments and then report the state-of-the-art in three key spectral regimes: (1) Ultraviolet (AlGaN-based avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors, focal plane arrays, and light emitting diodes), (2) Visible (InGaN-based solid state lighting, lasers, and solar cells), and (3) Near-, mid-infrared, and terahertz (AlGaN/GaN-based gap-engineered intersubband devices). We also describe future trends in III-Nitride optoelectronic devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Investigation of 0.8 μm InGaAsP-GaAs laser diodes with Multiple Quantum Wells
J. Diaz, H. Yi, S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, L.J. Wang, I. Eliashevich, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we studied the effects of the active region structure (one, two and three quantum wells with same total thickness) for high-power InGaAsP-GaAs separate confinement heterostructure lasers emitting at 0.8 μm wavelength. Experimental results for the lasers grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition show excellent agreement with the theoretical model. Total output power of 47 W from an uncoated 1 cm-wide laser bar was achieved in quasi-continuous wave operation [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Recent advances in mid infrared (3-5 μm) quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi; Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay; Yanbo Bai; Quanyong Lu; Steven Slivken
Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1872-1884 (2013)-- November 2, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important source of electromagnetic radiation in mid infrared region. Recent research in mid-IR QCLs has resulted in record high wallplug efficiency (WPE), high continuous wave (CW) output power, single mode operation and wide tunability. CW output power of 5.1 W with 21% WPE has been achieved at room temperature (RT). A record high WPE of 53% at 40K has been demonstrated. Operation wavelength of QCL in CW at RT has been extended to as short as 3μm. Very high peak power of 190 W has been obtained from a broad area QCL of ridge width 400μm. 2.4W RT, CW power output has been achieved from a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. Wide tuning based on dual section sample grating DFB QCLs has resulted in individual tuning of 50cm-1 and 24 dB side mode suppression ratio with continuous wave power greater than 100 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Widely Tunable, Single-Mode, High-Power Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi, B. Gokden, S. Tsao, A. Haddadi, N. Bandyopadhyay, and S. Slivken
SPIE Proceedings, Intergreated Photonics: Materials, Devices and Applications, SPIE Microtechnologies Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, April 18-20, 2011, Vol. 8069, p. 806905-1-- May 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate widely tunable high power distributed feedback quantum cascade laser array chips that span 190 nm and 200 nm from 4.4 um to 4.59 um and 4.5 um to 4.7 um respectively. The lasers emit single mode with a very narrow linewidth and side mode suppression ratio of 25 dB. Under pulsed operation power outputs up to 1.85 W was obtained from arrays with 3 mm cavity length and up to 0.95 W from arrays with 2 mm cavity length at room temperature. Continuous wave operation was also observed from both chips with 2 mm and 3 mm long cavity arrays up to 150 mW. The cleaved size of the array chip with 3 mm long cavities was around 4 mm x 5 mm and does not require sensitive external optical components to achieve wide tunability. With their small size and high portability, monolithically integrated DFB QCL Arrays are prominent candidates of widely tunable, compact, efficient and high power sources of mid-infrared radiation for gas sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays for long wavelength infrared detection
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 350-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Nanopillar devices have been fabricated from GaInAs/InP QWIP material grown by MOCVD. Using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching techniques, large, regular arrays of nanopillars with controllable diameters ranging from 150 nm to less than 40 nm have been reproducibly formed. Photoluminescence experiments demonstrate a strong peak wavelength blue shift for nanopillar structures compared to the as-grown quantum well material. Top and bottom metal contacts have been realized using a polyimide planarization and etchback procedure. I-V and noise measurements have been performed. Optical measurements indicate photoconductive response in selected nanopillar arrays. Device peak wavelength response occurs at about 8 µm with peak device responsivity of 420 mA/W. Peak detectivity of 3×108 cm·Hz½/W has been achieved at -1V bias and 30 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Investigations of ZnO thin films grown on c-Al(2)O(3) by pulsed laser deposition in N(2) + O(2) ambient
D.J. Rogers, D.C. Look, F.H. Teherani, K. Minder, M. Razeghi, A. Largeteau, G. Demazeau, J. Morrod, K.A. Prior, A. Lusson, and S. Hassani
Physica Status Solidi (c), Vol. 5, No. 9, p. 3084-3087-- July 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO films were deposited on c-Al2O3 using pulsed laser deposition both with and without N2 in the growth ambient. X-ray diffraction revealed poorer crystal quality and surface morphology for one-step growths with N2 in the ambient. A marked improvement in both the crystallographic and surface quality was obtained through use of two-step growths employing nominally undoped ZnO buffer layers prior to growth with N2 in the ambient. All films showed majority n-type conduction in Hall measurements. Post-annealing for 30 minutes at 600 ºC in O2 systematically reduced both the carrier concentration and the conductivity. A base room temperature carrier concentration of ~ 1016 cm-3 was linked to Al diffusing from the substrate. 4.2 K photoluminescence spectra exhibited blue bands associated with the growths having N2 in the ambient. Temperature dependent Hall measurements were consistent with N being incorporated in the films. Processed devices did not, however, show rectifying behavior or electroluminescence. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  The correlation between x-ray diffraction patterns and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices
X.G. He, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (22)-- November 28, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
Strong correlation between x‐ray diffraction characteristics and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices has been reported. It is found that the symmetry of (002) diffraction patterns can be used to evaluate the interface strain status. A sample with no interfacial strains has a symmetric (002) diffraction pattern and weak (004) diffraction pattern. It is also demonstrated that strain distribution in superlattices can be readily estimated qualitatively by analyzing x-ray diffraction patterns. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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