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1.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Performance Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
H. Mohseni, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of high performance p-i-n photodiodes based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices operating in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range at 80 K. Material is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates with excellent crystal quality as evidenced by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The processed devices with a 50% cutoff wavelength of λc equals 22 μm show a peak current responsivity about 5.5 A/W at 80 K. The use of binary layers in the superlattice has significantly enhanced the uniformity and reproducibility of the energy gap. The 90% to 10% cut-off energy width of these devices is on the order of 2 kT which is about four times smaller compared to the devices based on InAs/Ga1-xInxSb superlattices. Similar photovoltaic devices with cut-off wavelengths up to 25 μm have been measured at 80 K. Our experimental results shows excellent uniformity over a three inch wafer area, indicating the possibility of VLWIR focal plane arrays based on Type-II superlattices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Suppresion of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-Infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826811-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150 K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (13)-- April 5, 2004 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Materials characterization of n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg/c-Al(2)O(3) UV LEDs grown by pulsed laser deposition and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
D. Rogers, F.H. Teherani, P. Kung, K. Minder, and M. Razeghi
Superlattices and Microstructures-- April 1, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg hybrid heterojunctions grown on c-Al2O3 substrates showed 375 nm room temperature electroluminescence. It was suggested that the high materials and interface quality obtained using pulsed laser deposition for the n-ZnO growth and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition for the p-GaN:Mg were key factors enabling the injection of holes and the radiative near band edge recombination in the ZnO. In this paper we present the materials characterization of this structure using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL
Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi and F. Tittel
Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 1008-- January 14, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a stateof-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm−1, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection,respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation
J. Diaz, H. Yi, M. Razeghi and G.T. Burnham
Applied Physics Letters 71 (21)-- November 24, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the long-term reliability measurement on uncoated Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power and high-temperature operation. No degradation in laser performance has been observed for over 30 ,000 h of lifetime testing in any of randomly selected several 100 μm-wide uncoated lasers operated at 60 °C with 1 W continuous wave output power. This is the first and the most conclusive evidence ever reported that directly shows the high long-term reliability of uncoated Al-free lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared Type-II superlattice Photodiodes on a 3
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7945, p. 79451O-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the great advantages of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice over other competing technologies for the third generation infrared imagers is the potential to have excellent uniformity across a large area as the electronic structure of the material is controlled by the layer thicknesses, not by the composition of the materials. This can economize the material growth, reduce the fabrication cost, and especially allow the realization of large format imagers. In this talk, we report the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Type-II superlattices on a 3-inch GaSb substrate for long wavelength infrared detection. The material exhibits excellent structural, optical and electrical uniformity via AFM, Xray, quantum efficiency and I-V measurements. At 77K, 11μm cutoff photodiodes exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0x10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6 x 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  State-of-the-art Type II Antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection and imaging
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, P. Manurkar, and S. Bogdanov
SPIE Proceedings, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments II, San Diego, CA, Vol. 7467, p. 74670T-1-- August 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL), a system of multi interacting quantum wells was first introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this low dimensional system has drawn a lot of attention for its attractive quantum mechanics properties and its grand potential for the emergence into the application world, especially in infrared detection. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs and imaging applications which elevated the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art Mercury Cadmium Telluride. We will present in this talk the current status of the state-of-the-art Type II superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays, and the future outlook for this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thin film transistors with wurtzite ZnO channels grown on Si3N4/SiO2/Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D.J. Rogers; V.E. Sandana; F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 7603, Oxide-based Materials and Devices, 760318 (March 02, 2010)-- March 7, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Thin Film Transistors (TFT) were made by growing ZnO on Si3N4/SiO2/Si (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope studies revealed the ZnO to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a smooth surface, good crystallographic quality and a strong preferential c-axis orientation. Transmission studies in similar ZnO layers on glass substrates showed high transmission over the whole visible spectrum. Electrical measurements of a back gate geometry FET showed an enhancement-mode response with hard saturation, mA range Id and a VON ∼ 0V. When scaled down, such TFTs may be of interest for high frequency applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111)
Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Cho, E. Cicek, Z, Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011106-1-- January 7, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth, fabrication, and device characterization of AlGaN-based thin-film ultraviolet (UV) (λ ∼ 359 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). First, AlN/Si(111) template is patterned. Then, a fully coalesced 7-μm-thick lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of AlN layer is realized on patterned AlN/Si(111) template followed by UV LED epi-regrowth. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is employed to optimize LEO AlN and UV LED epitaxy. Back-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and flip-chip bonded to AlN heat sinks followed by Si(111) substrate removal. A peak pulsed power and slope efficiency of ∼0.6 mW and ∼1.3 μW/mA are demonstrated from these thin-film UV LEDs, respectively. For comparison, top-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and back-emission LEDs are shown to extract 50% more light than top-emission ones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Temperature dependence of the dark current and activation energy at avalanche onset of GaN Avalanche Photodiodes
M.P. Ulmer, E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8460, p. 84601G-1-- August 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a study of the performance of an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a function of temperature from 564 K to 74 K. The dark current at avalanche onset decreases from 564 K to 74 K by approximately a factor of 125 and from 300 K to 74K the dark current at avalanche offset is reduced by a factor of about 10. The drop would have been considerably larger if the activation energy at avalanche onset (Ea) did not also decrease with decreasing temperature. These data give us insights into how to improve the single-photon counting performance of a GaN based ADP. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  III-Nitride photon counting avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000N-1-11.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
In order for solar and visible blind III-Nitride based photodetectors to effectively compete with the detective performance of PMT there is a need to develop photodetectors that take advantage of low noise avalanche gain. Furthermore, in certain applications, it is desirable to obtain UV photon counting performance. In this paper, we review the characteristics of III-nitride visible-blind avalanche photodetectors (APDs), and present the state-of-the-art results on photon counting based on the Geiger mode operation of GaN APDs. The devices are fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination in order to enhance hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance are analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated in smaller devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind APDs and Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and solutions to the major problems are described where available. Finally, future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (9)-- August 29, 2005 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Amorphous ZnO films grown by room temperature pulsed laser deposition on paper and mylar for transparent electronics applications
D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and H.J. Drouhin
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7940, p. 79401K-- January 24, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the development of next-generation transparent thin film transistors for use in applications such as electronic paper and flexible organic light emitting diode panels. Amongst the transparent conducting oxides attracting the most interest at present are Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors (AOS) based on ZnO because they exhibit enhanced electron mobility (μ), superior capacity for processability in air and improved thermodynamic stability compared with conventional covalent amorphous semiconductors and existing AOS. Moreover, they give excellent performance when fabricated at relatively low temperature and can readily be made in large area format. Thus, they are projected to resolve the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance and thereby allow fabrication on inexpensive heatsensitive substrates. For the moment, however, an undesireable post-deposition annealing step at a temperature of about 200ºC is necessary in order to obtain suitable electrical and optical properties. This paper demonstrates the possibility of directly engineering amorphous ZnO with relatively high conductiviy at room temperature on paper and mylar substrates using pulsed laser deposition. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetecto
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- December 4, 2006 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863108-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference frequency generation are demonstrated. Two mid-infrared active cores in the longer mid-IR wavelength range (9-11 micron)based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a second-order difference frequency nonlinearity specially optimized for the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of Gain and Threshold Current Density for InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) Lasers with Different Quantum-Well Thickness
H.J. Yi, J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, G. Lukas, S. Kim, D. Wu, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 79 (11)-- July 1, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
We investigated the quantum‐size effects of quantum well (QW) on gain and threshold current density for InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) laser diodes. In this work, a comparison is made of lasers with different QW thickness while keeping the optical confinement factors constant. We found that the threshold current density and differential efficiency were not affected by narrowing the QW thickness. The theoretical model taking into account the mixing of the valence bands and momentum relaxation for InGaAsP/GaAs lasers with spontaneous emission (optically pumped) measurement shows that the absence of difference between these structures can be attributed to the high relaxation rate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Photoconductance measurements on InTlSb/InSb/GaAs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
P.T. Staveteig, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (4)-- January 24, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
We report infrared photoconductors based on InTlSb/InSb grown by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The photoresponse spectrum extends up to 8 μm at 77 K. The absolute magnitude of the photoresponse is measured as a function of bias. The specific detectivity is estimated to be 3×108 Hz½·cm·W-1 at 7 μm wavelength. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Interface-induced Suppression of the Auger Recombination in Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices
H. Mohseni, V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 58 (23)-- December 15, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
The temperature dependence of the nonequilibrium carriers lifetime has been deduced from the measurement of the photocurrent response in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Based on the temperature dependence of the responsivity and modeling of the transport parameters we have found that the carrier lifetime weakly depends on temperature in the high-temperature region. This indicates the temperature dependence of the Auger recombination rate with no threshold that differs it from that in the bulk material and can be attributed to the interface-induced suppression of the Auger recombination in thin quantum wells. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Photodetector with a High Detectivity
H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270N-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently been considered as strong candidates for numerous applications such as night vision, space communication, gas analysis and medical diagnosis involving middle and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR respectively) operation. This is due to their unique properties arising from their 3-dimensional confinement potential that provides a discrete density of states. They are expected to outperform quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a consequence of their natural sensitivity to normal incident radiation, their higher responsivity and their higher-temperature operation. So far, most of the QDIPs reported in the literature were based on the InAs/GaAs system and were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here, we report on the growth of a high detectivity InGaAs/InGaP QDIP grown on a GaAs substrate using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power, continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3.4 μm and λ ~ 3.55 μm InP-based quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 212104-1-- May 21, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report two highly strain-balanced InP-based AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers emitting near 3.39 and 3.56 . A pulsed threshold current density of only 1.1 kA/cm² has been achieved at room temperature for both lasers with characteristic temperatures (T0) of 166  K and 152  K, respectively. The slope efficiency is also relatively temperature insensitive with characteristic temperatures (T1) of 116 K and 191  K, respectively. Continuous wave powers of 504 mW and 576 mW are obtained at room temperature, respectively. This was accomplished without buried ridge processing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high continuous-wave wall plug efficiency
A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 071101-1-- August 13, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report on the development of ~4.7 µm strain-balanced InP-based quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency and room temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of narrow-ridge buried heterostructure waveguides and thermally optimized packaging is presented. Over 9.3% wall plug efficiency is reported at room temperature from a single device producing over 0.675 W of continuous-wave output power. Wall plug efficiencies greater than 18% are also reported for devices at a temperature of 150 K, with continuous-wave output powers of more than 1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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