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1.  Noise analysis in type-II InAs/GaSb focal plane arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 6, p. 063110-- September 15, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference in the array was measured as low as 23 mK for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The noise behavior of the detectors was properly described by a model based on thermal, shot, read out integrated circuit, and photon noises. The noise of the imager was dominated by photon noise for photon fluxes higher than 1.8×1015 ph·s−1·cm−2. At lower irradiance, the imager was limited by the shot noise generated by the dark current or the noise of the testing system. The superlattice detector did not create 1/f noise for frequencies above 4 mHz. As a result, the focal plane array did not require frequent calibrations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance quantum dot-quantum well infrared focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, A. Myzaferi, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050J-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot (QD) devices are a promising technology for high operating temperature detectors. We have studied InAs QDs embedded in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well structure on InP substrate for middle wavelength infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). This combined dot-well structure has weak dot confinement of carriers, and as a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in more common dot systems with stronger confinement. We report on our studies of the energy levels in the QDWIP devices and on QD-based detectors operating at high temperature with D* over 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 150 K operating temperature and high quantum efficiency over 50%. FPAs have been demonstrated operating at up to 200 K. We also studied two methods of adapting the QDWIP device to better accommodate FPA readout circuit limitations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- April 22, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a high detectivity middle-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The InGaAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on an InGaP matrix via low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures above 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 µm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 µm. The background limited performance temperature was 140 K, and this was attributed to the super low dark current observed in this QDIP. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art quantum well infrared photodetectors in a similar wavelength range, was obtained for this InGaAs/InGaP QDIP at both T = 77 K and T = 95 K at biases of –1.6 and –1.4 V, [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power Continuous-Wave Operation of a 6 µm Quantum-Cascade Laser at Room Temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, L. Doris, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 83 (13)-- September 29, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers (λ= 6 µm) using a thick electroplated Au top contact layer and epilayer-up bonding on a copper heat sink up to a temperature of 308 K (35 °C). The high cw optical output powers of 132 mW at 293 K and 21 mW at 308 K are achieved with threshold current densities of 2.29 and 2.91 kA/cm², respectively, for a high-reflectivity-coated 15 µm wide and 2 mm long laser. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of 8.5 μm Quantum Cascade Laser
S. Slivken, C. Jelen, A. Rybaltowski, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (18)-- November 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate preliminary results for an 8.5 μm laser emission from quantum cascade lasers grown in a single step by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. 70 mW peak power per two facets is recorded for all devices tested at 79 K with 1 μs pulses at 200 Hz. For a 3 mm cavity length, lasing persists up to 270 K with a T0 of 180 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications
M. Razeghi and C. Bayram
SPIE Proceedings, Dresden, Germany (May 4-6, 2009), Vol. 7366, p. 73661F-1-- May 20, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  AlxGa1-xN Materials and Device Technology for Solar Blind Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications
R. McClintock, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, A. Yasan, C. Jelen, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4288, pp. 219-- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
There has been a growing interest for the development of solar blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors for use in a variety of applications, including early missile threat warning, flame monitoring, UV radiation monitoring and chemical/biological reagent detection. The AlxGa1-xN material system has emerged as the most promising approach for such devices. However, the control of the material quality and the device technology are still rather immature. We report here the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, the n-type and the p-type doping of high quality AlxGa1-xN thin films on sapphire substrates over a wide range of Al concentration. [reprint (PDF)]
 
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-- November 30, 1999
 
1.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (13)-- April 29, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The middle-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown via low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W was achieved at T = 95 K and a bias of –1.4 V. The background limited temperature of our QDIP was 140 K with a 45° field of view. A 256×256 detector array was fabricated with dry etching, and hybridized to a Litton readout chip by indium bumps. Thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T = 77 K, the noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 0.509 K with a 300 K background and f/2.3 optics. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-power high-wall plug efficiency mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers based on InP/GaInAs/InAlAs material system
M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7230-11-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The latest result at the Center for Quantum Devices about high power, high wall plug efficiency, mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. At an emitting wavelength of 4.8 µm, an output power of 3.4 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16.5% are demonstrated from a single device operating in continuous wave at room temperature. At a longer wavelength of 10.2 µm, average power as high as 2.2 W is demonstrated at room temperature. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is used to grow the QCL core in an InP/GaInAs/InAlAs material system. Fe-doped semiinsulating regrowth is performed by metal organic chemical vapor deposition for efficient heat removal and low waveguide loss. This accomplishment marks an important milestone in the development of high performance midinfrared QCLs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Very High Average Power at Room Temperature from λ ~ 5.9 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology 26-- May 26, 2003 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Generalized k·p perturbation theory for atomic-scale superlattices
H. Yi and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 56 (7)-- August 15, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a generalized k⋅p perturbation method that is applicable for atomic-scale superlattices. The present model is in good quantitative agreement with full band theories with local-density approximation, and approaches results of the conventional k⋅p perturbation method (i.e., Kane’s Hamiltonian) with the envelope function approximation for superlattices with large periods. The indirect band gap of AlAs/GaAs superlattices with short periods observed in experiments is explained using this method. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN/GaN superlattices for near-infrared intersubband transitions
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, R. McClintock, B. Fain and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 12, p. 121902-1-- March 23, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique is developed for the growth of high-quality AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) with intersubband (ISB) transitions at optical communications wavelengths. Tunability of the AlN and GaN layers is demonstrated. Indium is shown to improve SL surface and structural quality. Capping thickness is shown to be crucial for ISB transition characteristics. Effects of barrier- and well-doping on the ISB absorption are reported. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Polarization-free GaN emitters in the ultraviolet and visible spectra via heterointegration on CMOS-compatible Si (100)
C. Bayram, J. Ott, K. T. Shiu, C. W. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Kim, D. K. Sadana, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9370, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XII, 93702F (February 8, 2015); -- February 8, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
This work presents a new type of polarization-free GaN emitter. The unique aspect of this work is that the ultraviolet and visible emission originates from the cubic phase GaN and the cubic phase InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells, respectively. Conventionally, GaN emitters (e.g. light emitting diodes, laser diodes) are wurtzite phase thus strong polarization fields exist across the structure contributing to the “droop” behavior – a phenomenon defined as “the reduction in emitter efficiency as injection current increases”. The elimination of piezoelectric fields in GaN-based emitters as proposed in this work provide the potential for achieving a 100% internal efficiency and might lead to droopfree light emitting diodes. In addition, this work demonstrates co-integration of GaN emitters on cheap and scalable CMOS-compatible Si (100) substrate, which yields possibility of realizing a GaN laser diode uniquely – via forming mirrors along the naturally occurring cubic phase GaN-Si(100) cleavage planes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Investigation of the factors influencing nanostructure array growth by PLD towards reproducible wafer-scale growth
Vinod E. Sandana; David. J. Rogers; Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Philippe Bove; Manijeh Razeghi
physica status solidi (a) Applications and Materials Science. Volume 211, Issue 2, pages 449–454, (February 2014)-- January 14, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of catalyst-free ZnO nanostructure arrays on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was investigated. Without an underlayer, randomly oriented, micron-scale structures were obtained. Introduction of a c-axis oriented ZnO underlayer resulted in denser arrays of vertically oriented nanostructures with either tapering, vertical-walled or broadening forms, depending on background Ar pressure. Nanostructure pitch seemed to be determined by underlayer grain size while nanostructure widths could be narrowed from ∼100–500 to ∼10–50 nm by a 50 °C increase in growth temperature. A dimpled underlayer topography correlated with the moth-eye type arrays while a more granular surface was linked to vertically walled nanocolumns. Between-wafer reproducibility was demonstrated for both moth-eye and vertical nanocolumn arrays. Broadening nanostructures proved difficult to replicate, however. Full 2 inch wafer coverage was obtained by rastering the target with the laser beam. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Modeling of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method and Interface Engineering
Y. Wei and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 69 (8)-- February 15, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent work on the modeling of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using the empirical tight binding method in an sp3s* basis. After taking into account the antimony segregation in the InAs layers, the modeling accuracy of the band gap has been improved. Our calculations agree with our experimental results within a certain growth uncertainty. In addition, we introduce the concept of GaxIn1-x type interface engineering in order to reduce the lattice mismatch between the superlattice and the GaSb (001) substrate to improve the overall superlattice material quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Very High Average Power at Room Temperature from λ ~ 5.9 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 82 (20)-- May 19, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a very high average output power at room temperature for quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ ~ 5.9 µm. For high-reflectivity-coated 2-mm-long cavities, a low threshold current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 was obtained at room temperature. From 300 to 400 K, the characteristic temperature (T0) was 198 K. A maximum average output power of 0.67 W was achieved. In addition, 0.56 W average output power was observed at a duty cycle of 56%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature compact THz sources based on quantum cascade laser technology
M. Razeghi; Q.Y. Lu; N. Bandyopadhyay; S. Slivken; Y. Bai
Proc. SPIE 8846, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications IV, 884602 (September 24, 2013)-- November 24, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the high performance THz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Room temperature single-mode operation in a wide THz spectral range of 1-4.6 THz is demonstrated from our Čerenkov phase-matched THz sources with dual-period DFB gratings. High THz power up to 215 μW at 3.5 THz is demonstrated via epi-down mounting of our THz device. The rapid development renders this type of THz sources promising local oscillators for many astronomical and medical applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101105-1-- March 10, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers at an emitting wavelength of 4.6 µm, which are capable of room temperature, high power continuous wave (cw) operation. Buried ridge geometry with a width of 9.8 µm was utilized. A device with a 3 mm cavity length that was epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount exhibited a maximum output power of 1.3 W at room temperature in cw operation. The maximum output power at 80 K was measured to be 4 W, with a wall plug efficiency of 27%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Near bulk-limited R0A of long-wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with polyimide surface passivation
Andrew Hood, Pierre-Yves Delaunay, Darin Hoffman, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Yajun Wei, Manijeh Razeghi, and Vaidya Nathan
Applied Physics Letters 90, 233513-- June 4, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Effective surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with cutoff wavelengths in the long-wavelength infrared is presented. A stable passivation layer, the electrical properties of which do not change as a function of the ambient environment nor time, has been prepared by a solvent-based surface preparation, vacuum desorption, and the application of an insulating polyimide layer. Passivated photodiodes, with dimensions ranging from 400×400 to 25×25 µm2, with a cutoff wavelength of ~11 µm, exhibited near bulk-limited R0A values of ~12 Ω·cm2, surface resistivities in excess of 104 Ω·cm, and very uniform current-voltage behavior at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
H.K. Lee, K.S. Chung, J.S. Yu and M. Razeghi
Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 206, p. 356-362-- February 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We have theoretically investigated and compared the thermal characteristics of 10.6 μm InGaAs/InAlAs/InP buried heterostructure (BH) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with different heat-sinking configurations by a steady-state heat-transfer analysis. The heat-source densities were obtained from laser threshold power densities measured experimentally under room-temperature continuous-wave mode. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat-dissipation model was used to calculate the temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance (Gth) inside the device. For good thermal characteristics, the QCLs in the long-wavelength infrared region require the relatively narrow BH structure in combination with epilayer-down bonding due to thick active core/cladding layers and high insulator losses. The single-ridge BH structure results in slightly higher thermal conductance by 2-4% than the double-channel (DC) ridge BH structure. For W = 12 m with 5 μm thick electroplated Au, the single-ridge BH laser with epilayer-down bonding exhibited the highest Gth value of 201.9 W/K cm2, i.e. increased by nearly 36% with respect to the epilayer-up bonded DC ridge waveguide laser. This value is improved by 50% and 62% with respect to the single-ridge BH laser and DC ridge waveguide laser with W = 20 μm in the epilayer-up bonding scheme, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Avalanche multiplication in AlGaN based solar-blind photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 87 (24)-- December 12, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Avalanche multiplication has been observed in solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodiodes. Upon ultraviolet illumination, the optical gain shows a soft breakdown starting at relatively low electric fields, eventually saturating without showing a Geiger mode breakdown. The devices achieve a maximum optical gain of 700 at a reverse bias of 60 V. By modeling the device, it is found that this corresponds to an electric-field strength of 1.7 MV/cm. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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