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1.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of high performance bias-slectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011108-1-- January 7, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
High performance bias-selectable dual-band short-/mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice with designed cut-off wavelengths of 2 μm and 4 μm was demonstrated. At 150 K, the short-wave channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 55%, a dark current density of 1.0 × 10−9 A/cm² at −50 mV bias voltage, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 3.0 × 1013 Jones. The mid-wavelength channel exhibited a quantum efficiency of 33% and a dark current density of 2.6 × 10−5 A/cm² at 300 mV bias voltage, resulting in a detectivity of 4.0 × 1011 Jones. The spectral cross-talk between the two channels was also discussed for further optimization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Core-shell GaN-ZnO Moth-eye Nanostructure Arrays Grown on a-SiO2/Si (111) as a basis for Improved InGaN-based Photovoltaics and LEDs
D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, A. Ougazzaden, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, M. Molinari, M. Troyon, M. Peres, Manuel J. Soares, A.J. Neves, T. Monteiro, D. McGrouther, J.N. Chapman, H.-J. Drouhin, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications (2015)-- March 30, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, ZnO moth-eye-like nanoarrays were grown by catalyst-free pulsed laser deposition on a-SiO2/Si (111) substrates. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies indicated that nanostructures were highly c-axis oriented wurtzite ZnO with strong near band edge emission. The nanostructures were used as templates for the growth of non-polar GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. XRD, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and CL revealed ZnO encapsulated with GaN, without evidence of ZnO back-etching. XRD showed compressive epitaxial strain in the GaN, which is conducive to stabilization of the higher indium contents required for more efficient green light emitting diode (LED) and photovoltaic (PV) operation. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements showed a relative reflectance of less than 1% over the wavelength range of 400–720 nm at all angles up to 60°. The superior black-body performance of this moth-eye-like structure would boost LED light extraction and PV anti-reflection performance compared with existing planar or nanowire LED and PV morphologies. The enhancement in core conductivity, provided by the ZnO, would also improve current distribution and increase the effective junction area compared with nanowire devices based solely on GaN. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Toward realizing high power semiconductor terahertz laser sources at room temperature
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8023, Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems V: Advance Applications in Industry and Defense, 802302 (May 25, 2011)-- May 25, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers promising applications in science, industry, and military. THz penetration through nonconductors (fabrics, wood, plastic) enables a more efficient way of performing security checks (for example at airports), as illegal drugs and explosives could be detected. Being a non-ionizing radiation, THz radiation is environment-friendly enabling a safer analysis environment than conventional X-ray based techniques. However, the lack of a compact room temperature THz laser source greatly hinders mass deployment of THz systems in security check points and medical centers. In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCLs), with maximum operating temperatures close to 200 K (without magnetic field). However, higher temperature operation is severely limited by a small LO-phonon energy (∼ 36 meV) in this material system. With a much larger LO-phonon energy of ∼ 90 meV, III-Nitrides are promising candidates for room temperature THz lasers. However, realizing high quality material for GaN-based intersubband devices presents a significant challenge. Advances with this approach will be presented. Alternatively, recent demonstration of InP based mid-infrared QCLs with extremely high peak power of 120 W at room temperature opens up the possibility of producing high power THz emission with difference frequency generation through two mid-infrared wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Graphene versus oxides for transparent electrode applications
Sandana, V. E.; Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Bove, P.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862603 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to their combination of good electrical conductivity and optical transparency, Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are the most common choice as transparent electrodes for optoelectronics applications. In particular, devices, such as LEDs, LCDs, touch screens and solar cells typically employ indium tin oxide. However, indium has some significant drawbacks, including toxicity issues (which are hampering manufacturing), an increasing rarefication (due to a combination of relative scarcity and increasing demand [1]) and resulting price increases. Moreover, there is no satisfactory option at the moment for use as a p-type transparent contact. Thus alternative materials solutions are actively being sought. This review will compare the performance and perspectives of graphene with respect to TCOs for use in transparent conductor applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gallium nitride on silicon for consumer & scalable photonics
C. Bayram, K.T. Shiu, Y. Zhu, C.W. Cheng, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863112-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 4, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a unique material system that has been heavily exploited for photonic devices thanks to ultraviolet-to-terahertz spectral tunability. However, without a cost effective approach, GaN technology is limited to laboratory demonstrations and niche applications. In this investigation, integration of GaN on Silicon (100) substrates is attempted to enable widespread application of GaN based optoelectronics. Controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates is demonstrated via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). CMOS-compatible fabrication scheme is used to realize [SiO2-Si{111}-Si{100}] groove structures on conventional 200-mm Si(100) substrates. MOCVD growth (surface treatment, nucleation, initiation) conditions are studied to achieve controlled GaN epitaxy on such grooved Si(100) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to determine uniformity and defectivity of the GaN. Our results show that aforementioned groove structures along with optimized MOCVD growth conditions can be used to achieve controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Negative luminescence of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
F. Fuchs, D. Hoffman, A. Gin, A. Hood, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Phys. Stat. Sol. C 3 (3)-- February 22, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The emission behaviour of InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 µm and 13 μm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental set-up the internal quantum efficiency has been determined in the temperature range between 80 K and 300 K for both, the negative and positive luminescence. The quantitative analysis of the internal quantum efficiency of the non-equilibrium radiation enables the determination of the Auger coefficient. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Internal Stress Around Micropipes in 6H-SiC Substrates
H. Ohsato, T. Kato, T. Okuda and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
6H-SiC single crystals are expected to be suitable substrates for thin film growth of the wide bandgap semiconductor (GaN, because it has a small lattice mismatch with GaN. Moreover, SiC single crystals are also expected for high-power and high- temperature electric applications because of its wide band gap, high breakdown voltage, high thermal conductivity and high temperature stability. Single crystals with large size used for electronic devices can be grown on seed crystals only by the modified Lely method based on sublimation deposition. But, single crystals have serious defects so called micropipes. These micropipes penetrate almost along the [001] direction. The internal strain around micropipes was investigated using the polarizing optical microscope for the purpose of clarifying the formation mechanisms and decreasing the amount of micropipes. A special interference figure was found around a micropipe under the crossed polars on the polarizing microscope. In this work, the special interference figure around micropipes due to internal stress was explained, and the magnitude and distribution of the stress was measured by means of photoelasticity and the mapping of Raman spectra. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Stable single mode terahertz semiconductor sources at room temperature
M. Razeghi
2011 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, ISDRS [6135180] (2011).-- December 7, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Terahertz (THz) range is an area of the electromagnetic spectra which has lots of applications but it suffers from the lack of simple working devices which can emit THz radiation, such as the high performance mid-infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on InP technology. The applications for the THz can be found in astronomy and space research, biology imaging, security, industrial inspection, etc. Unlike THz QCLs based on the fundamental oscillators, which are limited to cryogenic operations, semiconductor THz sources based on nonlinear effects of mid-IR QCLs do not suffer from operating temperature limitations, because mid-IR QCLs can operate well above room temperature. THz sources based on difference frequency generation (DFG) utilize nonlinear properties of asymmetric quantum structures, such as QCL structures. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111)
Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Cho, E. Cicek, Z, Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011106-1-- January 7, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth, fabrication, and device characterization of AlGaN-based thin-film ultraviolet (UV) (λ ∼ 359 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). First, AlN/Si(111) template is patterned. Then, a fully coalesced 7-μm-thick lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of AlN layer is realized on patterned AlN/Si(111) template followed by UV LED epi-regrowth. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is employed to optimize LEO AlN and UV LED epitaxy. Back-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and flip-chip bonded to AlN heat sinks followed by Si(111) substrate removal. A peak pulsed power and slope efficiency of ∼0.6 mW and ∼1.3 μW/mA are demonstrated from these thin-film UV LEDs, respectively. For comparison, top-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and back-emission LEDs are shown to extract 50% more light than top-emission ones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Generalized k·p perturbation theory for atomic-scale superlattices
H. Yi and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 56 (7)-- August 15, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a generalized k⋅p perturbation method that is applicable for atomic-scale superlattices. The present model is in good quantitative agreement with full band theories with local-density approximation, and approaches results of the conventional k⋅p perturbation method (i.e., Kane’s Hamiltonian) with the envelope function approximation for superlattices with large periods. The indirect band gap of AlAs/GaAs superlattices with short periods observed in experiments is explained using this method. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 181102-1-- May 3, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Using the recently proposed shallow-well design, we demonstrate InP based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.9 μm with 27% and 21% wall plug efficiencies in room temperature (298 K) pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operations, respectively. The laser core consists of 40 QCL-stages. The highest cw efficiency is obtained from a buried-ridge device with a ridge width of 8 μm and a cavity length of 5 mm. The front and back facets are antireflection and high-reflection coated, respectively. The maximum single facet cw power at room temperature amounts to 5.1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863108-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference frequency generation are demonstrated. Two mid-infrared active cores in the longer mid-IR wavelength range (9-11 micron)based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a second-order difference frequency nonlinearity specially optimized for the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 72-- August 17, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We present data and calculations and examine the factors that determine the detectivities in self-assembled InAs and InGaAs based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). We investigate a class of devices that combine good wavelength selectivity with “high detectivity.” We study the factors that limit the temperature performance of quantum dot detectors. For this we develop a formalism to evaluate the optical absorption and the electron transport properties. We examine the performance limiting factors and compare theory with experimental data. We find that the notion of a phonon bottleneck does not apply to large-diameter lenslike quantum dots, which have many closely spaced energy levels. The observed strong decrease of responsivity with temperature is ultimately due to a rapid thermal cascade back into the ground states. High temperature performance is improved by engineering the excited state to be near the continuum. The good low temperature (77 K) performance in strongly bound QDIPs is shown to be due to the high gain and the low noise achievable in these micron size devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power (~9 μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, Z. Huang, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 80 (22)-- June 3, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power quantum cascade lasers emitting at λ > 9 μm are demonstrated. Accurate control of layer thickness and interfaces is evidenced by x-ray diffraction. Excellent peak power for uncoated lasers, up to 3.5 W per facet for a 25 μm emitter width, is obtained at 300 K for 75 period structures. The threshold current density at 300 K is only 1.4 kA/cm². From 300 to 425 K, the laser exhibits a characteristic temperature, T0, of 167 K. Over 150 mW of average power is measured per facet for a duty cycle of 6%. Simulation of the average power output reveals a thermal resistance of 12 K/W for epilayer-up mounted ridges. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 74 (20)-- November 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper we present a theory of diffusion and recombination in QDIPs which is an attempt to explain the recently reported values of gain in these devices. We allow the kinetics to encompass both the diffusion and capture rate limited regimes of carrier relaxation using rigorous random walk and diffusion methods. The photoconductive gains are calculated and compared with the experimental values obtained from InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs and InAs/InP QDIPs using the generation-recombination noise analysis. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: The quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, Vol. 78, No. 11-- September 15, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We consider the problem of charge transport and recombination in semiconductor quantum well infrared photodetectors and quantum-dot-in-a-well infrared detectors. The photoexcited carrier relaxation is calculated using rigorous random-walk and diffusion methods, which take into account the finiteness of recombination cross sections, and if necessary the memory of the carrier generation point. In the present application, bias fields are high and it is sufficient to consider the drift limited regime. The photoconductive gain is discussed in a quantum-mechanical language, making it more transparent, especially with regard to understanding the bias and temperature dependence. Comparing experiment and theory, we can estimate the respective recombination times. The method developed here applies equally well to nanopillar structures, provided account is taken of changes in mobility and trapping. Finally, we also derive formulas for the photocurrent time decays, which in a clean system at high bias are sums of two exponentials. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Band gap tunability of Type-II Antimonide-based superlattices
M. Razeghi and B.M. Nguyen
Physics Procedia, Vol. 3, Issue 2, p. 1207-1212 (14th International Conference on Narrow Gap Semiconductors and Systems NGSS-14, Sendai, Japan, July 13-17, 2009)-- January 31, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Current state-of-the art infrared photon detectors based on bulk semiconductors such as InSb or HgCdTe are now relatively mature and have almost attained the theoretical limit of performance. It means, however, that the technology can not be expected to demonstrate revolutionary improvements, in terms of device performances. In contrasts, low dimensional quantum systems such as superlattices, quantum wells, quantum dots, are still the development stage, yet have shown comparable performance to the bulk detector family. Especially for the Type-II Antimony-based superlattices, recent years have seen significant improvements in material quality, structural design as well as fabrication techniques which lift the performance of Type-II superlattice photodetectors to a new level. In this talk, we will discuss the advantages of Type-II-superlattices, from the physical nature of the material to the practical realisms. We will demonstrate the flexibility in controlling the energy gap and their overall band alignment for the suppression of Auger recombination, as well as to create sophisticated hetero-designs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Effect of contact doping on superlattice-based minority carrier unipolar detectors
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 3, p. 033501-1-- July 18, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the influence of the contact doping profile on the performance of superlattice-based minority carrier unipolar devices for mid-wave infrared detection. Unlike in a photodiode, the space charge in the p-contact of a pMp unipolar device is formed with accumulated mobile carriers, resulting in higher dark current in the device with highly doped p-contact. By reducing the doping concentration in the contact layer, the dark current is decreased by one order of magnitude. At 150 K, 4.9 μm cut-off devices exhibit a dark current of 2 × 10−5A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 44%. The resulting specific detectivity is 6.2 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 150 K and exceeds 1.9 × 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90 No. 14, p. 141112-1-- April 2, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Avalanche p-i-n photodiodes were fabricated on AlN templates for back illumination. Structures with different intrinsic layer thicknesses were tested. A critical electric field of 2.73 MV/cm was estimated from the variation of the breakdown voltage with thickness. From the device response under back and front illumination and the consequent selective injection of holes and electrons in the junction, ionization coefficients were obtained for GaN. The hole ionization coefficient was found to be higher than the electron ionization coefficient as predicted by theory. Excess multiplication noise factors were also calculated for back and front illumination, and indicated a higher noise contribution for electron injection. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Infrared detection from GaInAs/InP nanopillar arrays
A. Gin, B. Movaghar, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
Nanotechnology 16-- July 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the photoresponse from large arrays of 40 nm radius nanopillars with sensitivity in the long-wavelength infrared regime. Using photoluminescence techniques, a peak wavelength blue shift of approximately 5 meV was observed at 30 K from GaInAs/InP nanopillar structures, indicating carrier confinement effects. Responsivity measurements at 30 K indicated peak wavelength response at about 8 µm with responsivity of 420 mA/W at −2 V bias. We have also measured the noise and estimated the peak detectivity to be 3×108 cm·Hz½·W−1 at 1 V reverse bias and 30 K. A maximum internal quantum efficiency of 4.5% was derived from experiment. Both the photo and the dark transport have been successfully modeled as processes that involve direct and indirect field-assisted tunneling as well as thermionic emission. The best agreement with experiment was obtained when allowances were made for the non-uniformity of barrier widths and electric field heating of carriers above the lattice temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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