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1.  First Demonstration of ~ 10 microns FPAs in InAs/GaSb SLS
M. Razeghi, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, R. McClintock, Y. Wei, E. Michel, V. Nathan and M. Tidrow
IEEE LEOS Newsletter 20 (5)-- October 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The concept of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was first brought by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki, et al. in the 1970s. There had been few studies on this material system until two decades later when reasonable quality material growth was made possible using molecular beam epitaxy. With the addition of cracker cells for the group V sources and optimizations of material growth conditions, the superlattice quality become significantly improved and the detectors made of these superlattice materials can meet the demand in some practical field applications. Especially in the LWIR regime, it provides a very promising alternative to HgCdTe for better material stability and uniformity, etc. We have developed the empirical tight binding model (ETBM) for precise determination of the superlattice bandgap. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers
D. Heydari, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 106, 091105 (2015)-- March 6, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm²·sr-1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterostructures
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000M-1-10.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress in growth techniques, structure design and processing has lifted the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. A double heterostructure design, based on a low band gap (11 µm) active region and high band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts, reduced the sensitivity of the superlattice to surface effects. The heterodiodes with an 11 µm cutoff, passivated with SiO2, presented similar performances to unpassivated devices and a one order of magnitude increase of the resistivity of the sidewalls, even after flip-chip bonding and underfill. Thanks to this new design and to the inversion of the polarity of the devices, a high performance focal plane array with an 11 µm cutoff was demonstrated. The noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 26 mK and 19 mK for operating temperatures of 81 K and 67 K. At an integration time of 0.08 ms, the FPA presented a quantum efficiency superior to 50%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of 8.5 μm Quantum Cascade Laser
S. Slivken, C. Jelen, A. Rybaltowski, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (18)-- November 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate preliminary results for an 8.5 μm laser emission from quantum cascade lasers grown in a single step by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. 70 mW peak power per two facets is recorded for all devices tested at 79 K with 1 μs pulses at 200 Hz. For a 3 mm cavity length, lasing persists up to 270 K with a T0 of 180 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Dual section quantum cascade lasers with wide electrical tuning
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310P-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper describes our development efforts at Northwestern University regarding dual-section sampled grating distributed feedback (SGDFB) QCLs. These devices are the same size, but have much wider electrical tuning, than a traditional DFB laser. In this paper, I will show how we have dramatically extended the monolithic tuning range of high power quantum cascade lasers with high side mode suppression. This includes individual laser element tuning of up to 50 cm-1 and 24 dB average side mode suppression. These lasers are capable of room temperature continuous operation with high power (>100 mW) output. Additionally, we have demonstrated a broad spectral coverage of over 350 cm-1 on a single chip, which is equivalent to 87.5% of the gain bandwidth. The eventual goal is to realize an extended array of such laser modules in order to continuously cover a similar or broader spectral range, similar to an external cavity device without any external components. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Akhil Rajan, David J Rogers, Cuong Ton-That, Liangchen Zhu, Matthew R Phillips, Suresh Sundaram, Simon Gautier, Tarik Moudakir, Youssef El-Gmili, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Vinod E Sandana, Ferechteh H Teherani, Philippe Bove, Kevin A Prior, Zakaria Djebbour, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 31 -- July 15, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-detectivity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
J. Szafraniec, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A.A. Quivy, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (121102)-- March 20, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
A mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InGaAs quantum dots buried in an InGaP matrix and deposited on a GaAs substrate was demonstrated. Its photoresponse at T=77 K was measured to be around 4.7 μm with a cutoff at 5.5 μm. Due to the high peak responsivity of 1.2 A/W and low dark-current noise of the device, a specific peak detectivity of 1.1 x 1012 cm·Hz½·W−1 was achieved at −0.9 V bias [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared Type-II superlattice Photodiodes on a 3
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7945, p. 79451O-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the great advantages of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice over other competing technologies for the third generation infrared imagers is the potential to have excellent uniformity across a large area as the electronic structure of the material is controlled by the layer thicknesses, not by the composition of the materials. This can economize the material growth, reduce the fabrication cost, and especially allow the realization of large format imagers. In this talk, we report the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Type-II superlattices on a 3-inch GaSb substrate for long wavelength infrared detection. The material exhibits excellent structural, optical and electrical uniformity via AFM, Xray, quantum efficiency and I-V measurements. At 77K, 11μm cutoff photodiodes exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0x10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6 x 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High differential resistance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes for the long-wavelength infrared
A. Hood, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E. Michel and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 89 (9)-- August 28, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cutoff wavelength ranging from 11 to 13 μm are presented. Optimization of diffusion limited photodiodes provided superlattice structures for improved injection efficiency in direct injection hybrid focal plane array applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  MOCVD Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Using Au Droplets as Catalysts
V.E. Sandana, D.J. Rogers, F.H. Teherani, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, H.J. Drouhin, M.C. Clochard, V. Sallett, G. Garry and F. Fayoud
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices III, Vol. 6895, p. 68950Z-1-6.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO nanostructures were synthesised by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition growth on Si (100) and c-Al2O3 substrates coated with a 5nm thick layer of Au. The Au coated substrates were annealed in air prior to deposition of ZnO so as to promote formation of Au nanodroplets. The development of the nanodroplets was studied as a function of annealing duration and temperature. Under optimised conditions, a relatively homogeneous distribution of regular Au nanodroplets was obtained. Using the Au nanodroplets as a catalyst, MOCVD growth of ZnO nanostructures was studied. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nanostructures with various forms including commonly observed structures such as nanorods, nanoneedles and nanotubes. Some novel nanostructures were also observed, however, which resembled twist pastries and bevelled-multifaceted table legs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area expitaxy
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei, Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C.Y. Cho and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 05, p. 051102-1-- February 4, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1−xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ∼97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Substrate emission quantum cascade ring lasers with room temperature continuous wave operation
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680N-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade ring lasers around 5 μm with single mode operation up to 0.51 W output power. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. Light is coupled out of the ring cavity through the substrate with a second order distributed feedback grating. The substrate emission scheme allows for epilayer-down bonding, which leads to room temperature continuous wave operation. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Structural, Optical, Electrical and Morphological Study of Transparent p-NiO/n-ZnO Heterojunctions Grown by PLD
V. E. Sandana, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, N. Ben Sedrine, M. R. Correia, T. Monteiro, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 93641O (March 24, 2015)-- March 24, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
NiO/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on FTO/glass and bulk hydrothermal ZnO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-Ray diffraction and Room Temperature (RT) Raman studies were consistent with the formation of (0002) oriented wurtzite ZnO and (111) oriented fcc NiO. RT optical transmission studies revealed bandgap energy values of ~3.70 eV and ~3.30 eV for NiO and ZnO, respectively and more than 80% transmission for the whole ZnO/NiO/FTO/glass stack over the majority of the visible spectrum. Lateral p-n heterojunction mesas (~6mm x 6mm) were fabricated using a shadow mask during PLD growth. n-n and p-p measurements showed that Ti/Au contacting gave an Ohmic reponse for the NiO, ZnO and FTO. Both heterojunctions had rectifying I/V characteristics. The junction on FTO/glass gave forward bias currents (243mA at +10V) that were over 5 orders of magnitude higher than those for the junction formed on bulk ZnO. At ~ 10-7 A (for 10V of reverse bias) the heterojunction leakage current was approximately two orders of magnitude lower on the bulk ZnO substrate than on FTO. Overall, the lateral p-NiO/n-ZnO/FTO/glass device proved far superior to that formed by growing p-NiO directly on the bulk n-ZnO substrate and gave a combination of electrical performance and visible wavelength transparency that could predispose it for use in various third generation transparent electronics applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Electroluminescence of InAs/GaSb heterodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E. Michel, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 42 (2)-- February 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The electroluminescence of a Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice heterodiode has been studied as a function of injection current and temperature in the spectral range between 3 and 13 μm. The heterodiode comprises a Be-doped midwavelength infrared (MWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap around 270 meV and an undoped long wavelength infrared (LWIR) superlattice with an effective bandgap of 115 meV. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent Advances in Room Temperature, High-Power Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Sources Based on Difference-Frequency Generation
Quanyong Lu and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 2016, 3, 42-- July 7, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the current status of high-performance, compact, THz sources based on intracavity nonlinear frequency generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Significant performance improvements of our THz sources in the power and wall plug efficiency are achieved by systematic optimizing the device’s active region, waveguide, and chip bonding strategy. High THz power up to 1.9 mW and 0.014 mW for pulsed mode and continuous wave operations at room temperature are demonstrated, respectively. Even higher power and efficiency are envisioned based on enhancements in outcoupling efficiency and mid-IR performance. Our compact THz device with high power and wide tuning range is highly suitable for imaging, sensing, spectroscopy, medical diagnosis, and many other applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Polarization-free GaN emitters in the ultraviolet and visible spectra via heterointegration on CMOS-compatible Si (100)
C. Bayram, J. Ott, K. T. Shiu, C. W. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Kim, D. K. Sadana, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9370, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XII, 93702F (February 8, 2015); -- February 8, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
This work presents a new type of polarization-free GaN emitter. The unique aspect of this work is that the ultraviolet and visible emission originates from the cubic phase GaN and the cubic phase InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells, respectively. Conventionally, GaN emitters (e.g. light emitting diodes, laser diodes) are wurtzite phase thus strong polarization fields exist across the structure contributing to the “droop” behavior – a phenomenon defined as “the reduction in emitter efficiency as injection current increases”. The elimination of piezoelectric fields in GaN-based emitters as proposed in this work provide the potential for achieving a 100% internal efficiency and might lead to droopfree light emitting diodes. In addition, this work demonstrates co-integration of GaN emitters on cheap and scalable CMOS-compatible Si (100) substrate, which yields possibility of realizing a GaN laser diode uniquely – via forming mirrors along the naturally occurring cubic phase GaN-Si(100) cleavage planes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 26, p. 261104-1-- December 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate a quantum cascade ring laser with high power room temperature continuous wave operation. A second order distributed feedback grating buried inside the waveguide provides both in-plane feedback and vertical power outcoupling. Total output power reaches 0.51 W at an emission wavelength around 4.85 μm. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. The magnetic and electric components of the ring-shaped lasing beam are in radial and azimuthal directions, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  ZnO Thin Films & Nanostructures for Emerging Optoelectronic Applications
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V.E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050K-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  The importance of band alignment in VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb heterodiodes containing the M-structure barrier
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Bogdanov, P. Manukar, M. Razeghi, and V. Nathan
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-15-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photon detector is an attractive alternative to HgCdTe photodiodes and QWIPS. The use of p+ - pi - M - N+ heterodiode allows for greater flexibility in enhancing the device performance. The utilization of the Empirical Tight Binding method gives the band structure of the InAs/GaSb superlattice and the new M- structure (InAs/GaSb/AlSb/GaSb) superlattice allowing for the band alignment between the binary superlattice and the M- superlattice to be determined and see how it affects the optical performance. Then by modifying the doping level of the M- superlattice an optimal level can be determined to achieve high detectivity, by simultaneously improving both photo-response and reducing dark current for devices with cutoffs greater than 14.5 µm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Positive and negative luminescence in binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61271H-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In the present work, we show measurements of both positive and negative luminescence of binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the 3 to 13 μm spectral range. Through a radiometric calibration technique, we demonstrate temperature independent negative luminescence efficiencies of 45 % in the midwavelength (MWIR) sample from 220 K to 320 K without anti-reflective coating and values reaching 35 % in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectrum sample. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice injection lasers operating at 4.0 μm grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
B. Lane, Z. Wu, A. Stein, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (23)-- June 7, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report high power mid-infrared electrical injection operation of laser diodes based on InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices grown on InAs substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The broad-area laser diodes with 100 μm aperture and 1800 μm cavity length demonstrate peak output powers of 546 and 94 mW in pulsed and cw operation respectively at 100 K with a threshold current density as low as 100 A/cm². [reprint (PDF)]
 

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