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1.  Type-II InAs/GaSb photodiodes and focal plane arrays aimed at high operating temperatures
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, and B.M. Nguyen
Opto-Electronics Review (OER), Vol. 19, No. 3, June 2011, p. 46-54-- June 1, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts to improve the performance of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPA) have been reviewed. The theoretical bandstructure models have been discussed first. A review of recent developments in growth and characterization techniques is given. The efforts to improve the performance of MWIR photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been reviewed and the latest results have been reported. It is shown that these improvements has resulted in background limited performance (BLIP) of single element photodiodes up to 180 K. FPA shows a constant noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11 mK up to 120 K and it shows human body imaging up to 170 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterostructures
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000M-1-10.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress in growth techniques, structure design and processing has lifted the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. A double heterostructure design, based on a low band gap (11 µm) active region and high band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts, reduced the sensitivity of the superlattice to surface effects. The heterodiodes with an 11 µm cutoff, passivated with SiO2, presented similar performances to unpassivated devices and a one order of magnitude increase of the resistivity of the sidewalls, even after flip-chip bonding and underfill. Thanks to this new design and to the inversion of the polarity of the devices, a high performance focal plane array with an 11 µm cutoff was demonstrated. The noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 26 mK and 19 mK for operating temperatures of 81 K and 67 K. At an integration time of 0.08 ms, the FPA presented a quantum efficiency superior to 50%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature
H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 13, p. 131112-1-- March 26, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The detectivity was 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a bias of −5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.1 μm and a quantum efficiency of 35%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature, which gives a detectivity of 6.7×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.8 µm quantum-cascade lasers at room temperature
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 85 (12)-- September 20, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ~4.8 µm is reported up to a temperature of 323 K. Accurate control of layer thickness and strain-balanced material composition is demonstrated using x-ray diffraction. cw output power is reported to be in excess of 370 mW per facet at 293 K, and 38 mW per facet at 323 K. Room-temperature average power measurements are demonstrated with over 600 mW per facet at 50% duty cycle with over 300 mW still observed at 100% (cw) duty cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from type-II InAs/GaSb M-structure superlattice
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981Q-- April 13, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent advances in growth techniques, structure design and processing have lifted the performance of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. The introduction of a M-structure design improved both the dark current and R0A of Type-II photodiodes. This new structure combined with a thick absorbing region demonstrated background limited performance at 77K for a 300K background and a 2-π field of view. A focal plane array with a 9.6 μm 50% cutoff wavelength was fabricated with this design and characterized at 80K. The dark current of individual pixels was measured around 1.3 nA, 7 times lower than previous superlattice FPAs. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The quantum efficiency of detectors without anti-reflective coating was 72%. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK. The deposition of an anti-reflective coating improved the NEDT to 20 mK and the quantum efficiency to 89%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for High-Performance Third Generation Infrared Imaging and Free-Space Communication
M. Razeghi, A. Hood and A. Evans
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits IX, Vol. 6476, p. 64760Q-1-9-- January 29, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-space optical communications has recently been touted as a solution to the "last mile" bottleneck of high speed data networks providing highly secure, short to long range, and high bandwidth connections. However, commercial near infrared systems experience atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which can adversely affect a link's uptime. By moving the operating wavelength into the mid or long wavelength infrared enhanced link uptimes and increased range can be achieved due to less susceptibility atmospheric affects. The combination of room temperature, continuous wave' high power quantum cascade lasers and high operating temperature Type-II superlattice photodetectors offers the benefits of mid and long wavelength infrared systems as well as practical operating conditions. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and Characterization of Long-Wavelength Infrared Type-II Superlattice Photodiodes on a 3-in GaSb Wafer
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 47, No. 5, May 2011, p. 686-690-- May 11, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of high performance Type-II superlattice photodiodes on 3” GaSb substrates for long wavelength infrared detection. A 7.3 micron thick device structure shows excellent structural homogeneity via atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization. Optical and electrical measurements of photodiodes reveal not only the uniformity of the Type-II superlattice material but also of the fabrication process. Across the wafer, at 77 K, photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 11 micron exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0 x 10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6x1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 18, p. 183502-- November 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a hybrid photodetector design that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. The structure consists of a barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. By using the M-structure superlattice as a barrier region, the band alignments can be experimentally controlled, allowing for the efficient extraction of the photosignal with less than 50 mV bias. At 77 K, a 14 µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W, and the associated shot noise detectivity of 4×1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent advances in LWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 6940, Orlando, FL 2008, p. 694009-- March 17, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices,we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Ammonium Sulfide Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Bajowala, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- March 22, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors using various ammonium sulfide solutions. Compared to unpassivated detectors, zero-bias resistance of treated 400 µm×400 µm devices with 8 µm cutoff wavelength was improved by over an order of magnitude to ~20 kΩ at 80 K. Reverse-bias dark current density was reduced by approximately two orders of magnitude to less than 10 mA/cm2 at –2 V. Dark current modeling, which takes into account trap-assisted tunneling, indicates greater than 70 times reduction in bulk trap density for passivated detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal stability of GaN thin films grown on (0001) Al2O3, (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H-SiC substrates
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and D.K. Gaskill
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1)-- July 1, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
Single crystals of GaN were grown on (0001), (0112) Al2O3 and (0001)Si 6H‐SiC substrates using an atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical‐vapor‐deposition reactor. The relationship has been studied between the thermal stability of the GaN films and the substrate’s surface polarity. It appeared that the N‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001)Si 6H‐SiC has the most stable surface, followed by the nonpolar (1120) GaN surface grown on (0112) Al2O3, while the Ga‐terminated (0001) GaN surface grown on (0001) Al2O3 has the least stable surface. This is explained with the difference in the atomic configuration of each of these surfaces which induces a difference in their thermal decomposition. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Temperature dependent characteristics of λ ~ 3.8 µm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (25)-- June 19, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The highest-performance device displays pulsed laser action at wavelengths between 3.4 and 3.6 μm, for temperatures up to 300 K, with a low temperature (80 K) threshold current density of approximately 2.6 kA/cm2, and a characteristic temperature of T0~130 K. The shortest wavelength QCL (λ ~ 3.05 μm) has a higher threshold current density (~12 kA/cm2 at T=20 K) and operates in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Inductively coupled plasma etching and processing techniques for type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices infrared detectors toward high fill factor focal plane arrays
E.K. Huang, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0Z-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A challenge for Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors is to achieve high fill factor, high aspect ratio etching for third generation focal plane arrays (FPAs). Initially, we compare the morphological and electrical results of single element T2SL photodiodes after BCl3/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) dry etching. Using a Si3N4 hard mask, ICP-etched structures exemplify greater sidewall verticality and smoothness, which are essential toward the realization of high fill factor FPAs. ICP-etched single element devices with SiO2 passivation that are 9.3 µm in cutoff wavelength achieved vertical sidewalls of 7.7 µm in depth with a resistance area product at zero bias of greater than 1,000 Ω·cm2 and maximum differential resistance in excess of 10,000 Ω·cm2 at 77 K. By only modifying the etching technique in the fabrication steps, the ICP-etched photodiodes showed an order of magnitude decrease in their dark current densities in comparison to the ECR-etched devices. Finally, high aspect ratio etching is demonstrated on mutli-element arrays with 3 µm-wide trenches that are 11 µm deep. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and B.M. Nguyen
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80122Q-1-- April 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type II superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Using M-structure superlattice, novel device architectures have been developed, resulting in significant improvement of the device performances. In this paper, we will compare different photodetector architectures and discuss the optimization scheme which leads to almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance. At 150K, single element detectors exhibit a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x10(12) cm.Hz(1/2)/W. BLIP operation with a 300K background and 2π FOV can be reached with an operating temperature up to 180K. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11mK up to 120K. Human body imaging is achieved at 150K with NEDT of 150mK. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
S. Bogdanov, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 183501-1-- May 2, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Dielectric passivation of long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with different active region doping profiles has been studied. SiO2 passivation was shown to be efficient as long as it was not put in direct contact with the highly doped superlattice. A hybrid graded doping profile combined with the shallow etch technique reduced the surface leakage current in SiO2 passivated devices by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the usual design. As a result, at 77 K the SiO(2) passivated devices with 10.5 μm cutoff wavelength exhibit an R0A of 120 Ω·cm², RmaxA of 6000 Ω·cm², and a dark current level of 3.5×10−5 A·cm−2 at −50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Optoelectronic Devices Based on III-V Compound Semiconductors Which Have Made a Major Scientific and Technological Impact in the Past 20 Years
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 6 (6), pp.1344 - 1354 -- November 1, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper reviews some of our pioneering contributions to the field of III–V compound semiconductor materials and low-dimensional optoelectronic devices. These contributions span from the ultraviolet (200 nm) up to the far-infrared (25 μm) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and have had a major scientific and technological impact on the semiconductor world in the past 20 years. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors Based on InSbBi Grown on GaAs Substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (16)-- October 20, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the operation of InSbBi infrared photoconductive detectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The fabricated photodetector showed a cutoff wavelength of 7.7 μm at 77 K. The responsivity of the InSbBi photodetector at 7 μm was about 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The corresponding Johnson-noise limited detectivity was 4.7×108  cm· Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime was estimated to be about 86 ns from the voltage-dependent responsivity measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid, long, and very long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, A. Hood, V. Yazdanpanah, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Orlando, FL, Vol. 5783, pp. 86-- March 28, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We present our most recent results and review our progress over the past few years regarding InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for photovoltaic detectors and focal plane arrays. Empirical tight binding methods have been proven to be very effective and accurate in designing superlattices for various cutoff wavelengths from 3.7 µm up to 32 µm. Excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. High quality material growths were performed using an Intevac modular Gen II molecular beam epitaxy system. The material quality was characterized using x-ray, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence, etc. Detector performance confirmed high material electrical quality. Details of the demonstration of 256×256 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays are presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared Type-II superlattice Photodiodes on a 3
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7945, p. 79451O-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the great advantages of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice over other competing technologies for the third generation infrared imagers is the potential to have excellent uniformity across a large area as the electronic structure of the material is controlled by the layer thicknesses, not by the composition of the materials. This can economize the material growth, reduce the fabrication cost, and especially allow the realization of large format imagers. In this talk, we report the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Type-II superlattices on a 3-inch GaSb substrate for long wavelength infrared detection. The material exhibits excellent structural, optical and electrical uniformity via AFM, Xray, quantum efficiency and I-V measurements. At 77K, 11μm cutoff photodiodes exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0x10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6 x 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Elimination of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.-M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 18, p. 183503-1-- October 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The electrical performance of mid-infrared type-II superlattice M-barrier photodetectors is shown to be limited by surface leakage. By applying gate bias on the mesa sidewall surface, leakage current is significantly reduced. Qualitatively IV modeling shows diffusion-dominated behavior of dark current at temperatures greater than 120 K. At 110 K, the dark current of gated device is reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching the measurement system noise floor. With a quantum efficiency of 48% in front side illumination configuration, a 4.7μm cut-off gated device attains a specific detectivity of 2.5 × 1014 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 110 K, which is 3.6 times higher than in ungated devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Temperature dependence of the dark current and activation energy at avalanche onset of GaN Avalanche Photodiodes
M.P. Ulmer, E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8460, p. 84601G-1-- August 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a study of the performance of an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a function of temperature from 564 K to 74 K. The dark current at avalanche onset decreases from 564 K to 74 K by approximately a factor of 125 and from 300 K to 74K the dark current at avalanche offset is reduced by a factor of about 10. The drop would have been considerably larger if the activation energy at avalanche onset (Ea) did not also decrease with decreasing temperature. These data give us insights into how to improve the single-photon counting performance of a GaN based ADP. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (9)-- August 29, 2005 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 

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