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2.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1416, p. 56-58_NGS15 Conf_Blacksburg, VA_Aug 1-5, 2011-- December 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Fabrication and characterization of a high performance 1024×1024 long wavelength infrared type‐II superlattice focal plane array are described. The FPA performs imaging at a continous rate of 15.00 frames/sec. Each pixel has pitch of 18μm with a fill factor of 71.31%. It demonstrates excellent operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at 81 and 68K operation temperature. The external quantum efficiency is ∼81% without any antireflective coating. Using F∕2 optics and an integration time of 0.13ms, the FPA exhibits an NEDT as low as 27 and 19mK at operating temperatures of 81 and 68K respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Hood, J. Nah, and M. Razeghi
International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF), San Diego, CA; Thin Solid Films 447-448-- January 30, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, excellent infrared detectors have been demonstrated using Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials sensitive at wavelengths from 3 μm to greater than 32 μm. These results indicate that Type-II superlattice devices may challenge the preponderance of HgCdTe and other state-of-the-art infrared material systems. As such, surface passivation is becoming an increasingly important issue as progress is made towards the commercialization of Type-II devices and focal plane array applications. This work focuses on initial attempts at surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes using PECVD-grown thin layers of SiO2. Our results indicate that silicon dioxide coatings deposited at various temperatures improve photodetector resistivity by several times. Furthermore, reverse-bias dark current has been reduced significantly in passivated devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  State-of-the-art Type II Antimonide-based superlattice photodiodes for infrared detection and imaging
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, P. Manurkar, and S. Bogdanov
SPIE Proceedings, Nanophotonics and Macrophotonics for Space Environments II, San Diego, CA, Vol. 7467, p. 74670T-1-- August 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice (SL), a system of multi interacting quantum wells was first introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this low dimensional system has drawn a lot of attention for its attractive quantum mechanics properties and its grand potential for the emergence into the application world, especially in infrared detection. In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs and imaging applications which elevated the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art Mercury Cadmium Telluride. We will present in this talk the current status of the state-of-the-art Type II superlattice photodetectors and focal plane arrays, and the future outlook for this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Free-space optical communication using mid-infrared or solar-blind ultraviolet sources and detectors
R. McClintock, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826810-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-space optical communication is a promising solution to the “last mile” bottleneck of data networks. Conventional near infrared-based free-space optical communication systems suffer from atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which limit the performance of the data links. Using mid-infrared, we reduce the scattering and thus can improve the quality of the data links and increase their range. Because of the low scattering, the data link cannot be intercepted without a complete or partial loss in power detected by the receiver. This type of communications provides ultra-high bandwidth and highly secure data transfer for both short and medium range data links. Quantum cascade lasers are one of the most promising sources for mid-wavelength infrared sources and Type-II superlattice photodetectors are strong candidates for detection in this regime. The same way that that low scattering makes mid-wavelength infrared ideal for secure free space communications,high scattering can be used for secure short-range free-space optical communications. In the solar-blind ultraviolet (< 280 nm) light is strongly scattered and absorbed. This scattering makes possible non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications. The scattering and absorption also prevent remote eavesdropping. III-Nitride based LEDs and photodetectors are ideal for non-line-of-sight free-space optical communication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 955502-- August 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
III-Nitride material system (AlGaInN) possesses unique optical, electrical and structural properties such as a wide tunable direct bandgap, inherent fast carrier dynamics; good carrier transport properties, high breakdown fields; and high robustness and chemical stability. Recent technological advances in the wide bandgap AlGaN portion of this material system have led to a renewed interest in ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. These detectors find use in numerous applications in the defense, commercial and scientific arenas such as covert space-to-space communications, early missile threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy, flame detection and monitoring, UV environmental monitoring, and UV astronomy.1,2,3 Back illuminated detectors operating in the solar blind region are of special interest. Back illumination allows the detector to be hybridized to a silicon read-out integrated circuit, epi-side down, and still collect light through the back of the transparent sapphire substrate. This allows the realization of solar blind focal plane arrays (FPAs) for imaging applications. Solar-blind FPAs are especially important because of the near total absence of any background radiation in this region. In this talk, we will present our recent back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector, mini-array, and FPA results. By systematically optimizing the design of the structure we have realized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of in excess of 89% for pixel-sized detectors. Based on the absence of any anti-reflection coating, this corresponds to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. At the same time, the dark current remains below ~2 × 10-9 A/cm² even at 10 volts of reverse bias. The detector has a very sharp falloff starting at 275 with the UV-solar rejection of better than three orders of magnitude, and a visible rejection ratio is more than 6 orders of magnitude. This high performance photodetector design was then used as the basis of the realization of solar-blind FPA. We demonstrated a 320×256 FPA with a peak detection wavelength of 278nm. The operability of the FPA was better than 92%, and excellent corrected imaging was obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a Zn0/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diodes
D.J. Rogers, F.Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (14)-- April 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg heterojunction light emitting diode (LED) mesas were fabricated on c-Al2O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition for the ZnO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition for the GaN:Mg. Room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) showed an intense main peak at 375 nm and a negligibly low green emission indicative of a near band edge excitonic emission from a ZnO layer with low dislocation/defect density. The LEDs showed I-V characteristics confirming a rectifying diode behavior and a RT electroluminescence (EL) peaked at about 375 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High performance quantum dot-quantum well infrared focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, A. Myzaferi, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050J-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot (QD) devices are a promising technology for high operating temperature detectors. We have studied InAs QDs embedded in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well structure on InP substrate for middle wavelength infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). This combined dot-well structure has weak dot confinement of carriers, and as a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in more common dot systems with stronger confinement. We report on our studies of the energy levels in the QDWIP devices and on QD-based detectors operating at high temperature with D* over 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 150 K operating temperature and high quantum efficiency over 50%. FPAs have been demonstrated operating at up to 200 K. We also studied two methods of adapting the QDWIP device to better accommodate FPA readout circuit limitations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Suppression of surface leakage in gate controlled type-II InAs/GaSb mid-infrared photodetectors
G. Chen; B.-M. Nguyen; A.M. Hoang; E.K. Huang; S.R. Darvish; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8268, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices IX, 826811 (January 20, 2012)-- January 20, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area expitaxy
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei, Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C.Y. Cho and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 05, p. 051102-1-- February 4, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1−xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ∼97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  320x256 infrared focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice with a 12 μm cutoff wavelength
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 6542, Orlando, FL 2007, p. 654204-- April 9, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
In the past few years, significant progress has been made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the middle and long infra-red range, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as QWIP and HgCdTe. Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed a superlattice design that matches the lattice parameter of GaSb substrates and presents a cutoff wavelength of 12 μm. Electrical and optical measurements performed on single element detectors at 77 K showed an R0A averaging 13 Ω·cm² and a quantum efficiency as high as 54%. We demonstrated high quality material growth with x-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm². A 320x256 array of 25x25μm² pixels, hybridized to an Indigo Read Out Integrated Circuit, performed thermal imaging up to 185 K with an operability close to 97%. The noise equivalent temperature difference at 81 K presented a peak at 270 mK, corresponding to a mean value of 340 mK. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Quality Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Layers Grown on Sapphire Substrates
A. Saxler, P. Kung, C.J. Sun, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (3)-- January 17, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter we report the growth of high quality AlN epitaxial layers on sapphire substrates. The AlN grown on (00·1) sapphire exhibited a better crystalline quality than that grown on (01·2) sapphire. An x-ray rocking curve of AlN on (00·1) Al2O3 yielded a full width at half-maximum of 97.2 arcsec, which is the narrowest value reported to our knowledge. The AlN peak on (01·2) Al2O3 was about 30 times wider. The absorption edge measured by ultraviolet transmission spectroscopy for AlN grown on (00·1) Al2O3 was about 197 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Background Limited Performance in p-doped GaAs/Ga[0.71]In[0.29]As[0.39]P[0.61] Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
J. Hoff, S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, J. Piotrowski, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi and G. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 67 (1)-- July 3, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Background limited infrared photodetection has been achieved up to 100 K at normal incidence with p-type GaAs/Ga0.71In0.29As0.39P0.61 quantum well intersubband photodetectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse covers the wavelength range from 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The device shows photovoltaic response, the cutoff wavelength increases slightly with bias, and the responsivity increases nonlinearly with bias. These effects are attributed to an asymmetric quantum well profile. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type-II superlattice photodetectors for MWIR to VLWIR focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E. Michel and R. McClintock
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060N-1-- April 21, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Results obtained on GaSb/InAs Type-II superlattices have shown performance comparable to HgCdTe detectors, with the promise of higher performance due to reduced Auger recombination and dark current through improvements in device design and material quality. In this paper, we discuss advancements in Type-II IR sensors that cover the 3 to > 30 µm wavelength range. Specific topics covered will be device design and modeling using the Empirical Tight Binding Method (ETBM), material growth and characterization, device fabrication and testing, as well as focal plane array processing and imaging. Imaging has been demonstrated at room temperature for the first time with a 5 µm cutoff wavelength 256×256 focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Optimized structure for InGaAsP/GaAs 808nm high power lasers
H. Yi, J. Diaz, L.J. Wang, I. Eliashevich, S. Kim, R. Williams, M. Erdtmann, X. He, E. Kolev and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 66 (24)-- June 12, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
The optimized structure for the InGaAsP/GaAs quaternary material lasers (λ=0.808 μm) is investigated for the most efficient high‐power operation through an experiment and theoretical study. A comparative study is performed of threshold current density Jth and differential efficiency ηd dependence on cavity length (L) for two different laser structures with different active layer thickness (150 and 300 Å) as well as for laser structures with different multiple quantum well structures. A theoretical model with a more accurate formulation for minority leakage phenomenon provides explanation for the experimental results and sets general optimization rules for other lasers with similar restrictions on the band gap and refractive index difference between the active layer and the cladding layers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet 320 x 256 focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, E.K. Huang, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 896-898-- March 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1−xN–based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition AlxGa1−xN layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ∼285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA∕W, which corresponds to an EQE of ∼37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Fabrication of Indium Bumps for Hybrid Infrared Focal Plane Array Applications
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Infrared Physics and Technology, 45 (2)-- March 1, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Hybrid infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) have found many applications. In hybrid IR FPAs, FPA and Si read out integrated circuits (ROICs) are bonded together with indium bumps by flip-chip bonding. Taller and higher uniformity indium bumps are always being pursued in FPA fabrication. In this paper, two indium bump fabrication processes based on evaporation and electroplating techniques are developed. Issues related to each fabrication technique are addressed in detail. The evaporation technique is based on a unique positive lithography process. The electroplating method achieves taller indium bumps with a high aspect ratio by a unique “multi-stack” technique. This technique could potentially benefit the fabrication of multi-color FPAs. Finally, a proposed low-cost indium bump fabrication technique, the “bump transfer”, is given as a future technology for hybrid IR FPA fabrication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-temperature high-power continuous-wave operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, J. David, L. Doris, K. Mi, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (3)-- January 19, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report cw operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers (λ=6 µm) using a thick electroplated Au top contact layer and epilayer-up bonding on a copper heat sink up to a temperature of 333 K (60 °C). The high cw optical output powers of 446 mW at 293 K, 372 mW at 298 K, and 30 mW at 333 K are achieved with threshold current densities of 2.19, 2.35, and 4.29 kA/cm2 respectively, for a high-reflectivity-coated, 9-µm-wide and 3-mm-long laser [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-power laser diodes based on InGaAsP alloys
M. Razeghi
Nature, Vol.369, p.631-633-- June 23, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
HIGH-POWER, high-coherence solid-state lasers, based on dielectric materials such as ruby or Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), have many civilian and military applications. The active media in these lasers are insulating, and must therefore be excited (or ‘pumped’) by optical, rather than electrical, means. Conventional gas-discharge lamps can be used as the pumping source, but semiconductor diode lasers are more efficient, as their wavelength can be tailored to match the absorption properties of the lasing material. Semiconducting AlGaAs alloys are widely used for this purpose, but oxidation of the aluminium and the spreading of defects during device operation limit the lifetime of the diodes3, and hence the reliability of the system as a whole. Aluminium-free InGaAsP compounds, on the other hand, do not have these lifetime-limiting properties. We report here the fabrication of high-power lasers based on InGaAsP (lattice-matched to GaAs substrates), which operate over the same wavelength range as conventional AlGaAs laser diodes and show significantly improved reliability. The other optical and electrical properties of these diodes are either comparable or superior to those of the AlGaAs system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent performance records for mid-IR quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi; Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S. Kuboya; S.R. Darvish
Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Basic Research and Practical Applications, 2009. TERA-MIR International Workshop [5379656], (2009) -- November 9, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The wall plug efficiency of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in room temperature continuous wave operation is brought to 17%. Peak output power from a broad area (400 μm x 3 mm) device gives 120 W output power in pulsed mode operation at room temperature. Using a single-well-injector design, specifically made for low temperature operation, a record wall plug efficiency of 53% is demonstrated at 40 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-power λ ~ 9.5 µm quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (9)-- February 27, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report high-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of λ~9.5 μm quantum-cascade lasers to a temperature of 318 K. A high-reflectivity-coated 19-μm-wide and 3-mm-long device exhibits cw output powers as high as 150 mW at 288 K and still 22 mW at 318 K. In cw operation at 298 K, a threshold current density of 1.57 kA/cm2, a slope efficiency of 391 mW/A, and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 0.71% are obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Superlattice sees colder objects in two colors and high resolution
M. Razeghi
SPIE Newsroom-- February 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A special class of semiconductor material can now detect two wavebands of light with energies less than a tenth of an electron volt in high resolution using the same IR camera. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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