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3.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications
M. Razeghi and C. Bayram
SPIE Proceedings, Dresden, Germany (May 4-6, 2009), Vol. 7366, p. 73661F-1-- May 20, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high continuous-wave wall plug efficiency
A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 071101-1-- August 13, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report on the development of ~4.7 µm strain-balanced InP-based quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency and room temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of narrow-ridge buried heterostructure waveguides and thermally optimized packaging is presented. Over 9.3% wall plug efficiency is reported at room temperature from a single device producing over 0.675 W of continuous-wave output power. Wall plug efficiencies greater than 18% are also reported for devices at a temperature of 150 K, with continuous-wave output powers of more than 1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (9)-- August 29, 2005 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power, continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3.4 μm and λ ~ 3.55 μm InP-based quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 212104-1-- May 21, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report two highly strain-balanced InP-based AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers emitting near 3.39 and 3.56 . A pulsed threshold current density of only 1.1 kA/cm² has been achieved at room temperature for both lasers with characteristic temperatures (T0) of 166  K and 152  K, respectively. The slope efficiency is also relatively temperature insensitive with characteristic temperatures (T1) of 116 K and 191  K, respectively. Continuous wave powers of 504 mW and 576 mW are obtained at room temperature, respectively. This was accomplished without buried ridge processing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Free-space optical communication using mid-infrared or solar-blind ultraviolet sources and detectors
R. McClintock, A. Haddadi and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826810-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-space optical communication is a promising solution to the “last mile” bottleneck of data networks. Conventional near infrared-based free-space optical communication systems suffer from atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which limit the performance of the data links. Using mid-infrared, we reduce the scattering and thus can improve the quality of the data links and increase their range. Because of the low scattering, the data link cannot be intercepted without a complete or partial loss in power detected by the receiver. This type of communications provides ultra-high bandwidth and highly secure data transfer for both short and medium range data links. Quantum cascade lasers are one of the most promising sources for mid-wavelength infrared sources and Type-II superlattice photodetectors are strong candidates for detection in this regime. The same way that that low scattering makes mid-wavelength infrared ideal for secure free space communications,high scattering can be used for secure short-range free-space optical communications. In the solar-blind ultraviolet (< 280 nm) light is strongly scattered and absorbed. This scattering makes possible non-line-of-sight free-space optical communications. The scattering and absorption also prevent remote eavesdropping. III-Nitride based LEDs and photodetectors are ideal for non-line-of-sight free-space optical communication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, E. Selcuk, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 25-- December 20, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 μm is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T(0) and T(1), for operations above room temperature. A T(0) value of 383 K and a T(1) value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298–373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mm and a ridge width of 8 μm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Growth of AlGaN on silicon substrates: a novel way to make back-illuminated ultraviolet photodetectors
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550U-- August 28, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
AlGaN, with its tunable wide-bandgap is a good choice for the realization of ultraviolet photodetectors. AlGaN films tend to be grown on foreign substrates such as sapphire, which is the most common choice for back-illuminated devices. However, even ultraviolet opaque substrates like silicon holds promise because, silicon can be removed by chemical treatment to allow back-illumination,1 and it is a very low-cost substrate which is available in large diameters up to 300 mm. However, Implementation of silicon as the solar-blind PD substrates requires overcoming the lattice-mismatch (17%) with the AlxGa1-xN that leads to high density of dislocation and crack-initiating stress. In this talk, we report the growth of thick crack-free AlGaN films on (111) silicon substrates through the use of a substrate patterning and mask-less selective area regrowth. This technique is critical as it decouples the epilayers and the substrate and allows for crack-free growth; however, the masking also helps to reduce the dislocation density by inclining the growth direction and encouraging dislocations to annihilate. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on this high quality template layer. After processing and hybridizing the device we use a chemical process to selectively remove the silicon substrate. This removal has minimal effect on the device, but it removes the UV-opaque silicon and allows back-illumination of the photodetector. We report our latest results of back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors growth on silicon. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3μm quantum cascade laser
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310M-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), operating in continuous wave (CW) at room temperature(RT) in 3-3.5 μm spectral range, which overlaps the spectral fingerprint region of many hydrocarbons, is essential in spectroscopic trace gas detection, environment monitoring, and pollution control. A 3 μm QCL, operating in CW at RT is demonstrated. This initial result makes it possible, for the most popular material system (AlInAs/GaInAs on InP) used in QCLs in mid-infrared and long-infrared, to cover the entire spectral range of mid-infrared atmospheric window (3-5 μm). In0.79Ga0.21As/In0.11Al0.89As strain balanced superlattice, which has a large conduction band offset, was grown. The strain was balanced with composite barriers (In0.11Al0.89As /In0.4Al0.6As) in the injector region, to eliminate the need of extremely high compressively strained GaInAs, whose pseudomorphic growth is very difficult. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  A Review of III-Nitride Research at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi and R. McClintock
Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 311, No. 10-- May 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we review the history of the Center for Quantum Devices’ (CQD) III-nitride research covering the past 15 years. We review early work developing III-nitride material growth. We then present a review of laser and light-emitting diode (LED) results covering everything from blue lasers to deep UV LEDs emitting at 250 nm. This is followed by a discussion of our UV photodetector research from early photoconductors all the way to current state of the art Geiger-mode UV single photon detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for long-wavelength infrared detectors
H. Mohseni, E. Michel, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on semi- insulating GaAs substrate for long wavelength IR detectors. Photoconductive detectors fabricated from the superlattices showed 80% cut-off at 11.6 μm and peak responsivity of 6.5 V/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 2.36 x 109 cm·Hz½/W at 10.7 μm at 78 K. The responsivity decreases at higher temperatures with a T-2 behavior rather than exponential decay, and at room temperature the responsivity is about 660 mV/W at 11 μm. Lower Auger recombination rate in this system provides comparable detectivity to the best HgCdTe detectors at 300K. Higher uniformity over large areas, simpler growth and the possibility of having read-out circuits in the same GaAs chip are the advantages of this system over HgCdTe detectors for near room temperature operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Demonstration of negative differential resistance in GaN/AlN resonant tunneling didoes at room temperature
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 8, p. 083505-- April 15, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and negative differential resistance with peak-to-valley ratios as high as 2.15 at room temperature was demonstrated. Effect of material quality on RTDs’ performance was investigated by growing RTD structures on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. Our results reveal that negative differential resistance characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness) and MOCVD is a suitable technique for III-nitride-based quantum devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with 12 W output power
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 3-- July 20, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature, high power, and diffraction limited operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting around 4.7 µm. PCDFB gratings with three distinctive periods are fabricated on the same wafer. Peak output power up to 12 W is demonstrated. Lasers with different periods show expected wavelength shifts according to the design. Dual mode spectra are attributed to a purer index coupling by putting the grating layer 100 nm away from the laser core. Single lobed diffraction limited far field profiles are observed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 4, p. 042103-1-- January 25, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. RTDs were fabricated via standard processing steps. RTDs demonstrate a clear negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature (RT). The NDR was observed around 4.7 V with a peak current density of 59 kA/cm² and a peak-to-valley ratio of 1.6 at RT. Dislocation-free material is shown to be the key for the performance of GaN RTDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Development of material quality and structural design for high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow and V. Nathan
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708204-- August 11, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors lifted both the quantum efficiency and the R0A product of the detectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR)and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) ranges, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detectors (QWIP) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed superlattices designs that were nearly lattice-matched to the GaSb substrates and presented cutoff wavelengths of 5 and 11 μm. We demonstrated high quality material growth with X-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm2. The detectors with a 5 μm cutoff, capable of operating at room temperature, showed a R0A of 1.25 106 Ω.cm2 at 77K, and a quantum efficiency of 32%. In the long wavelength infrared, we demonstrated high quantum efficiencies above 50% with high R0A products of 12 Ω.cm2 by increasing the thickness of the active region. Using the novel M-structure superlattice design, more than one order of magnitude improvement has been observed for electrical performance of the devices. Focal plane arrays in the middle and long infrared range, hybridized to an Indigo read out integrated circuit, exhibited high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High operating temperature 320 x 256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector
S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology-- May 28, 2007 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Continuous operation of a monolithic semiconductor terahertz source at room temperature
Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 221105 (2014)-- June 3, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature continuous wave THz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Buried ridge, buried composite distributed-feedback waveguide with Čerenkov phase-matching scheme is used to reduce the waveguide loss and enhance the heat dissipation for continuous wave operation. Continuous emission at 3.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 20 dB and output power up to 3 μW are achieved, respectively. THz peak power is further scaled up to 1.4 mW in pulsed mode by increasing the mid-infrared power through increasing the active region doping and device area. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Thermal Conductivity of InAs/GaSb Type II Superlattice
C. Zhou, B.M. Nguyen, M. Razeghi and M. Grayson
Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, No. 9, p. 2322-2325-- August 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
The cross-plane thermal conductivity of a type II InAs/GaSb superlattice(T2SL) is measured from 13 K to 300 K using the 3x method. Thermal conductivity is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude relative to the GaSb bulk substrate. The low thermal conductivity of around 1 W/m K to 8 W/m K may serve as an advantage for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures, while presenting a challenge for T2SL interband cascade lasers and highpower photodiodes. We describe a power-law approximation to model nonlinearities in the thermal conductivity, resulting in increased or decreased peak temperature for negative or positive exponents, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Engineering Multi-Section Quantum Cascade Lasers for Broadband Tuning
Steven Slivken and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 3, 41 (2016)-- June 27, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
In an effort to overcome current limitations to electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers, a strategy is proposed which combines heterogeneous quantum cascade laser gain engineering with sampled grating architectures. This approach seeks to not only widen the accessible spectral range for an individual emitter, but also compensate for functional non-uniformity of reflectivity and gain lineshapes. A trial laser with a dual wavelength core is presented which exhibits electroluminescence over a 750 cm−1 range and discrete single mode laser emission over a 700 cm−1 range. Electrical tuning over 180 cm−1 is demonstrated with a simple sampled grating design. A path forward to even wider tuning is also described using more sophisticated gain and grating design principles. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Monolithic terahertz source
Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Nature Photonics | Research Highlights -- July 31, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
To date, the production of continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature has proved elusive. A critical problem is that, to achieve a large nonlinear susceptibility for frequency conversion, the active region of the quantum cascade laser requires high doping, which elevates the lasing threshold current density. Now, Quan-Yong Lu and colleagues from Northwestern University in the USA have overcome this problem and demonstrated a room-temperature continuous-wave THz source based on difference-frequency generation in quantum cascade lasers. They designed quantum-well structures based on In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As material system for two mid-infrared wavelengths. The average doping in the active region was about 2.5 × 1016 cm−3. A buried ridge, buried composite distributed-feedback waveguide with the Čerenkov phase-matching scheme was used to reduce the waveguide loss and enhance heat dissipation. As a result, single-mode emission at 3.6 THz was observed at 293 K. The continuous-wave THz power reached 3 μW with a conversion efficiency of 0.44 mW W−2 from mid-infrared to THz waves. Using a similar device design, a THz peak power of 1.4 mW was achieved in pulse mode. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111)
Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Cho, E. Cicek, Z, Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011106-1-- January 7, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth, fabrication, and device characterization of AlGaN-based thin-film ultraviolet (UV) (λ ∼ 359 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). First, AlN/Si(111) template is patterned. Then, a fully coalesced 7-μm-thick lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of AlN layer is realized on patterned AlN/Si(111) template followed by UV LED epi-regrowth. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is employed to optimize LEO AlN and UV LED epitaxy. Back-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and flip-chip bonded to AlN heat sinks followed by Si(111) substrate removal. A peak pulsed power and slope efficiency of ∼0.6 mW and ∼1.3 μW/mA are demonstrated from these thin-film UV LEDs, respectively. For comparison, top-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and back-emission LEDs are shown to extract 50% more light than top-emission ones. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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