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3.  On the performance and surface passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes for the very-long- wavelength infrared
A. Hood, M. Razeghi, E. Aifer, G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 87 (1)-- October 10, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate very-long-wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength (λc,50%) of 17 μm. We observed a zero-bias, peak Johnson noise-limited detectivity of 7.63×109 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K with a 90%-10% cutoff width of 17 meV, and quantum efficiency of 30%. Variable area diode zero-bias resistance-area product (R0A) measurements indicated that silicon dioxide passivation increased surface resistivity by nearly a factor of 5, over unpassivated photodiodes, and increased overall R0A uniformity. The bulk R0A at 77 K was found to be 0.08 Ω·cm2, with RA increasing more than twofold at 25 mV reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111)
Chu-Young Cho, Yinjun Zhang, Erdem Cicek, Benjamin Rahnema, Yanbo Bai, Ryan McClintock, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 211110 (2013)-- May 31, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the development of surface plasmon (SP) enhanced AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon (111) substrates. In order to generate SP-coupling with the radiating dipoles in MQWs, an aluminum layer is selectively deposited in holes etched in the top p-AlGaN to p-GaN layers. After flip-chip bonding and substrate removal, an optical output power of ∼1.2 mW is achieved at an emission wavelength of 346 nm; the output power of these UV LEDs with Al layer is increased by 45% compared to that of conventional UV LEDs without Al layer. This enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate and improved internal quantum efficiency via resonance coupling between excitons in MQWs and SPs in the aluminum layer. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Superlattice sees colder objects in two colors and high resolution
M. Razeghi
SPIE Newsroom-- February 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A special class of semiconductor material can now detect two wavebands of light with energies less than a tenth of an electron volt in high resolution using the same IR camera. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power 1D and 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
B. Gokden, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7945, p. 79450C-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
For many practical applications that need bright sources of mid-infrared radiation, single mode operation and good beam quality are also required. Quantum cascade lasers are prominent candidates as compact sources of mid-infrared radiation capable of delivering very high power both CW and under pulsed operation. While 1D photonic crystal distributed feedback structures can be used to get single mode operation from quantum cascade lasers with narrow ridge widths, novel 2D photonic crystal cavity designs can be used to improve spectral and spatial purity of broad area quantum cascade lasers. In this paper, we demonstrate high power, spatially and spectrally pure operation at room temperature from narrow ridge and broad area quantum cascade lasers with buried 1D and 2D photonic crystal structures. Single mode continuous wave emission at λ = 4.8 μm up to 700 mW in epi-up configuration at room temperature was observed from a 11 μm wide 5 mm long distributed feedback quantum cascade laser with buried 1D gratings. High peak powers up to 34 W was obtained from a 3mm long 400 μm wide 2D photonic crystal distributed feedback laser at room temperature under pulsed operation. The far field profile had a single peak normal to the laser facet and the M2 figure of merit was as low as 2.5. Emission spectrum had a dominating single mode at λ = 4.36 μm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Status of III-V semiconductor thin films and their applications to future OEICs
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10267, Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, 102670T -- June 26, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
In the last decade, semiconductor technology has been advanced to a great extent in terms of electronic and photonic discrete devices. One of the main reasons for such a progress, is the result of advancement in the epitaxial growth techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), where device quality films can be grown with great control over composition, uniformity and thickness. MOCVD has proven to be one of the best growth methods for many IH-V semiconductor thin films 1. Its flexibility and potential to yield a broad range of growth rates resulted in the layers featuring the thicknesses from tens of microns down to several nanometers. Planar structures containing quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces, superlattices, strained or graded-index layers were successfully grown by MOCVD. Furthermore, MOCVD proved its efficiency in producing a laser devices by overgrowth and epitaxy on patterned substrates. The importance of MOCVD is strongly enhanced by the possibility of large-scale production by simultaneous growth on several substrates in one process. Several III-V semiconductor films with bandgaps ranging from infrared to ultraviolet (15 to 0.2 μm) have been successfully grown by MOCVD. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Effect of contact doping on superlattice-based minority carrier unipolar detectors
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 3, p. 033501-1-- July 18, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the influence of the contact doping profile on the performance of superlattice-based minority carrier unipolar devices for mid-wave infrared detection. Unlike in a photodiode, the space charge in the p-contact of a pMp unipolar device is formed with accumulated mobile carriers, resulting in higher dark current in the device with highly doped p-contact. By reducing the doping concentration in the contact layer, the dark current is decreased by one order of magnitude. At 150 K, 4.9 μm cut-off devices exhibit a dark current of 2 × 10−5A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 44%. The resulting specific detectivity is 6.2 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 150 K and exceeds 1.9 × 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M.P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 21, p. 211107-1-- November 24, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) composed of heterojunctions of either p-GaN/i-GaN/n-AlGaN or p-GaN/i-GaN/n-GaN/n-AlGaN were fabricated on AlN templates. At low voltage, an external quantum efficiency of 57% at 352 nm with a bandpass response was achieved by using AlGaN in the n-layer. Dependency of gain and leakage current on mesa area for these heterojunction APDs were studied. Back-illumination via different wavelength sources was used to demonstrate the advantages of hole-initiated multiplication in GaN APDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Novel Method for Reclaim/Reuse of Bulk GaN Substrates using Sacrifical ZnO Release Layers
A. Rajan, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, P. L. Voss, K. Pantzas, T. Moudakir, A. Ougazzaden, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V. E. Sandana, P. Bove, K. Prior, R. McClintock & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8987, Oxide-based Materials and Devices V, 898719-- April 2, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-standing (0002)-oriented GaN substrates (f = 2”) were coated with 200 nm of ZnO and used as templates for the growth of GaN thin films. SEM and AFM revealed that such GaN layers had a relatively homogenous surface morphology with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of less than 4nm. XRD studies revealed strained ZnO growth on the GaN substrate and the reproduction of the substrate rocking curve for the GaN overlayers after only a hundred nm of growth, thus indicating that the GaN films had superior crystallographic quality compared to those grown on sapphire or ZnO/sapphire substrates. Quarter-wafer areas of GaN were removed from the GaN substrate (by selective chemical etching away of the ZnO interlayer). The expensive GaN substrates were then reclaimed/reused (without the need for polishing) for a second cycle of ZnO and GaN growth, which gave similar XRD, SEM, CL and AFM results to the first cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source
Q. Y. Lu, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 201102 (2014)-- November 17, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Substrate emission quantum cascade ring lasers with room temperature continuous wave operation
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680N-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade ring lasers around 5 μm with single mode operation up to 0.51 W output power. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. Light is coupled out of the ring cavity through the substrate with a second order distributed feedback grating. The substrate emission scheme allows for epilayer-down bonding, which leads to room temperature continuous wave operation. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High performance quantum dot-quantum well infrared focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, A. Myzaferi, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050J-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot (QD) devices are a promising technology for high operating temperature detectors. We have studied InAs QDs embedded in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well structure on InP substrate for middle wavelength infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). This combined dot-well structure has weak dot confinement of carriers, and as a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in more common dot systems with stronger confinement. We report on our studies of the energy levels in the QDWIP devices and on QD-based detectors operating at high temperature with D* over 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 150 K operating temperature and high quantum efficiency over 50%. FPAs have been demonstrated operating at up to 200 K. We also studied two methods of adapting the QDWIP device to better accommodate FPA readout circuit limitations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power operation of λ ∼ 5.2–11 μm strain balanced quantum cascade lasers based on the same material composition
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071106 (2014)-- August 20, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A technique based on composite quantum wells for design and growth of strain balanced Al0.63In0.37As/Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), emitting in 5.2–11 μm wavelength range, is reported. The strained Al0.63In0.37As provides good electron confinement at all wavelengths, and strain balancing can be achieved through composite wells of Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As for different wavelength. The use of these fixed composition materials can avoid the need for frequent calibration of a MBE reactor to grow active regions with different strain levels for different wavelengths. Experimental results for QCLs emitting at 5.2, 6.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 11 μm exhibit good wall plug efficiencies and power across the whole wavelength range. It is shown that the emission wavelength can be predictably changed using the same design template. These lasers are also compatible with a heterogeneous broadband active region, consisting of multiple QCL cores, which can be produced in a single growth run. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type delta-doping
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 24, p. 241103-1-- June 16, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality delta-doped p-GaN is used as a means of improving the performance of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Devices with delta-doped p-GaN show consistently lower leakage current and lower breakdown voltage than those with bulk p-GaN. APDs with delta-doped p-GaN also achieve a maximum multiplication gain of 5.1×104, more than 50 times higher than that obtained in devices with bulk p-GaN. The better device performance of APDs with delta-doped p-GaN is attributed to the higher structural quality of the p-GaN layer achieved via delta-doping. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Type-II superlattice photodetectors for MWIR to VLWIR focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E. Michel and R. McClintock
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060N-1-- April 21, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Results obtained on GaSb/InAs Type-II superlattices have shown performance comparable to HgCdTe detectors, with the promise of higher performance due to reduced Auger recombination and dark current through improvements in device design and material quality. In this paper, we discuss advancements in Type-II IR sensors that cover the 3 to > 30 µm wavelength range. Specific topics covered will be device design and modeling using the Empirical Tight Binding Method (ETBM), material growth and characterization, device fabrication and testing, as well as focal plane array processing and imaging. Imaging has been demonstrated at room temperature for the first time with a 5 µm cutoff wavelength 256×256 focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Advances in APDs for UV astronomy
Melville P. Ulmer; Ryan M. McClintock; Jose L. Pau; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6686, UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV, 668605 (September 13, 2007)-- November 13, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent work of our group of the development of avalanche photo diodes based on (Al)GaN. The goal of this group is to achieve single photon counting. In this paper we first give the scientific motivation for making such a device in the context of UV astronomy and then describe current work and plans for future development. The development includes improving the sensitivity to be able to carry out single photon detection and the fabrication of arrays. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling in long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb superlattice
F. Callewaert, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 104, 053508 (2014)-- February 6, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetector based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices is demonstrated. At 77 K, a dark current of 3 × 10−5 A/cm² and a differential resistance-area of 3 700 Ω·cm² are achieved at the turn-on bias, with a 50%-cutoff of 10.0 μm and a specific detectivity of 6.2 × 1011 Jones. The dark current is fitted as a function of bias and temperature using a model combining generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling. Good agreement was observed between the theory and the experimental dark current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Scaling in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
K. Minder, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, P. Kung, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 073513-1-- August 13, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Avalanche p-i-n photodiodes of various mesa areas were fabricated on AlN templates for back illumination for enhanced performance through hole-initiated multiplication, and the effects of increased area on device performance were studied. Avalanche multiplication was observed in mesa sizes up to 14,063 µm^2 under linear mode operation. Uniform gain and a linear increase of the dark current with area were demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Recent Advances in LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 97, No. 6, p. 1056-1066-- June 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication GaN avalanche photodiodes
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101120-1-- March 10, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
The performance of back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes with separate absorption and multiplication regions is presented. Devices with an active area of 225 µm2 show a maximum multiplication gain of 41,200. The calculation of the noise equivalent power yields a minimum value of 3.3×10−14 W·Hz−1/2 at a gain of 3000, increasing to 2.0×10−13 W·Hz−1/2 at a gain of 41,200. The broadening of the response edge has been analyzed as a function of bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ~9μm
Q. Y. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. J. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori
Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015)-- February 2, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm−1 and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Beryllium compensation doping of InAs/GaSb infrared superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, M. Razeghi and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 143507-1-- October 1, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with dark current measurements on InAs/GaSb long wavelength infrared superlattice photodiodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates are reported. By varying the beryllium concentration in the InAs layer of the active region, the residually n-type superlattice is compensated to become slightly p-type. By adjusting the doping, the dominant dark current mechanism can be varied from diffusion to Zener tunneling. Minimization of the dark current leads to an increase of the zero-bias differential resistance from less than 4 to 32 cm2 for a 100% cutoff of 12.05 µm [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Effects of well width and growth temperature on optical and structural characteristics of AlN/GaN superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 20, p. 201906-1-- November 16, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) employing various well widths (from 1.5 to 7.0 nm) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique at various growth temperatures (Ts) (from 900 to 1035 °C). The photoluminescence (PL), x-ray diffraction, and intersubband (ISB) absorption characteristics of these SLs and their dependency on well width and growth temperature are investigated. Superlattices with thinner wells (grown at the same Ts) or grown at lower Ts (employing the same well width) are shown to demonstrate higher strain effects leading to a higher PL energy and ISB absorption energy. Simulations are employed to explain the experimental observations. ISB absorptions from 1.04 to 2.15 µm are demonstrated via controlling well width and growth temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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