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2.  ZnO Thin Films & Nanostructures for Emerging Optoelectronic Applications
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V.E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050K-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-performance, continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.6 μm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 8, p. 747-754-- August 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the high-performance continuous-wave (CW) operation of 10-μm-wide quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at λ ~ 4.6 μm, based on the GaInAs–AlInAs material without regrowth, in epilayer-up and -down bonding configurations. The operational characteristics of QCLs such as the maximum average power, peak output power, CW output power, and maximum CW operating temperature are investigated, depending on cavity length. Also, important device parameters, i.e., the waveguide loss, the transparency current density, the modal gain, and the internal quantum efficiency, are calculated from length-dependent results. For a high-reflectivity (HR) coated 4-mm-long cavity with epilayer-up bonding, the highest maximum average output power of 633 mW is measured at 65% duty cycle, with 469 mW still observed at 100%. The laser exhibits the maximum wall-plug efficiencies of 8.6% and 3.1% at 298 K, in pulsed and CW operatons, respectively. From 298 to 393 K, the temperature dependent threshold current density in pulsed operation shows a high characteristic temperature of 200 K. The use of an epilayer-down bonding further improves the device performance. A CW output power of 685 mW at 288 K is achieved for the 4-micron-long cavity. At 298 K, the output power of 590 mW, threshold current density of 1.52 kA / cm2, and maximum wall-plug efficiency of 3.73% are obtained under CW mode, operating up to 363 K (90 °C). For HR coated 3-micron-long cavities, laser characteristics across the same processed wafer show a good uniformity across the area of 2 x 1 cm2, giving similar output powers, threshold current densities, and emission wavelengths. The CW beam full-width at half-maximum of far-field patterns are 25 degree and 46 degree for the parallel and the perpendicular directions, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  GaN-based nanostructured photodetectors
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, P. Giedraitis, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-14-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The use of nanostructures in semiconductor technology leads to the observation of new phenomena in device physics. Further quantum and non-quantum effects arise from the reduction of device dimension to a nanometric scale. In nanopillars, quantum confinement regime is only revealed when the lateral dimensions are lower than 50 nm. For larger mesoscopic systems, quantum effects are not observable but surface states play a key role and make the properties of nanostructured devices depart from those found in conventional devices. In this work, we present the fabrication of GaN nanostructured metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) and p-i-n photodiodes (PIN PDs) by e-beam lithography, as well as the investigation of their photoelectrical properties at room temperature. The nanopillar height and diameter are about 520 nm and 200 nm, respectively. MSMs present dark currents densities of 0.4 A/cm2 at ±100 V. A strong increase of the optical response with bias is observed, resulting in responsivities higher than 1 A/W. The relationship between this gain mechanism and surface states is discussed. PIN PDs yield peak responsivities (Rpeak) of 35 mA/W at -4 V and show an abnormal increase of the response (Rpeak > 100 A/W) under forward biases. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Capacitance-voltage investigation of high purity InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
A. Hood, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (6)-- February 6, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The residual carrier backgrounds of binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with cutoff wavelengths around 5 μm have been studied in the temperature range between 20 and 200 K. By applying a capacitance-voltage measurement technique, a residual background concentration below 1015 cm–3 has been found. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Very high performance LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708205-- September 3, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have for long time suffered from a high dark current level and a low dynamic resistance which hampers the its emergence to the infrared detection and imaging industry. However, with the use of M-structure superlattice, a new Type-II binary InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice design, as an effective blocking barrier, the dark current in type-II superlattice diode has been significantly reduced. We have obtained comparable differential resistance product to the MCT technology at the cut-off wavelength of 10 and 14μm. Also, this new design is compatible with the optical optimization scheme, leading to high quantum efficiency, high special detectivity devices for photon detectors and focal plane arrays. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet 320 x 256 focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, E.K. Huang, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 896-898-- March 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1−xN–based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition AlxGa1−xN layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ∼285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA∕W, which corresponds to an EQE of ∼37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Uncooled operation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the mid- wavelength infrared range
Y. Wei, A. Hood, H. Yau, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow, V. Natha
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (23)-- June 6, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report high performance uncooled midwavelength infrared photodiodes based on interface-engineered InAs/GaSb superlattice. Two distinct superlattices were designed with a cutoff wavelength around 5 µm for room temperature and 77 K. The device quantum efficiency reached more than 25% with responsivity around 1 A/W. Detectivity was measured around 109 cm·Hz½/W at room temperature and 1.5×1013 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K under zero bias. The devices were without antireflective coating. The device quantum efficiency stays at nearly the same level within this temperature range. Additionally, Wannier–Stark oscillations in the Zener tunneling current were observed up to room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si substrate
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181113 (2013)-- October 30, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) grown on Si(111) substrate. First, Si(111) substrate is patterned, and then metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is implemented for a fully-coalesced ∼8.5 μm AlN template layer via a pulsed atomic layer epitaxial growth technique. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on the high quality AlN template layer. After processing and implementation of Si(111) substrate removal, the optical and electrical characteristic of PDs are studied. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 290 nm, 625 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼7% and 18.3 mA/W, respectively, with a UV and visible rejection ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density below 1.6 × 10−8 A/cm² at 10 V reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type-II InAs/GaSb photodiodes and focal plane arrays aimed at high operating temperatures
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, and B.M. Nguyen
Opto-Electronics Review (OER), Vol. 19, No. 3, June 2011, p. 46-54-- June 1, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts to improve the performance of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPA) have been reviewed. The theoretical bandstructure models have been discussed first. A review of recent developments in growth and characterization techniques is given. The efforts to improve the performance of MWIR photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been reviewed and the latest results have been reported. It is shown that these improvements has resulted in background limited performance (BLIP) of single element photodiodes up to 180 K. FPA shows a constant noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11 mK up to 120 K and it shows human body imaging up to 170 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Background limited long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes operating at 110 K
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 12, p. 123502-1-- September 22, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
The utilization of the P+-pi-M-N+ photodiode architecture in conjunction with a thick active region can significantly improve long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. By studying the effect of the depletion region placement on the quantum efficiency in a thick structure, we achieved a topside illuminated quantum efficiency of 50% for an N-on-P diode at 8.0 µm at 77 K. Both the double heterostructure design and the application of polyimide passivation greatly reduce the surface leakage, giving an R0A of 416 Ω·cm2 for a 1% cutoff wavelength of 10.52 µm, a Shot–Johnson detectivity of 8.1×1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K, and a background limited operating temperature of 110 K with 300 K background. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Current status and potential of high power mid-infrared intersubband lasers
S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76080B-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Some of the recent advances in high power quantum cascade laser development will be reviewed in this paper. Research areas explored include short wavelength (λ <4 µm) lasers, high performance strain-balanced heterostructures, and high power long wavelength (7< λ< 16 µm) lasers. Near λ=4.5 µm, highlights include demonstration of 18% continuous wave wallplug efficiency at room temperature, 53% pulsed wallplug efficiency at 40 K, and 120 W of peak power output from a single device at room temperature. Near λ ~10 µm, up to 0.6 W of continuous output power at room temperature has also been demonstrated, with pulsed efficiencies up to 9%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Conference on Infrared Sensors, Devices and Applications; and Single Photon Imaging II, Vol. 8155, p. 81551O-1-- August 21, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A·cm-2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Thermal imaging based on high-performance InAs/InP quantum-dot infrared photodetector operating at high temperature
M. Razeghi; H. Lim; S. Tsao; H. Seo; W. Zhang
Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS.15-16:[4382251] (2007).-- October 21, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a room temperature operating and high-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector on InP substrate and thermal imaging of 320times256 focal plane array based on this device up to 200 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area expitaxy
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei, Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C.Y. Cho and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 05, p. 051102-1-- February 4, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1−xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ∼97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Recent advances in high performance antimonide-based superlattice FPAs
E.K. Huang, B.M. Nguyen, S.R. Darvish, S. Abdollahi Pour, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, and M.A. Hoang
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80120T-1-- April 25, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Infrared detection technologies entering the third generation demand performances for higher detectivity, higher operating temperature, higher resolution and multi-color detection, all accomplished with better yield and lower manufacturing/operating costs. Type-II antimonide based superlattices (T2SL) are making firm steps toward the new era of focal plane array imaging as witnessed in the unique advantages and significant progress achieved in recent years. In this talk, we will present the four research themes towards third generation imagers based on T2SL at the Center for Quantum Devices. High performance LWIR megapixel focal plane arrays (FPAs) are demonstrated at 80K with an NEDT of 23.6 mK using f/2 optics, an integration time of 0.13 ms and a 300 K background. MWIR and LWIR FPAs on non-native GaAs substrates are demonstrated as a proof of concept for the cost reduction and mass production of this technology. In the MWIR regime, progress has been made to elevate the operating temperature of the device, in order to avoid the burden of liquid nitrogen cooling. We have demonstrated a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x1012 cm·Hz1/2/W at 150 K for 4.2 μm cut-off single element devices. Progress on LWIR/LWIR dual color FPAs as well as novel approaches for FPA fabrication will also be discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Room temperature compact THz sources based on quantum cascade laser technology
M. Razeghi; Q.Y. Lu; N. Bandyopadhyay; S. Slivken; Y. Bai
Proc. SPIE 8846, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications IV, 884602 (September 24, 2013)-- November 24, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the high performance THz sources based on intracavity difference-frequency generation from mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Room temperature single-mode operation in a wide THz spectral range of 1-4.6 THz is demonstrated from our Čerenkov phase-matched THz sources with dual-period DFB gratings. High THz power up to 215 μW at 3.5 THz is demonstrated via epi-down mounting of our THz device. The rapid development renders this type of THz sources promising local oscillators for many astronomical and medical applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Transport and Photodetection in Self-Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, K. Mi, and B. Movaghar
Nanotechnology, 16-- January 7, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
A great step forward in science and technology was made when it was discovered that lattice mismatch can be used to grow highly ordered, artificial atom-like structures called self-assembled quantum dots. Several groups have in the meantime successfully demonstrated useful infrared photodetection devices which are based on this technology. The new physics is fascinating, and there is no doubt that many new applications will be found when we have developed a better understanding of the underlying physical processes, and in particular when we have learned how to integrate the exciting new developments made in nanoscopic addressing and molecular self-assembly methods with semiconducting dots. In this paper we examine the scientific and technical questions encountered in current state of the art infrared detector technology and suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. Promoting simple physical pictures, we focus in particular on the problem of high temperature detector operation and discuss the origin of dark current, noise, and photoresponse. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Continuous wave, room temperature operation of λ ~ 3μm quantum cascade laser
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310M-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), operating in continuous wave (CW) at room temperature(RT) in 3-3.5 μm spectral range, which overlaps the spectral fingerprint region of many hydrocarbons, is essential in spectroscopic trace gas detection, environment monitoring, and pollution control. A 3 μm QCL, operating in CW at RT is demonstrated. This initial result makes it possible, for the most popular material system (AlInAs/GaInAs on InP) used in QCLs in mid-infrared and long-infrared, to cover the entire spectral range of mid-infrared atmospheric window (3-5 μm). In0.79Ga0.21As/In0.11Al0.89As strain balanced superlattice, which has a large conduction band offset, was grown. The strain was balanced with composite barriers (In0.11Al0.89As /In0.4Al0.6As) in the injector region, to eliminate the need of extremely high compressively strained GaInAs, whose pseudomorphic growth is very difficult. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Delta-doping optimization for high qualityp-type GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 104, No. 8-- October 15, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Delta-doping is studied in order to achieve high quality p-type GaN. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Hall measurements are performed on the samples to optimize the delta-doping characteristics. The effect of annealing on the electrical, optical, and structural quality is also investigated for different delta-doping parameters. Optimized pulsing conditions result in layers with hole concentrations near 1018 cm−3 and superior crystal quality compared to conventional p-GaN. This material improvement is achieved thanks to the reduction in the Mg activation energy and self-compensation effects in delta-doped p-GaN. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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