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3.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Demonstration of shortwavelength infrared photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 211101-1-- May 21, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the feasibility of the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice photodiodes operating at the short wavelength infrared regime below 3  μm. An n-i-p type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb photodiode was grown with a designed cut-off wavelength of 2 μm on a GaSb substrate. At 150  K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 5.6 × 10−8 A/cm² and a front-side-illuminated quantum efficiency of 40.3%, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 1.0 × 1013 Jones. The uncooled photodiode showed a dark current density of 2.2 × 10−3 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 41.5%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.7 × 1010 Jones [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si substrate
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181113 (2013)-- October 30, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) grown on Si(111) substrate. First, Si(111) substrate is patterned, and then metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is implemented for a fully-coalesced ∼8.5 μm AlN template layer via a pulsed atomic layer epitaxial growth technique. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on the high quality AlN template layer. After processing and implementation of Si(111) substrate removal, the optical and electrical characteristic of PDs are studied. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 290 nm, 625 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼7% and 18.3 mA/W, respectively, with a UV and visible rejection ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density below 1.6 × 10−8 A/cm² at 10 V reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  III-nitride based avalanche photo detectors
R. McClintock, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801B, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into III-Nitride based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing III-Nitride photodetectors that utilize low-noise impact ionization high internal gain can be realized-GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can achieve gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs and discuss the critical design choices necessary to achieve high performance Geiger mode devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. The photon detection efficiency, dark count rate, and spectral response of or most recent Geiger-mode GaN APDs on free-standing GaN substrates are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. We also present our latest results regarding linear mode gain uniformity: the study of gain uniformity helps reveal the spatial origins of gain so that we can better understand the role of defects. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-Average-Power, High-Duty-Cycle (~6 μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 81 (23)-- December 2, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power quantum cascade lasers emitting at λ = 6.1  μm are demonstrated. Accurate control of growth parameters and strain balancing results in a near-perfect lattice match, which leads to excellent material quality. Excellent peak power for uncoated lasers, up to 1.5 W per facet for a 21 μm emitter width, is obtained at 300 K for 30 period structures. The threshold current density at 300 K is only 2.4 kA/cm². From 300 to 425 K, the laser exhibits a characteristic temperature T0 of 167 K. Next, Y2O3/Ti/Au mirror coatings were deposited on 1.5 mm cavities and mounted epilayer down. These lasers show an average output power of up to 225 mW at 17% duty cycle, and still show 8 mW average power at 45% duty cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Quality Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices with Cutoff Wavelength ~3.7 µm Using Interface Engineering
Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Gin, A. Hood, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M. Tidrow
Journal of Applied Physics, 94 (7)-- October 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent advance in the area of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices that have cutoff wavelength of ~3.7 µm. With GaxIn1–x type interface engineering techniques, the mismatch between the superlattices and the GaSb (001) substrate has been reduced to <0.1%. There is no evidence of dislocations using the best examination tools of x-ray, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The full width half maximum of the photoluminescence peak at 11 K was ~4.5 meV using an Ar+ ion laser (514 nm) at fluent power of 140 mW. The integrated photoluminescence intensity was linearly dependent on the fluent laser power from 2.2 to 140 mW at 11 K. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurement revealed a characteristic temperature of one T1 = 245 K at sample temperatures below 160 K with fluent power of 70 mW, and T1 = 203 K for sample temperatures above 180 K with fluent power of 70 and 420 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
S. Bogdanov, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 183501-1-- May 2, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Dielectric passivation of long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with different active region doping profiles has been studied. SiO2 passivation was shown to be efficient as long as it was not put in direct contact with the highly doped superlattice. A hybrid graded doping profile combined with the shallow etch technique reduced the surface leakage current in SiO2 passivated devices by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the usual design. As a result, at 77 K the SiO(2) passivated devices with 10.5 μm cutoff wavelength exhibit an R0A of 120 Ω·cm², RmaxA of 6000 Ω·cm², and a dark current level of 3.5×10−5 A·cm−2 at −50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Dual section quantum cascade lasers with wide electrical tuning
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 86310P-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 3, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper describes our development efforts at Northwestern University regarding dual-section sampled grating distributed feedback (SGDFB) QCLs. These devices are the same size, but have much wider electrical tuning, than a traditional DFB laser. In this paper, I will show how we have dramatically extended the monolithic tuning range of high power quantum cascade lasers with high side mode suppression. This includes individual laser element tuning of up to 50 cm-1 and 24 dB average side mode suppression. These lasers are capable of room temperature continuous operation with high power (>100 mW) output. Additionally, we have demonstrated a broad spectral coverage of over 350 cm-1 on a single chip, which is equivalent to 87.5% of the gain bandwidth. The eventual goal is to realize an extended array of such laser modules in order to continuously cover a similar or broader spectral range, similar to an external cavity device without any external components. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  III-Nitride photon counting avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000N-1-11.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
In order for solar and visible blind III-Nitride based photodetectors to effectively compete with the detective performance of PMT there is a need to develop photodetectors that take advantage of low noise avalanche gain. Furthermore, in certain applications, it is desirable to obtain UV photon counting performance. In this paper, we review the characteristics of III-nitride visible-blind avalanche photodetectors (APDs), and present the state-of-the-art results on photon counting based on the Geiger mode operation of GaN APDs. The devices are fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back-illumination in order to enhance hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance are analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated in smaller devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind APDs and Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and solutions to the major problems are described where available. Finally, future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Breakthroughs Bring THz Spectroscopy, Sensing Closer to Mainstream
MANIJEH RAZEGHI, QUANYONG LU, SANTANU MANNA, DONGHAI WU AND STEVEN SLIVKEN, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
www.photonics.com-- December 1, 2016
The terahertz (THz) electromagnet­ic spectrum (1 to 10 THz), sitting between the infrared wavelengths on the higher fre­quency side and microwaves on the lower frequency side, lies unique and important properties. THz waves can pass through a number of materials, including synthetics, textiles, paper and cardboard. Many bio­molecules, proteins, explosives or narcot­ics feature characteristic absorption I ines - so-called spectral "fingerprints" - at frequencies between 1 and 10 THz.
 
2.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength Type-II superlattice focal plane array
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 48, No. 2, p. 221-228-- February 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Electrical and radiometric characterization results of a high-operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared type-II superlattice focal plane array are described. It demonstrates excellent quantum efficiency operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively. The external quantum efficiency is 81% without any antireflective coating. The dynamic range is 37 dB at 81 K and increases to 39 dB at 68 K operating temperature. The focal plane array has noise equivalent temperature difference as low as 27 mK and 19 mK at operating temperatures of 81 K and 68 K, respectively, using f/2 optics and an integration time of 0.13 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, S.A. Pour, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0O-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate optimization of continuous wave (cw) operation of 4.6 µm quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). A 19.7 µm by 5 mm, double channel processed device exhibits 33% cw WPE at 80 K. Room temperature cw WPE as high as 12.5% is obtained from a 10.6 µm by 4.8 mm device, epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount. With the semi-insulating regrowth in a buried ridge geometry, 15% WPE is obtained with 2.8 W total output power in cw mode at room temperature. This accomplishment is achieved by systematically decreasing the parasitic voltage drop, reducing the waveguide loss and improving the thermal management. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-performance, continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 85° C at λ ~ 8.8 μm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vo. 93, No. 2, p. 405-408-- November 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
High-temperature, high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers with 35 active/injector stages at λ∼8.85 μm above room temperature is achieved without using a buried heterostructure. At this long wavelength, the use of a wider ridge waveguide in an epilayer-down bonding scheme leads to a superior performance of the laser. For a high-reflectivity-coated 21 μm×3 mm laser, the output power of 237 mW and the threshold current density of 1.44 kA·cm-2 at 298 K under CW mode are obtained with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.7%. Further improvements were observed by using a 4-mm-long cavity. The device exhibits 294 mW of output power at 298 K and it operates at a high temperature, even up to 358 K (85°C). The full widths at half-maximum of the laser beam in CW operation for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 25°and 63°, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Quantum Efficiency Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 434-- January 25, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind p-i-n photodetectors with a record peak responsivity of 150 mA/W at 280 nm, corresponding to a high external quantum efficiency of 68%, increasing to 74% under 5 volts reverse bias. Through optimization of the p-AlGaN layer, we were able to remove the out-of-band negative photoresponse originating from the Schottky-like p-type metal contact, and hence significantly improve the degree of solar-blindness [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High performance antimony based type-II superlattice photodiodes on GaAs substrates
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981T-- April 13, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on GaSb substrate have achieved significant advances in both structural design and material growth, making Type-II superlattice infrared detector a rival competitor to the state-of-the-art MCT technology. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost. The device performances of Type-II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and B.M. Nguyen
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80122Q-1-- April 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type II superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Using M-structure superlattice, novel device architectures have been developed, resulting in significant improvement of the device performances. In this paper, we will compare different photodetector architectures and discuss the optimization scheme which leads to almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance. At 150K, single element detectors exhibit a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x10(12) cm.Hz(1/2)/W. BLIP operation with a 300K background and 2π FOV can be reached with an operating temperature up to 180K. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11mK up to 120K. Human body imaging is achieved at 150K with NEDT of 150mK. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Gain-length scaling in quantum dot/quantum well infrared photodetectors
T. Yamanaka, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Kuboya, A. Myzaferi and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- September 14, 2009 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101105-1-- March 10, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers at an emitting wavelength of 4.6 µm, which are capable of room temperature, high power continuous wave (cw) operation. Buried ridge geometry with a width of 9.8 µm was utilized. A device with a 3 mm cavity length that was epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount exhibited a maximum output power of 1.3 W at room temperature in cw operation. The maximum output power at 80 K was measured to be 4 W, with a wall plug efficiency of 27%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111)
Chu-Young Cho, Yinjun Zhang, Erdem Cicek, Benjamin Rahnema, Yanbo Bai, Ryan McClintock, and Manijeh Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 211110 (2013)-- May 31, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the development of surface plasmon (SP) enhanced AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on silicon (111) substrates. In order to generate SP-coupling with the radiating dipoles in MQWs, an aluminum layer is selectively deposited in holes etched in the top p-AlGaN to p-GaN layers. After flip-chip bonding and substrate removal, an optical output power of ∼1.2 mW is achieved at an emission wavelength of 346 nm; the output power of these UV LEDs with Al layer is increased by 45% compared to that of conventional UV LEDs without Al layer. This enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the spontaneous emission rate and improved internal quantum efficiency via resonance coupling between excitons in MQWs and SPs in the aluminum layer. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Uncooled operation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the mid- wavelength infrared range
Y. Wei, A. Hood, H. Yau, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow, V. Natha
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (23)-- June 6, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report high performance uncooled midwavelength infrared photodiodes based on interface-engineered InAs/GaSb superlattice. Two distinct superlattices were designed with a cutoff wavelength around 5 µm for room temperature and 77 K. The device quantum efficiency reached more than 25% with responsivity around 1 A/W. Detectivity was measured around 109 cm·Hz½/W at room temperature and 1.5×1013 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K under zero bias. The devices were without antireflective coating. The device quantum efficiency stays at nearly the same level within this temperature range. Additionally, Wannier–Stark oscillations in the Zener tunneling current were observed up to room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Power Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) Grown by GasMBE
M. Razeghi and S. Slivken
SPIE Proceedings, International Conference on Solid State Crystals (ICSSC), Zakopane, Poland, -- October 14, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper is a brief summary of the technological development and state-of-the-art performance of quantum cascade lasers produced at the Centre for Quantum Devices. Laser design will be discussed, as well as experimental details of device fabrication. Recent work has focused on the development of high peak and average power QCLs emitting at room temperature and above. Scaling of the output is demonstrated by increasing the number of emitting regions in the waveguide core. At λ = 9 µm, over 7 W of peak power has been demonstrated at room temperature for a single diode, with an average power of 300 mW at 6% duty cycle. At shorter wavelengths, laser development includes the use of highly strain-balanced heterostructures in order to maintain a high conduction band offset and minimize leakage current. At λ = 6 µm, utilizing a high reflective coating and epilayer-down mounting of the laser, we have demonstrated 225 mW of average power from a single facet at room temperature. Lastly, these results are put in perspective of other reported results and possible future directions are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Graphene versus oxides for transparent electrode applications
Sandana, V. E.; Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Bove, P.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862603 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to their combination of good electrical conductivity and optical transparency, Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are the most common choice as transparent electrodes for optoelectronics applications. In particular, devices, such as LEDs, LCDs, touch screens and solar cells typically employ indium tin oxide. However, indium has some significant drawbacks, including toxicity issues (which are hampering manufacturing), an increasing rarefication (due to a combination of relative scarcity and increasing demand [1]) and resulting price increases. Moreover, there is no satisfactory option at the moment for use as a p-type transparent contact. Thus alternative materials solutions are actively being sought. This review will compare the performance and perspectives of graphene with respect to TCOs for use in transparent conductor applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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