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3.  Development of material quality and structural design for high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow and V. Nathan
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708204-- August 11, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors lifted both the quantum efficiency and the R0A product of the detectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR)and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) ranges, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detectors (QWIP) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed superlattices designs that were nearly lattice-matched to the GaSb substrates and presented cutoff wavelengths of 5 and 11 μm. We demonstrated high quality material growth with X-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm2. The detectors with a 5 μm cutoff, capable of operating at room temperature, showed a R0A of 1.25 106 Ω.cm2 at 77K, and a quantum efficiency of 32%. In the long wavelength infrared, we demonstrated high quantum efficiencies above 50% with high R0A products of 12 Ω.cm2 by increasing the thickness of the active region. Using the novel M-structure superlattice design, more than one order of magnitude improvement has been observed for electrical performance of the devices. Focal plane arrays in the middle and long infrared range, hybridized to an Indigo read out integrated circuit, exhibited high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier
S. Slivken, S. Sengupta, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107, 251101 (2015);-- December 21, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm−1) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm−1) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550B -- August 28, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields – typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Akhil Rajan, David J Rogers, Cuong Ton-That, Liangchen Zhu, Matthew R Phillips, Suresh Sundaram, Simon Gautier, Tarik Moudakir, Youssef El-Gmili, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Vinod E Sandana, Ferechteh H Teherani, Philippe Bove, Kevin A Prior, Zakaria Djebbour, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 31 -- July 15, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Low frequency noise in 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680X-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material platform is considered as a potential alternative for HgCdTe technology in long wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. In this paper, we report electrical low frequency noise measurement on a high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice 1024×1024 LWIR focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO
K. Pantzas, D.J. Rogers, P. Bove, V.E. Sandana, F.H. Teherani, Y. El Gmili, M. Molinari, G. Patriarche, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, S. Suresh, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth -- November 7, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Injector doping level dependent continuous-wave operation of InP-based QCLs at λ~ 7.3 µm above room temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Semiconductor Science and Technology (SST), Vol. 25, No. 12, p. 125015-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the continuous-wave (CW) operation of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operating at λ ~ 7.3 µm above room temperature. The injector doping level–dependent CW characteristics above room temperature are investigated for doping densities between 7 × 1016 cm−3 and 2 × 1017 cm−3. The device performance, i.e. threshold current density, output power, operating temperature and characteristic temperature, depends strongly on the injector doping density. For a relatively low injector doping density of 7 × 1016 cm−3, a high-reflectivity-coated 10 µm wide and 4 mm long laser exhibits an improved device performance with an output power of 152 mW and a threshold current density of 1.37 kA cm−2 at 298 K under CW mode, operating up to 343 K. The thermal characteristics are also analyzed by the estimation from the experimentally measured data for the QCLs with different injector doping densities. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Low irradiance background limited type-II superlattice MWIR M-barrier imager
E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, M.A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
OSA Optics Letters (OL), Vol. 37, No. 11, p. 2025-2027-- June 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320 × 256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and ∼99%operability. The 280 K blackbody’s photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of ∼5 × 1012 ph·cm−2·s−1. Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a ∼5 pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of ∼5 × 1010 ph·cm−2·s−1 and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F∕2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array’s uniform responsivity. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid, long, and very long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, A. Hood, V. Yazdanpanah, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Orlando, FL, Vol. 5783, pp. 86-- March 28, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We present our most recent results and review our progress over the past few years regarding InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for photovoltaic detectors and focal plane arrays. Empirical tight binding methods have been proven to be very effective and accurate in designing superlattices for various cutoff wavelengths from 3.7 µm up to 32 µm. Excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. High quality material growths were performed using an Intevac modular Gen II molecular beam epitaxy system. The material quality was characterized using x-ray, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence, etc. Detector performance confirmed high material electrical quality. Details of the demonstration of 256×256 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays are presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
S. Bogdanov, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 183501-1-- May 2, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Dielectric passivation of long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with different active region doping profiles has been studied. SiO2 passivation was shown to be efficient as long as it was not put in direct contact with the highly doped superlattice. A hybrid graded doping profile combined with the shallow etch technique reduced the surface leakage current in SiO2 passivated devices by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the usual design. As a result, at 77 K the SiO(2) passivated devices with 10.5 μm cutoff wavelength exhibit an R0A of 120 Ω·cm², RmaxA of 6000 Ω·cm², and a dark current level of 3.5×10−5 A·cm−2 at −50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Watt level performance of quantum cascade lasers in room temperature continuous wave operation at λ ∼ 3.76 μm
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, A. Myzaferi, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 13-- September 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
An InP-based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 3.76 μm is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The laser core is composed of strain balanced In0.76Ga0.24As/In0.26Al0.74As. Pulsed testing at room temperature exhibits a low threshold current density (1.5 kA/cm²) and high wall plug efficiency (10%). Room temperature continuous wave operation gives 6% wall plug efficiency with a maximum output power of 1.1 W. Continuous wave operation persists up to 95 °C. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  World's first demonstration of type-II superlattice dual band 640 x 512 LWIR focal plane array
E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680Z-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
High resolution multi-band infrared detection of terrestrial objects is useful in applications such as long range and high altitude surveillance. In this paper, we present a 640 x 512 type-II superlattice focal plane array (FPA) in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) suitable for such purposes, featuring 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red). The dual band camera is single-bump hybridized to an Indigo 30 μm pitch ISC0905 read-out integrated circuit. Test pixels revealed background limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5x1011 Jones at 7.9 μm (blue) and ~1x1011 Jones at 10.2 μm (red) at 77K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 26, p. 261112-1-- June 25, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A dual-section, single-mode quantum cascade laser is demonstrated in continuous wave at room temperature with up to 114 nm (50 cm−1) of tuning near a wavelength of 4.8 μm. Power above 100 mW is demonstrated, with a mean side mode suppression ratio of 24 dB. By changing the grating period, 270 nm (120 cm−1) of gap-free electrical tuning for a single gain medium has been realized. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Suppresion of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-Infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826811-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150 K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power, low divergent, substrate emitting quantum cascade ring laser in continuous wave operation
D. H. Wu and M. Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 035505 (2017)-- March 21, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate a surface grating coupled substrate emitting quantum cascade ring laser with high power room temperature continuous wave operation at 4.64 μm μm . A second order surface metal/semiconductor distributed-feedback grating is used for in-plane feedback and vertical out-coupling. A device with 400 μm μm radius ring cavity exhibits an output power of 202 mW in room temperature continuous wave operation. Single mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of 25 dB is obtained along with a good linear tuning with temperature. The far field measurement exhibits a low divergent concentric ring beam pattern with a lobe separation of ∼0.34°, which indicates that the device operates in fundamental mode (n = 1). [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Q.Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 181106-1-- May 4, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate high power continuous-wave room-temperature operation surface-grating distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers at 4.8 μm. High power single mode operation benefits from a combination of high-reflection and antireflection coatings. Maximum single-facet continuous-wave output power of 2.4 W and peak wall plug efficiency of 10% from one facet is obtained at 298 K. Single mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and single-lobed far field without beam steering is observed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for long-wavelength infrared detectors
H. Mohseni, E. Michel, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on semi- insulating GaAs substrate for long wavelength IR detectors. Photoconductive detectors fabricated from the superlattices showed 80% cut-off at 11.6 μm and peak responsivity of 6.5 V/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 2.36 x 109 cm·Hz½/W at 10.7 μm at 78 K. The responsivity decreases at higher temperatures with a T-2 behavior rather than exponential decay, and at room temperature the responsivity is about 660 mV/W at 11 μm. Lower Auger recombination rate in this system provides comparable detectivity to the best HgCdTe detectors at 300K. Higher uniformity over large areas, simpler growth and the possibility of having read-out circuits in the same GaAs chip are the advantages of this system over HgCdTe detectors for near room temperature operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Modeling Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices Using Empirical Tight-Binding Method: New Aspects
Y. Wei, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 301-- January 25, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
The recent advances in the experimental work on the Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices necessitate a modeling that can handle arbitrary layer thickness as well as different types of interfaces in order to guide the superlattice design. The empirical tight-binding method (ETBM) is a very good candidate since it builds up the Hamiltonian atom by atom. There has been a lot of research work on the modeling of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices using the ETBM. However, different groups generate very different accuracy comparing with experimental results. We have recently identified two major aspects in the modeling: the antimony segregation and the interface effects. These two aspects turned out to be of crucial importance governing the superlattice properties, especially the bandgap. We build the superlattice Hamiltonian using antimony segregated atomic profile taking into account the interface. Our calculations agree with our experimental results within growth uncertainties. In addition we introduced the concept of GaxIn1-x type interface engineering, which will add another design freedom especially in the mid-wavelength infrared range (3~7 µm) in orderto reduce the lattice mismatch. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y2O3 passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223501 (2013)-- November 25, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Y2O3 was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 μm, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO2 passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100 × 100 μm size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77 K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at −300 mV of 2.5 × 10−5 A/cm² and 1.3 × 104 Ω·cm², respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Ilkay Demir, Yoann Robin, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Konstantinos Zekentes, and Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi-- April 4, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of thick, high quality, and low stress AlN films on Si substrates is highly desired for a number of applications like the development of micro and nano electromechanical system (MEMS and NEMS) technologies [1] and particularly for fabricating AlGaNbased UV LEDs [2–5]. UV LEDs are attractive as they are applied in many areas, such as biomedical instrumentations and dermatology, curing of industrial resins and inks, air purification, water sterilization, and many others [2, 3]. UV LEDs have been generally fabricated on AlN, GaN, Al2O3, or SiC substrates because of better lattice mismatching to AlGaN material systems. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Widely Tunable, Single-Mode, High-Power Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi, B. Gokden, S. Tsao, A. Haddadi, N. Bandyopadhyay, and S. Slivken
SPIE Proceedings, Intergreated Photonics: Materials, Devices and Applications, SPIE Microtechnologies Symposium, Prague, Czech Republic, April 18-20, 2011, Vol. 8069, p. 806905-1-- May 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate widely tunable high power distributed feedback quantum cascade laser array chips that span 190 nm and 200 nm from 4.4 um to 4.59 um and 4.5 um to 4.7 um respectively. The lasers emit single mode with a very narrow linewidth and side mode suppression ratio of 25 dB. Under pulsed operation power outputs up to 1.85 W was obtained from arrays with 3 mm cavity length and up to 0.95 W from arrays with 2 mm cavity length at room temperature. Continuous wave operation was also observed from both chips with 2 mm and 3 mm long cavity arrays up to 150 mW. The cleaved size of the array chip with 3 mm long cavities was around 4 mm x 5 mm and does not require sensitive external optical components to achieve wide tunability. With their small size and high portability, monolithically integrated DFB QCL Arrays are prominent candidates of widely tunable, compact, efficient and high power sources of mid-infrared radiation for gas sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Band edge tunability of M-structure for heterojunction design in Sb based Type-II superlattice photodiodes
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 16, p. 163502-1-- October 20, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We present theoretically and experimentally the effect of the band discontinuity in Type-II misaligned InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes. Calculations using the empirical tight binding method have shown the great flexibility in tuning the energy levels of the band edge in M-structure superlattice as compared to the standard InAs/GaSb superlattice. Through the experimental realization of several p-pi-M-n photodiodes, the band discontinuity alignment between the standard binary-binary superlattice and the M-structured superlattice was investigated via optical characterization. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurement confirms the capability of controlling the M-structure band edges and suggests a way to exploit this advantage for the realization of heterostructures containing an M-structured superlattice without bias dependent operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Imprinting of Nanoporosity in Lithium-Doped Nickel Oxide through the use of Sacrificial Zinc Oxide Nanotemplates
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh H. Teheran1, Philippe Bove, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII, 101052C-- April 3, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Methods for simultaneously increasing the conductivity and the porosity of NiO layers grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated in order to develop improved photocathodes for p-DSSC applications. NiO:Li (20at%) layers grown on c-Al2O3 by PLD showed a sharp drop in conductivity with increasing substrate temperature. Layers grown at room temperature were more than two orders of magnitude more conductive than undoped NiO layers but did not show evidence of any porosity in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. A new method for imposing a nanoporosity in NiO was developed based on a sacrificial template of nanostructured ZnO. SEM images and EDX spectroscopy showed that a nanoporous morphology had been imprinted in the NiO overlayer after preferential chemical etching away of the nanostructured ZnO underlayer. Beyond p-DSSC applications, this new process could represent a new paradigm for imprinting porosity in a whole range of materials. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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