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3.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1416, p. 56-58_NGS15 Conf_Blacksburg, VA_Aug 1-5, 2011-- December 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Fabrication and characterization of a high performance 1024×1024 long wavelength infrared type‐II superlattice focal plane array are described. The FPA performs imaging at a continous rate of 15.00 frames/sec. Each pixel has pitch of 18μm with a fill factor of 71.31%. It demonstrates excellent operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at 81 and 68K operation temperature. The external quantum efficiency is ∼81% without any antireflective coating. Using F∕2 optics and an integration time of 0.13ms, the FPA exhibits an NEDT as low as 27 and 19mK at operating temperatures of 81 and 68K respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Effects of well width and growth temperature on optical and structural characteristics of AlN/GaN superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 20, p. 201906-1-- November 16, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) employing various well widths (from 1.5 to 7.0 nm) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique at various growth temperatures (Ts) (from 900 to 1035 °C). The photoluminescence (PL), x-ray diffraction, and intersubband (ISB) absorption characteristics of these SLs and their dependency on well width and growth temperature are investigated. Superlattices with thinner wells (grown at the same Ts) or grown at lower Ts (employing the same well width) are shown to demonstrate higher strain effects leading to a higher PL energy and ISB absorption energy. Simulations are employed to explain the experimental observations. ISB absorptions from 1.04 to 2.15 µm are demonstrated via controlling well width and growth temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Stability of far fields in double heterostructure and multiple quantum well InAsSb/InPAsSb/InAs midinfrared lasers
H. Yi, A. Rybaltowski, J. Diaz, D. Wu, B. Lane, Y. Xiao, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 70 (24)-- June 16, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
Far fields in perpendicular direction to the junction are investigated in double heterostructure (DH) and multiple quantum well (MQW) midwave-infrared InAsSb/InPAsSb/InAs lasers (λ = 3.2–3.6 μm). Strong broadening of the far fields in the DH lasers was observed with increases in temperature and/or current. On the contrary, MQW lasers with otherwise identical structure exhibit very stable far fields as narrow as 23° for all the operating conditions investigated. Our experiment and theoretical modeling suggest that these different behaviors of far fields in DH and MQW lasers are attributed to the refractive index fluctuation in the InAsSb laser active region. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
A. Haddadi, X.V. Suo, S. Adhikary, P. Dianat, R. Chevallier, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107 , 141104 (2015)-- October 5, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ~1.8μm at 300K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R×A of 285 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 9.6×10-5 A/cm² under −50mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45×1010 cm·Hz½/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3×10-8 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66×1012 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Watt level performance of quantum cascade lasers in room temperature continuous wave operation at λ ∼ 3.76 μm
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, A. Myzaferi, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 13-- September 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
An InP-based quantum cascade laser heterostructure emitting at 3.76 μm is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The laser core is composed of strain balanced In0.76Ga0.24As/In0.26Al0.74As. Pulsed testing at room temperature exhibits a low threshold current density (1.5 kA/cm²) and high wall plug efficiency (10%). Room temperature continuous wave operation gives 6% wall plug efficiency with a maximum output power of 1.1 W. Continuous wave operation persists up to 95 °C. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Type-II Antimonide-based Superlattices for the Third Generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Manijeh Razeghi, Edward Kwei-wei Huang, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Siamak Abdollahi Pour, and Pierre-Yves Delaunay
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVI, Vol. 7660, pp. 76601F-- May 10, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, the Type-II superlattice (T2SL) material platform has seen incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties which has lead to unprecedented development in the arena of device design. Its versatility in band-structure engineering is perhaps one of the greatest hallmarks of the T2SL that other material platforms are lacking. In this paper, we discuss advantages of the T2SL, specifically the M-structure T2SL, which incorporates AlSb in the traditional InAs/GaSb superlattice. Using the M-structure, we present a new unipolar minority electron detector coined as the p-M-p, the letters which describe the composition of the device. Demonstration of this device structure with a 14 μm cutoff attained a detectivity of 4x1010 Jones (-50 mV) at 77 K. As device performance improves year after year with novel design contributions from the many researchers in this field, the natural progression in further enabling the ubiquitous use of this technology is to reduce cost and support the fabrication of large infrared imagers. In this paper, we also discuss the use of GaAs substrates as an enabling technology for third generation imaging on T2SLs. Despite the 7.8% lattice mismatch between the native GaSb and alternative GaAs substrates, T2SL photodiodes grown on GaAs at the MWIR and LWIR have been demonstrated at an operating temperature of 77 K [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550B -- August 28, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields – typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power asymmetrical InAsSb/InAsSbP/AlAsSb double heterostructure lasers emitting at 3.4 μm
D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Mohseni, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (9)-- March 1, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Midinfrared lasers with an asymmetrical InPAsSb/InAsSb/AlAsSb double heterostructure are reported. Using the asymmetrical double heterostructure, p- and n-cladding layers are separately optimized; high energy-gap AlAsSb (Eg ≈ 1.5 eV) for the p-type cladding layer to reduce the leakage current, and thus to increase To, and low energy-gap InPAsSb (Eg ≈ 0.5 eV) for the n-cladding layer to have low turn-on voltage. 100-μm-width broad-area lasers with 1000 μm cavity length exhibited peak output powers of 1.88 W in pulse and 350 mW in continuous wave modes per two facets at T=80 K with To of 54 K and turn-on voltage of 0.36 V. Maximum peak output powers up to 6.7 W were obtained from a laser bar of total aperture of 400 μm width and cavity length of 1000 μm, with a differential efficiency of 34% and far-field beam divergence narrower than 40° at 80 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band Short-/Mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A.M. Hoang; A. Haddadi; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam; P. Wijewarnasuriy; E. Decuir
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87041W (June 18, 2013)-- June 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band Type-II superlattice-based short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) co-located photodetector capable of active and passive imaging. A new double-layer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated photodetectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ∼1×10-5 A/cm2 for the ∼4.2 μm cut-off MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F/2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using and integration time of 30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. An excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Active and passive infrared imager based on short-wave and mid-wave type-II superlattice dual-band detectors
E.K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 22-24-- January 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
A versatile dual-band detector capable of active and passive use is demonstrated using short-wave (SW) and midwave(MW) IR type-II superlattice photodiodes. A bilayer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated detectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ~1 × 10-5 A/cm² for the ∼4.2 μm cutoff MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F∕2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using tint  30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. Excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Photovoltaic MWIR type-II superlattice focal plane array on GaAs substrate
E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdoullahi-Pour, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 1704-1708-- December 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent improvements in the performance of Type-II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors has spurred interest in developing low cost and large format focal plane arrays (FPA) on this material system. Due to the limitations of size and cost of native GaSb substrates, GaAs is an attractive alternative with 8” wafers commercially available, but is 7.8% lattice mismatched to T2SL. In this paper, we present a photovoltaic T2SL 320 x 256 focal plane array (FPA) in the MWIR on GaAs substrate. The FPA attained a median noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 13 mK and 10mK (F#=2.3) with integration times of 10.02 ms and 19.06 ms respectively at 67 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Effect of sidewall surface recombination on the quantum efficiency in a Y2O3 passivated gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-infrared photodetector array
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223501 (2013)-- November 25, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Y2O3 was applied to passivate a long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice gated photodetector array with 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 μm, resulting in a saturated gate bias that was 3 times lower than in a SiO2 passivated array. Besides effectively suppressing surface leakage, gating technique exhibited its ability to enhance the quantum efficiency of 100 × 100 μm size mesa from 51% to 57% by suppressing sidewall surface recombination. At 77 K, the gated photodetector showed dark current density and resistance-area product at −300 mV of 2.5 × 10−5 A/cm² and 1.3 × 104 Ω·cm², respectively, and a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1012 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Development of material quality and structural design for high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow and V. Nathan
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708204-- August 11, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress made in the structure design, growth and processing of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors lifted both the quantum efficiency and the R0A product of the detectors. Type-II superlattice demonstrated its ability to perform imaging in the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR)and Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) ranges, becoming a potential competitor for technologies such as Quantum Well Infrared Photo-detectors (QWIP) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). Using an empirical tight-binding model, we developed superlattices designs that were nearly lattice-matched to the GaSb substrates and presented cutoff wavelengths of 5 and 11 μm. We demonstrated high quality material growth with X-ray FWHM below 30 arcsec and an AFM rms roughness of 1.5 Å over an area of 20x20 μm2. The detectors with a 5 μm cutoff, capable of operating at room temperature, showed a R0A of 1.25 106 Ω.cm2 at 77K, and a quantum efficiency of 32%. In the long wavelength infrared, we demonstrated high quantum efficiencies above 50% with high R0A products of 12 Ω.cm2 by increasing the thickness of the active region. Using the novel M-structure superlattice design, more than one order of magnitude improvement has been observed for electrical performance of the devices. Focal plane arrays in the middle and long infrared range, hybridized to an Indigo read out integrated circuit, exhibited high quality imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of antimonide infrared lasers and detectors
Chuanle Zhou, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi, and M. Grayson
Optical Materials Express. 2013;3(10):1632-1640.-- October 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
The in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the cladding layers and active quantum wells of interband cascade lasers and type-II superlattice infrared detector are measured by the 2-wire 3ω method. The layers investigated include InAs/AlSb superlattice cladding layers, InAs/GaInSb/InAs/AlSb W-active quantum wells, an InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber, an InAs/GaSb/AlSb M-structure, and an AlAsSb digital alloy. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the InAs/AlSb superlattice is 4-5 times higher than the cross-plane value. The isotropic thermal conductivity of the AlAsSb digital alloy matches a theoretical expectation, but it is one order of magnitude lower than the only previously-reported experimental value. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO
K. Pantzas, D.J. Rogers, P. Bove, V.E. Sandana, F.H. Teherani, Y. El Gmili, M. Molinari, G. Patriarche, L. Largeau, O. Mauguin, S. Suresh, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth -- November 7, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 26, p. 261112-1-- June 25, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A dual-section, single-mode quantum cascade laser is demonstrated in continuous wave at room temperature with up to 114 nm (50 cm−1) of tuning near a wavelength of 4.8 μm. Power above 100 mW is demonstrated, with a mean side mode suppression ratio of 24 dB. By changing the grating period, 270 nm (120 cm−1) of gap-free electrical tuning for a single gain medium has been realized. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Akhil Rajan, David J Rogers, Cuong Ton-That, Liangchen Zhu, Matthew R Phillips, Suresh Sundaram, Simon Gautier, Tarik Moudakir, Youssef El-Gmili, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Vinod E Sandana, Ferechteh H Teherani, Philippe Bove, Kevin A Prior, Zakaria Djebbour, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 31 -- July 15, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Very high quantum efficiency in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode with cutoff of 12 µm
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 23, p. 231108-1-- June 4, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report the dependence of the quantum efficiency on device thickness of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with a cutoff wavelength around 12 µm. The quantum efficiency and responsivity show a clear delineation in comparison to the device thickness. An external single-pass quantum efficiency of 54% is obtained for a 12 µm cutoff wavelength photodiodes with a -region thickness of 6.0 µm. The R0A value is kept stable for the range of structure thicknesses allowing for a specific detectivity (2.2×1011 cm·Hz½/W). [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Monolithic Integration of GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrate
M. Erdtmann and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
Using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, we have grown GaInAs/InP QWIP structures on GaAs-coated Si substrate. First, the procedure to optimize the epitaxy of the InP buffer layer on Si substrate is given. Excellent crystallinity and a mirror-like surface morphology were obtained by using both a two-step growth process at the beginning of the InP buffer layer growth and several series of thermal cycle annealing throughout the InP buffer layer growth. Second, results of fabricated GaInAs/InP QWIPs on Si substrate are presented. At a temperature of 80 K, the peak response wavelength occurs at 7.4 μm. The responsivities of QWIPs on both Si and InP substrates with identical structures are equal up to biases of 1.5 V. At a bias of 3 V, the responsivity of the QWIPs on Si substrate is 1.0 A/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Scale-up of the Chemical Lift-off of (In)GaN-based p-i-n Junctions from Sapphire Substrates Using Sacrificial ZnO Template Layers
D. J. Rogers, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, V. Sandana, P. L. Voss, A. Ougazzaden, A. Rajan, K.A. Prior, R. McClintock, & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 936424 -- March 24, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
(In)GaN p-i-n structures were grown by MOVPE on both GaN- and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates. XRD studies of the as-grown layers revealed that a strongly c-axis oriented wurtzite crystal structure was obtained on both templates and that there was a slight compressive strain in the ZnO underlayer which increased after GaN overgrowth. The InGaN peak position gave an estimate of 13.6at% for the indium content in the active layer. SEM and AFM revealed that the top surface morphologies were similar for both substrates, with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of about 10 nm. Granularity appeared slightly coarser (40nm for the device grown on ZnO vs 30nm for the device grown on the GaN template) however. CL revealed a weaker GaN near band edge UV emission peak and a stronger broad defect-related visible emission band for the structure grown on the GaN template. Only a strong ZnO NBE UV emission was observed for the sample grown on the ZnO template. Quarter-wafer chemical lift-off (CLO) of the InGaN-based p-i-n structures from the sapphire substrate was achieved by temporary-bonding the GaN surface to rigid glass support with wax and then selectively dissolving the ZnO in 0.1M HCl. XRD studies revealed that the epitaxial nature and strong preferential c-axis orientation of the layers had been maintained after lift-off. This demonstration of CLO scale-up, without compromising the crystallographic integrity of the (In)GaN p-i-n structure opens up the perspective of transferring GaN based devices off of sapphire substrates industrially. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Low frequency noise in 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680X-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material platform is considered as a potential alternative for HgCdTe technology in long wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. In this paper, we report electrical low frequency noise measurement on a high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice 1024×1024 LWIR focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb double heterostructure
P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 9, p. 091112-1-- August 27, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Focal plane array fabrication requires a well passivated material that is resistant to aggressive processes. The authors report on the ability of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes to be more resilient than homojunctions diodes in improving sidewall resistivity through the use of various passivation techniques. The heterostructure consisting of two wide band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts and a low band gap active region (11 µm) exhibits an R0A averaging of 13·Ω cm2. The devices passivated with SiO2, Na2S and SiO2 or polyimide did not degrade compared to the unpassivated sample and the resistivity of the sidewalls increased to 47 kΩ·cm. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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