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3.  High Performance InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes for the Very Long Wavelength Infrared Range
H. Mohseni, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, Y.S. Park
Applied Physics Letters 78 (15)-- April 9, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of high-performance p-i-n photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices with 50% cut-off wavelength λc = 16 μm operating at 80 K. Material is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates with excellent crystal quality as evidenced by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The processed devices show a current responsivity of 3.5 A/W at 80 K leading to a detectivity of ∼ 1.51×1010 cm·Hz½/W. The quantum efficiency of these devices is about 35% which is comparable to HgCdTe detectors with a similar active layer thickness. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: the quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, Vol. 18, No. 14-- October 6, 2008 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Demonstration of shortwavelength infrared photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 21, p. 211101-1-- May 21, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the feasibility of the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice photodiodes operating at the short wavelength infrared regime below 3  μm. An n-i-p type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb photodiode was grown with a designed cut-off wavelength of 2 μm on a GaSb substrate. At 150  K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 5.6 × 10−8 A/cm² and a front-side-illuminated quantum efficiency of 40.3%, providing an associated shot noise detectivity of 1.0 × 1013 Jones. The uncooled photodiode showed a dark current density of 2.2 × 10−3 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 41.5%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.7 × 1010 Jones [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Elimination of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.-M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 18, p. 183503-1-- October 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The electrical performance of mid-infrared type-II superlattice M-barrier photodetectors is shown to be limited by surface leakage. By applying gate bias on the mesa sidewall surface, leakage current is significantly reduced. Qualitatively IV modeling shows diffusion-dominated behavior of dark current at temperatures greater than 120 K. At 110 K, the dark current of gated device is reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching the measurement system noise floor. With a quantum efficiency of 48% in front side illumination configuration, a 4.7μm cut-off gated device attains a specific detectivity of 2.5 × 1014 cm·Hz½·W-1 at 110 K, which is 3.6 times higher than in ungated devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Demonstration of 256x256 Focal Plane Arrays Based on Al-free GaInAs/InP QWIP
J. Jiang, K. Mi, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and C. Jelen
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 15 (9)-- September 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on aluminum-free GaInAs-InP quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs).A unique positive lithography method was developed to perform indium-bump liftoff. The noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) of 29 mK was achieved at 70 K with f/2 optics. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High power operation of λ ∼ 5.2–11 μm strain balanced quantum cascade lasers based on the same material composition
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071106 (2014)-- August 20, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A technique based on composite quantum wells for design and growth of strain balanced Al0.63In0.37As/Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), emitting in 5.2–11 μm wavelength range, is reported. The strained Al0.63In0.37As provides good electron confinement at all wavelengths, and strain balancing can be achieved through composite wells of Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As for different wavelength. The use of these fixed composition materials can avoid the need for frequent calibration of a MBE reactor to grow active regions with different strain levels for different wavelengths. Experimental results for QCLs emitting at 5.2, 6.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 11 μm exhibit good wall plug efficiencies and power across the whole wavelength range. It is shown that the emission wavelength can be predictably changed using the same design template. These lasers are also compatible with a heterogeneous broadband active region, consisting of multiple QCL cores, which can be produced in a single growth run. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Ultra-broadband quantum cascade laser, tunable over 760 cm−1, with balanced gain
N. Bandyopadhyay, M. Chen, S. Sengupta, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Opt. Express 23, 21159-21164 -- August 10, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A heterogeneous quantum cascade laser, consisting of multiple stacks of discrete wavelength quantum cascade stages, emitting in 5.9-10.9 µm, wavelength range is reported. The broadband characteristics are demonstrated with a distributed-feedback laser array, emitting at fixed frequencies at room temperature, covering an emission range of ~760 cm−1, which is ~59% relative to the center frequency. By appropriate choice of a strained AlInAs/GaInAs material system, quantum cascade stage design and spatial arrangement of stages, the distributed-feedback array has been engineered to exhibit a flat threshold current density across the demonstrated range. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot infrared photodetector operating at room temperature and focal plane array
Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; Wei Zhang; Manijen Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 65420R (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have attracted much attention because of their novel properties and thus possible practical applications including the lasers, detectors and modulators. Especially the photodetectors which have quantum dots in their active region have been developed and show promising performances such as high operation temperature due to three dimensional confinement of the carriers and normal incidence in contrast to the case of quantum well detectors which require special optical coupling schemes. Here we report our recent results for mid-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The material system we have investigated consists of 25 period self-assembled InAs quantum dot layers on InAlAs barriers, which are lattice-matched to InP substrates, covered with InGaAs quantum well layers and InAlAs barriers. This active region was sandwiched by highly doped InP contact layers. The device operates at 4.1 μm with a peak detectivity of 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a quantum efficiency of 35 %. The photoresponse can be observed even at room temperature resulting in a peak detectivity of 6×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. A 320×256 focal plane array has been fabricated in this kind of device. Its performance will also be discussed here. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Akhil Rajan, David J Rogers, Cuong Ton-That, Liangchen Zhu, Matthew R Phillips, Suresh Sundaram, Simon Gautier, Tarik Moudakir, Youssef El-Gmili, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Vinod E Sandana, Ferechteh H Teherani, Philippe Bove, Kevin A Prior, Zakaria Djebbour, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 31 -- July 15, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb double heterostructure
P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, Y. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 9, p. 091112-1-- August 27, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Focal plane array fabrication requires a well passivated material that is resistant to aggressive processes. The authors report on the ability of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes to be more resilient than homojunctions diodes in improving sidewall resistivity through the use of various passivation techniques. The heterostructure consisting of two wide band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts and a low band gap active region (11 µm) exhibits an R0A averaging of 13·Ω cm2. The devices passivated with SiO2, Na2S and SiO2 or polyimide did not degrade compared to the unpassivated sample and the resistivity of the sidewalls increased to 47 kΩ·cm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q.Y. Lu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, No. 26, p. 261112-1-- June 25, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A dual-section, single-mode quantum cascade laser is demonstrated in continuous wave at room temperature with up to 114 nm (50 cm−1) of tuning near a wavelength of 4.8 μm. Power above 100 mW is demonstrated, with a mean side mode suppression ratio of 24 dB. By changing the grating period, 270 nm (120 cm−1) of gap-free electrical tuning for a single gain medium has been realized. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 74 (20)-- November 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper we present a theory of diffusion and recombination in QDIPs which is an attempt to explain the recently reported values of gain in these devices. We allow the kinetics to encompass both the diffusion and capture rate limited regimes of carrier relaxation using rigorous random walk and diffusion methods. The photoconductive gains are calculated and compared with the experimental values obtained from InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs and InAs/InP QDIPs using the generation-recombination noise analysis. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Spatial Noise and Correctability of Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quanutm Electronics, April 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, p. 584-588-- April 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference of the array was measured as low as 23 mK (f# = 2), for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The spatial noise of the array was dominated by the nonuniformity of the illumination through the circular aperture. A standard two-point nonuniformity correction improved the inhomogeneity equivalent temperature difference to 16 mK. The correctability just after calibration was 0.6. The long-term stability time was superior to 25 hours. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Suppresion of surface leakage in gate controlled Type-II InAs/GaSb mid-Infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826811-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the biggest challenges of improving the electrical performance in Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetector is suppressing the surface leakage. Surface leakage screens important bulk dark current mechanisms, and brings difficulty and uncertainty to the material optimization and bulk intrinsic parameters extraction such as carrier lifetime and mobility. Most of surface treatments were attempted beyond the mid-infrared (MWIR) regime because compared to the bulk performance, surface leakage in MWIR was generally considered to be a minor factor. In this work, we show that below 150 K, surface leakage still strongly affects the electrical performance of the very high bulk performance p-π-M-n MWIR photon detectors. With gating technique, we can effectively eliminate the surface leakage in a controllable manner. At 110K, the dark current density of a 4.7 μm cut-off gated photon diode is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the current density in SiO2 passivated ungated diode. With a quantum efficiency of 48%, the specific detecivity of gated diodes attains 2.5 x 1014 cm·Hz1/2/W, which is 3.6 times higher than that of ungated diodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High operating temperature 320 x 256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector
S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology-- May 28, 2007 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 181102-1-- May 3, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Using the recently proposed shallow-well design, we demonstrate InP based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.9 μm with 27% and 21% wall plug efficiencies in room temperature (298 K) pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operations, respectively. The laser core consists of 40 QCL-stages. The highest cw efficiency is obtained from a buried-ridge device with a ridge width of 8 μm and a cavity length of 5 mm. The front and back facets are antireflection and high-reflection coated, respectively. The maximum single facet cw power at room temperature amounts to 5.1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Noise analysis in Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 14-- October 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from M-structure InAs/GaSb superlattices
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P. Manurkar, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0W-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent advances in the design and fabrication of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices allowed the realization of high performance long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays. The introduction of an Mstructure barrier between the n-type contact and the pi active region reduced the tunneling component of the dark current. The M-structure design improved the noise performance and the dynamic range of FPAs at low temperatures. At 81K, the NEDT of the focal plane array was 23 mK. The noise of the camera was dominated by the noise component due to the read out integrated circuit. At 8 µm, the median quantum efficiency of the detectors was 71%, mainly limited by the reflections on the backside of the array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  World's first demonstration of type-II superlattice dual band 640 x 512 LWIR focal plane array
E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680Z-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
High resolution multi-band infrared detection of terrestrial objects is useful in applications such as long range and high altitude surveillance. In this paper, we present a 640 x 512 type-II superlattice focal plane array (FPA) in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) suitable for such purposes, featuring 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red). The dual band camera is single-bump hybridized to an Indigo 30 μm pitch ISC0905 read-out integrated circuit. Test pixels revealed background limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5x1011 Jones at 7.9 μm (blue) and ~1x1011 Jones at 10.2 μm (red) at 77K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Noise analysis in type-II InAs/GaSb focal plane arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 6, p. 063110-- September 15, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference in the array was measured as low as 23 mK for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The noise behavior of the detectors was properly described by a model based on thermal, shot, read out integrated circuit, and photon noises. The noise of the imager was dominated by photon noise for photon fluxes higher than 1.8×1015 ph·s−1·cm−2. At lower irradiance, the imager was limited by the shot noise generated by the dark current or the noise of the testing system. The superlattice detector did not create 1/f noise for frequencies above 4 mHz. As a result, the focal plane array did not require frequent calibrations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Investigation of impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices via capacitance-voltage measurement
G. Chen, A. M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, A. Haddadi, P. R. Bijjam, B.-M. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 103, 033512 (2013)-- July 17, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurement was utilized to characterize impurities in the non-intentionally doped region of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice p-i-n photodiodes. Ionized carrier concentration versus temperature dependence revealed the presence of a kind of defects with activation energy below 6 meV and a total concentration of low 1015 cm−3. Correlation between defect characteristics and superlattice designs was studied. The defects exhibited a p-type behavior with decreasing activation energy as the InAs thickness increased from 7 to 11 monolayers, while maintaining the GaSb thickness of 7 monolayers. With 13 monolayers of InAs, the superlattice became n-type and the activation energy deviated from the p-type trend. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  High performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid, long, and very long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, A. Hood, V. Yazdanpanah, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Orlando, FL, Vol. 5783, pp. 86-- March 28, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We present our most recent results and review our progress over the past few years regarding InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for photovoltaic detectors and focal plane arrays. Empirical tight binding methods have been proven to be very effective and accurate in designing superlattices for various cutoff wavelengths from 3.7 µm up to 32 µm. Excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results has been obtained. High quality material growths were performed using an Intevac modular Gen II molecular beam epitaxy system. The material quality was characterized using x-ray, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence, etc. Detector performance confirmed high material electrical quality. Details of the demonstration of 256×256 long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays are presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
3.  Surface leakage investigation via gated type-II InAs/GaSb long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
G. Chen, E.K. Huang, A.M. Hoang, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 21, p. 213501-1-- November 19, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
By using gating technique, surface leakage generated by SiO2 passivation in long-wavelength infrared type-II superlattice photodetector is suppressed, and different surface leakage mechanisms are disclosed. By reducing the SiO2 passivation layer thickness, the saturated gated bias is reduced to −4.5 V. At 77 K, dark current densities of gated devices are reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude, with 3071 Ω·cm² differential-resistance-area product at −100 mV. With quantum efficiency of 50%, the 11 μm 50% cut-off gated photodiode has a specific detectivity of 7 × 1011 Jones, and the detectivity stays above 2 × 1011 Jones from 0 to −500 mV operation bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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