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9.  High operating temperature midwave infrared photodiodes and focal plane arrays based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices
S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 14, p. 143501-1-- April 4, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The dominant dark current mechanisms are identified and suppressed to improve the performance of midwave infrared InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice photodiodes at high temperatures. The optimized heterojunction photodiode exhibits a quantum efficiency of 50% for 2 μm thick active region without any bias dependence. At 150 K, R0A of 5100 Ω·cm² and specific detectivity of 1.05×1012 cm·Hz0.5·W-1 are demonstrated for a 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.2 μm. Assuming 300 K background temperature and 2π field of view, the performance of the detector is background limited up to 180 K, which is improved by 25 °C compared to the homojunction photodiode. Infrared imaging using f/2.3 optics and an integration time of 10.02 ms demonstrates a noise equivalent temperature difference of 11 mK at operating temperatures below 120 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
9.  The new oxide paradigm for solid state ultraviolet photodetectors
D. J. Rogers, P. Bove, X. Arrateig, V. E. Sandana, F. H. Teherani, M. Razeghi, R. McClintock, E. Frisch, S. Harel,
Proceedings Volume 10533, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IX; 105331P-- March 22, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandgap of wurzite ZnO layers grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition was engineered from 3.7 to 4.8 eV by alloying with Mg. Above this Mg content the layers transformed from single phase hcp to mixed hcp/fcc phase before becoming single phase fcc above a bandgap of about 5.5 eV. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors based on gold Inter-Digitated-Transducer structures were fabricated from the single phase hcp layers by single step negative photolithography and then packaged in TO5 cans. The devices gave over 6 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal with solar rejection ratios (I270 : I350) of over 3 x 105 and dark signals of 300 pA (at a bias of -5V). Spectral responsivities were engineered to fit the “Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches” industry standard form and gave over two decade higher responsivities (14 A/W, peaked at 270 nm) than commercial SiC based devices. Homogeneous Ga2O3 layers were also grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by PLD. Optical transmission spectra were coherent with a bandgap that increased from 4.9 to 5.4 eV when film thickness was decreased from 825 to 145 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were of the β-Ga2O3 (monoclinic) polytype with strong (-201) orientation. β-Ga2O3 MSM photodetectors gave over 4 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal (at -5V bias) with dark currents of 250 pA and spectral responsivities of up to 40 A/W (at -0.75V bias). It was found that the spectral responsivity peak position could be decreased from 250 to 230 nm by reducing film thickness from 825 to 145 nm. This shift in peak responsivity wavelength with film thickness (a) was coherent with the apparent bandgap shift that was observed in transmission spectroscopy for the same layers and (b) conveniently provides a coverage of the spectral region in which MgZnO layers show fcc/hcp phase mixing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
9.  High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb
Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 43806-- March 6, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  GaN avalanche photodiodes grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrate
Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 20, p. 201908-1-- May 17, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
M-plane GaN avalanche p-i-n photodiodes on low dislocation density freestanding m-plane GaN substrates were realized using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High quality homoepitaxial m-plane GaN layers were developed; the root-mean-square surface roughness was less than 1 Å and the full-width-at-half-maximum value of the x-ray rocking curve for (1010) diffraction of m-plane GaN epilayer was 32 arcsec. High quality material led to a low reverse-bias dark current of 8.11 pA for 225 μm² mesa photodetectors prior to avalanche breakdown, with the maximum multiplication gain reaching about 8000. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, S. Abdollahi Pour, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 18, p. 183502-- November 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a hybrid photodetector design that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. The structure consists of a barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. By using the M-structure superlattice as a barrier region, the band alignments can be experimentally controlled, allowing for the efficient extraction of the photosignal with less than 50 mV bias. At 77 K, a 14 µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W, and the associated shot noise detectivity of 4×1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  High performance monolithic, broadly tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
WENJIA Zhou, DONGHAI Wu, RYAN McCLINTOCK, STEVEN SLIVKEN, AND MANIJEH RAZEGH1
Optica 4(10)-- October 10, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Mid-infrared lasers, emitting in the spectral region of 3-12 µm that contains strong characteristic vibrational tran­sitions of many important molecules, are highly desirable for spectroscopy sensing applications. High-efficiency quantum cascade lasers have been demonstrated with up to watt-level output power in the mid-infrared region. However, the wide wavelength tuning that is critical for spectroscopy applica­tions still largely relies on incorporating external gratings, which have stability issues. Here, we demonstrate a mono­lithic, broadly tunable quantum cascade laser source emitting between 6.1 and 9.2 µm through an on-chip integration of a sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser array and a beam combiner. High peak power up to 65 mW has been obtained through a balanced high-gain active region design, efficient waveguide layout, and the development of a broad­band antireflection coating. Nearly fundamental transverse­mode operation is achieved for all emission wavelengths with a pointing stability better than 1.6 mrad (0.1 °). The demon­strated laser source opens new opportunities for mid-infrared spectroscopy. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Low frequency noise in 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680X-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material platform is considered as a potential alternative for HgCdTe technology in long wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. In this paper, we report electrical low frequency noise measurement on a high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice 1024×1024 LWIR focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 181102-1-- May 3, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Using the recently proposed shallow-well design, we demonstrate InP based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.9 μm with 27% and 21% wall plug efficiencies in room temperature (298 K) pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operations, respectively. The laser core consists of 40 QCL-stages. The highest cw efficiency is obtained from a buried-ridge device with a ridge width of 8 μm and a cavity length of 5 mm. The front and back facets are antireflection and high-reflection coated, respectively. The maximum single facet cw power at room temperature amounts to 5.1 W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, Saumya Sengupta, Steven Slivken, Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23595 (2016)-- March 24, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range (ν ~ 1–5 THz) is of great importance to terahertz system development for applications in spectroscopy, communication, sensing, and imaging. Here, we present a strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based on intracavity difference frequency generation. Room temperature continuous wave emission at 3.41 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and output power up to 14 μW is achieved with a wall-plug efficiency about one order of magnitude higher than previous demonstrations. With this highly efficient design, continuous wave, single mode THz emissions with a wide frequency tuning range of 2.06–4.35 THz and an output power up to 4.2 μW are demonstrated at room temperature from two monolithic three-section sampled grating distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Growth of AlGaN on silicon substrates: a novel way to make back-illuminated ultraviolet photodetectors
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550U-- August 28, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
AlGaN, with its tunable wide-bandgap is a good choice for the realization of ultraviolet photodetectors. AlGaN films tend to be grown on foreign substrates such as sapphire, which is the most common choice for back-illuminated devices. However, even ultraviolet opaque substrates like silicon holds promise because, silicon can be removed by chemical treatment to allow back-illumination,1 and it is a very low-cost substrate which is available in large diameters up to 300 mm. However, Implementation of silicon as the solar-blind PD substrates requires overcoming the lattice-mismatch (17%) with the AlxGa1-xN that leads to high density of dislocation and crack-initiating stress. In this talk, we report the growth of thick crack-free AlGaN films on (111) silicon substrates through the use of a substrate patterning and mask-less selective area regrowth. This technique is critical as it decouples the epilayers and the substrate and allows for crack-free growth; however, the masking also helps to reduce the dislocation density by inclining the growth direction and encouraging dislocations to annihilate. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on this high quality template layer. After processing and hybridizing the device we use a chemical process to selectively remove the silicon substrate. This removal has minimal effect on the device, but it removes the UV-opaque silicon and allows back-illumination of the photodetector. We report our latest results of back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors growth on silicon. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Active and passive infrared imager based on short-wave and mid-wave type-II superlattice dual-band detectors
E.K. Huang, A. Haddadi, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 38, no. 1, p. 22-24-- January 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
A versatile dual-band detector capable of active and passive use is demonstrated using short-wave (SW) and midwave(MW) IR type-II superlattice photodiodes. A bilayer etch-stop scheme is introduced for back-side-illuminated detectors, which enhanced the external quantum efficiency both in the SWIR and MWIR spectral regions. Temperature-dependent dark current measurements of pixel-sized 27 μm detectors found the dark current density to be ~1 × 10-5 A/cm² for the ∼4.2 μm cutoff MWIR channel at 140 K. This corresponded to a reasonable imager noise equivalent difference in temperature of ∼49 mK using F∕2.3 optics and a 10 ms integration time (tint), which lowered to ∼13 mK at 110 K using tint  30 ms, illustrating the potential for high-temperature operation. The SWIR channel was found to be limited by readout noise below 150 K. Excellent imagery from the dual-band imager exemplifying pixel coincidence is shown. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx superlattices
A. Haddadi, X.V. Suo, S. Adhikary, P. Dianat, R. Chevallier, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 107 , 141104 (2015)-- October 5, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ~1.8μm at 300K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R×A of 285 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 9.6×10-5 A/cm² under −50mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45×1010 cm·Hz½/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3×10-8 A/cm² and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66×1012 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Toward realization of small-size dual-band long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Manijeh Razeghi
Solid-State Electronics-- June 20, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
In this study, we demonstrate 12 × 12 µm² high-performance, dual-band, long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices. The structure consists of two back-to-back heterojunction photodiodes with 2 µm-thick p-doped absorption regions. High quality dry etching combined with SiO2 passivation results in a surface resistivity value of 7.9 × 105 Ω·cm for the longer (red) channel and little degradation of the electrical performance. The device reaches dark current density values of 4.5 × 10−4 A/cm² for the longer (red) and 1.3 × 10−4 A/cm² for the shorter (blue) LWIR channels at quantum efficiency saturation. It has 50% cut-off wavelengths of 8.3 and 11.2 µm for the blue and red channel, respectively, at 77 K in back-side illumination configuration and exhibits quantum efficiencies of 37% and 29%, respectively. This results in specific detectivity values of 2.5 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W and 1.3 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  High performance bias-selectable three-color Short-wave/Mid-wave/Long-wave Infrared Photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices
Anh Minh Hoang, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 24144 (2016)-- April 7, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
We propose a new approach in device architecture to realize bias-selectable three-color shortwave-midwave-longwave infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices. The effect of conduction band off-set and different doping levels between two absorption layers are employed to control the turn-on voltage for individual channels. The optimization of these parameters leads to a successful separation of operation regimes; we demonstrate experimentally three-color photodiodes without using additional terminal contacts. As the applied bias voltage varies, the photodiodes exhibit sequentially the behavior of three different colors, corresponding to the bandgap of three absorbers. Well defined cut-offs and high quantum efficiency in each channel are achieved. Such all-in-one devices also provide the versatility of working as single or dual-band photodetectors at high operating temperature. With this design, by retaining the simplicity in device fabrication, this demonstration opens the prospect for three-color infrared imaging. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Advances in antimonide-based Type-II superlattices for infrared detection and imaging at center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, R. McClintock
Infrared Physics & Technology, Volume 59, Pages 41-52 (2013)-- July 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs), a system of multi-interacting quantum wells, was introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photo-detectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of T2SL-based photo-detectors and focal plane arrays for imaging in different infrared regions, from SWIR to VLWIR, and the future outlook of this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product
M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken
Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 7, pp. 8462-8475-- March 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an important laser source in the mid-infrared and terahertz frequency range. The past twenty years have witnessed its tremendous development in power, wall plug efficiency, frequency coverage and tunability, beam quality, as well as various applications based on QCL technology. Nowadays, QCLs can deliver high continuous wave power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature, and cover a wide frequency range from 3 to 300 μm by simply varying the material components. Broadband heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral range from 3 to 12 μm, wavelength agile QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, and on-chip beam QCL combiner are being developed for the next generation tunable mid-infrared source for spectroscopy and sensing. Terahertz sources based on nonlinear generation in QCLs further extend the accessible wavelength into the terahertz range. Room temperature continuous wave operation, high terahertz power up to 1.9 mW, and wide frequency tunability form 1 to 5 THz makes this type of device suitable for many applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and communication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet 320 x 256 focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, E.K. Huang, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
OSA Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 5, p. 896-898-- March 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the synthesis, fabrication, and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1−xN–based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a pulse atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of thick, high-quality, crack-free, high Al composition AlxGa1−xN layers. The FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit and operated in a SE-IR camera system. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower, and falling off three orders of magnitude by ∼285 nm. By developing an opaque masking technology, the visible response of the ROIC is significantly reduced; thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allows the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE); at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA∕W, which corresponds to an EQE of ∼37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.   Emerging materials for photonics
Miriam S. Vitiello, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 03510-- March 31, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Photonics plays a major role in all aspects of human life. It revolutionized science by addressing fundamental scientific questions and by enabling key functions in many interdisciplinary fields spanning from quantum technologies to information andcommunicationscience,andfrombiomedicalresearchtoindustrialprocessmonitoring and life entertainment. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Recent progress of quantum cascade laser research from 3 to 12 μm at the Center for Quantum Devices
MANIJEH RAZEGHI,* WENJIA ZHOU,STEVEN SLIVKEN,QUAN-YONG LU,DONGHAI WU, AND RYAN MCCLINTOC
Applied Optics -- October 10, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum cascade laser (QCL) is becoming the leading laser source in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range, which contains two atmospheric transmission windows and many molecular fingerprint absorption features. Since its first demonstration in 1994, the QCL has undergone tremendous development in terms of the output power, wall plug efficiency, wavelength coverage, tunability and beam quality. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have demonstrated high-power continuous wave operation of QCLs covering a wide wavelength range from 3 to 12 μm, with power output up to 5.1 W at room temperature. Recent research has resulted in power scaling in pulsed mode with up to 203 W output, electrically tunable QCLs based on monolithic sampled grating design, heterogeneous QCLs with a broad spectral gain, broadly tunable on-chip beam-combined QCLs, QCL-based mid-IR frequency combs, and fundamental mode surface emitting quantum cascade ring lasers. The developed QCLs will be the basis for a number of next-generation spectroscopy and sensing systems. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  World's first demonstration of type-II superlattice dual band 640 x 512 LWIR focal plane array
E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680Z-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
High resolution multi-band infrared detection of terrestrial objects is useful in applications such as long range and high altitude surveillance. In this paper, we present a 640 x 512 type-II superlattice focal plane array (FPA) in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) suitable for such purposes, featuring 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red). The dual band camera is single-bump hybridized to an Indigo 30 μm pitch ISC0905 read-out integrated circuit. Test pixels revealed background limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5x1011 Jones at 7.9 μm (blue) and ~1x1011 Jones at 10.2 μm (red) at 77K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 955502-- August 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
III-Nitride material system (AlGaInN) possesses unique optical, electrical and structural properties such as a wide tunable direct bandgap, inherent fast carrier dynamics; good carrier transport properties, high breakdown fields; and high robustness and chemical stability. Recent technological advances in the wide bandgap AlGaN portion of this material system have led to a renewed interest in ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. These detectors find use in numerous applications in the defense, commercial and scientific arenas such as covert space-to-space communications, early missile threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy, flame detection and monitoring, UV environmental monitoring, and UV astronomy.1,2,3 Back illuminated detectors operating in the solar blind region are of special interest. Back illumination allows the detector to be hybridized to a silicon read-out integrated circuit, epi-side down, and still collect light through the back of the transparent sapphire substrate. This allows the realization of solar blind focal plane arrays (FPAs) for imaging applications. Solar-blind FPAs are especially important because of the near total absence of any background radiation in this region. In this talk, we will present our recent back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector, mini-array, and FPA results. By systematically optimizing the design of the structure we have realized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of in excess of 89% for pixel-sized detectors. Based on the absence of any anti-reflection coating, this corresponds to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. At the same time, the dark current remains below ~2 × 10-9 A/cm² even at 10 volts of reverse bias. The detector has a very sharp falloff starting at 275 with the UV-solar rejection of better than three orders of magnitude, and a visible rejection ratio is more than 6 orders of magnitude. This high performance photodetector design was then used as the basis of the realization of solar-blind FPA. We demonstrated a 320×256 FPA with a peak detection wavelength of 278nm. The operability of the FPA was better than 92%, and excellent corrected imaging was obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
6.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K. Huang, G. Chen, A. Haddadi and B.M. Nguyen
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVII, Orlando, FL, Vol. 8012, p. 80122Q-1-- April 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type II superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Using M-structure superlattice, novel device architectures have been developed, resulting in significant improvement of the device performances. In this paper, we will compare different photodetector architectures and discuss the optimization scheme which leads to almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance. At 150K, single element detectors exhibit a quantum efficiency above 50%, and a specific detectivity of 1.05x10(12) cm.Hz(1/2)/W. BLIP operation with a 300K background and 2π FOV can be reached with an operating temperature up to 180K. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) of 11mK up to 120K. Human body imaging is achieved at 150K with NEDT of 150mK. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output
Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, S. Slivken, D. H. Wu, and M. Razeghi
AIP Publishing -- April 26, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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