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8.  Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices: A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, P.R. Bijjam, and R. McClintock
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2014-- August 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattices (T2SLs), a system of interacting multiquantum wells,were introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention, especially for infrared detection and imaging. In recent years, the T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material growth quality, device structure design, and device fabrication techniques that have elevated the performance of T2SL-based photodetectors and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) to a level comparable to state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection and imaging, such as mercury cadmium telluride compounds. We present the current status of T2SL-based photodetectors and FPAs for imaging in different infrared regimes, from short wavelength to very long wavelength, and dual-band infrared detection and imaging, as well as the future outlook for this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, Saumya Sengupta, Steven Slivken, Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23595 (2016)-- March 24, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range (ν ~ 1–5 THz) is of great importance to terahertz system development for applications in spectroscopy, communication, sensing, and imaging. Here, we present a strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based on intracavity difference frequency generation. Room temperature continuous wave emission at 3.41 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and output power up to 14 μW is achieved with a wall-plug efficiency about one order of magnitude higher than previous demonstrations. With this highly efficient design, continuous wave, single mode THz emissions with a wide frequency tuning range of 2.06–4.35 THz and an output power up to 4.2 μW are demonstrated at room temperature from two monolithic three-section sampled grating distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Type-II ‘M’ Structure Photodiodes: An Alternative Material Design for Mid-Wave to Long Wavelength Infrared Regimes
B-M. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, V. Nathan, and G.J. Brown
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices IV, Vol. 6479, p. 64790S-1-10-- January 29, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
In this work, an AlSb-containing Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice, the so-called M-structure, is presented as a candidate for mid and long wavelength infrared detection devices. The effect of inserting an AlSb barrier in the GaSb layer is discussed and predicts many promising properties relevant to practical use. A good agreement between the theoretical calculation based on Empirical Tight Binding Method framework and experimental results is observed, showing the feasibility of the structure and its properties. A band gap engineering method without material stress constraint is proposed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Band edge tunability of M-structure for heterojunction design in Sb based Type-II superlattice photodiodes
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 16, p. 163502-1-- October 20, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We present theoretically and experimentally the effect of the band discontinuity in Type-II misaligned InAs/GaSb superlattice heterodiodes. Calculations using the empirical tight binding method have shown the great flexibility in tuning the energy levels of the band edge in M-structure superlattice as compared to the standard InAs/GaSb superlattice. Through the experimental realization of several p-pi-M-n photodiodes, the band discontinuity alignment between the standard binary-binary superlattice and the M-structured superlattice was investigated via optical characterization. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurement confirms the capability of controlling the M-structure band edges and suggests a way to exploit this advantage for the realization of heterostructures containing an M-structured superlattice without bias dependent operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  A study into the impact of sapphire substrate orientation on the properties of nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
F. H. Teherani; D. J. Rogers; V. E. Sandana; P. Bove; C. Ton-That; L. L. C. Lem; E. Chikoidze; M. Neumann-Spallart; Y. Dumont; T. Huynh; M. R. Phillips; P. Chapon; R. McClintock; M. Razeghi
Proceedings Volume 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices -- March 23, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Nominally-undoped Ga2O3 layers were deposited on a-, c- and r-plane sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Conventional x-ray diffraction analysis for films grown on a- and c-plane sapphire showed the layers to be in the β-Ga2O3 phase with preferential orientation of the (-201) axis along the growth direction. Pole figures revealed the film grown on r-plane sapphire to also be in theβ-Ga2O3 phase but with epitaxial offsets of 29.5°, 38.5° and 64° from the growth direction for the (-201) axis. Optical transmission spectroscopy indicated that the bandgap was ~5.2eV, for all the layers and that the transparency was > 80% in the visible wavelength range. Four point collinear resistivity and Van der Pauw based Hall measurements revealed the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-plane sapphire to be 4 orders of magnitude more conducting than layers grown on a- and c-plane sapphire under similar conditions. The absolute values of conductivity, carrier mobility and carrier concentration for the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-sapphire (at 20Ω-1.cm-1, 6 cm2/Vs and 1.7 x 1019 cm-3, respectively) all exceeded values found in the literature for nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films by at least an order of magnitude. Gas discharge optical emission spectroscopy compositional depth profiling for common shallow donor impurities (Cl, F, Si and Sn) did not indicate any discernable increase in their concentrations compared to background levels in the sapphire substrate. It is proposed that the fundamentally anisotropic conductivity in β-Ga2O3 combined with the epitaxial offset of the (-201) axis observed for the layer grown on r-plane sapphire may explain the much larger carrier concentration, electrical conductivity and mobility compared with layers having the (-201) axis aligned along the growth direction. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices and Detectors with Cutoff Wavelength Greater Than 18 μm
M. Razeghi, Y. Wei, A. Gin, G.J. Brown and D. Johnstone
Proceedings of the SPIE, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4650, 111 (2002)-- January 25, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report the most recent advances in Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials and photovoltaic detectors. Lattice mismatch between the substrate and the superlattice has been routinely achieved below 0.1%, and less than 0.0043% as the record. The FWHM of the zeroth order peak from x-ray diffraction has been decreased below 50 arcsec and a record of less than 44arcsec has been achieved. High performance detectors with 50% cutoff beyond 18 micrometers up to 26 micrometers have been successfully demonstrated. The detectors with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 18.8 micrometers showed a peak current responsivity of 4 A/W at 80K, and a peak detectivity of 4.510 cm·Hz½·W-1 was achieved at 80K at a reverse bias of 110 mV under 300 K 2(pi) FOV background. Some detectors showed a projected 0% cutoff wavelength up to 28~30 micrometers . The peak responsivity of 3Amp/Watt and detectivity of 4.2510 cm·Hz½·W-1 was achieved under -40mV reverse bias at 34K for these detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  RT-CW: widely tunable semiconductor THz QCL sources
M. Razeghi; Q. Y. Lu
Proceedings Volume 9934, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications -- September 26, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Distinctive position of Terahertz (THz) frequencies (ν~0.3 -10 THz) in the electromagnetic spectrum with their lower quantum energy compared to IR and higher frequency compared to microwave range allows for many potential applications unique to them. Especially in the security side of the THz sensing applications, the distinct absorption spectra of explosives and related compounds in the range of 0.1–5 THz makes THz technology a competitive technique for detecting hidden explosives. A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range will greatly boost the THz applications for the diagnosis and detection of explosives. Here we present a new strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based intracavity DFG. Room temperature continuous wave operation with electrical frequency tuning range of 2.06-4.35 THz is demonstrated [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Scale-up of the Chemical Lift-off of (In)GaN-based p-i-n Junctions from Sapphire Substrates Using Sacrificial ZnO Template Layers
D. J. Rogers, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, V. Sandana, P. L. Voss, A. Ougazzaden, A. Rajan, K.A. Prior, R. McClintock, & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 936424 -- March 24, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
(In)GaN p-i-n structures were grown by MOVPE on both GaN- and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates. XRD studies of the as-grown layers revealed that a strongly c-axis oriented wurtzite crystal structure was obtained on both templates and that there was a slight compressive strain in the ZnO underlayer which increased after GaN overgrowth. The InGaN peak position gave an estimate of 13.6at% for the indium content in the active layer. SEM and AFM revealed that the top surface morphologies were similar for both substrates, with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of about 10 nm. Granularity appeared slightly coarser (40nm for the device grown on ZnO vs 30nm for the device grown on the GaN template) however. CL revealed a weaker GaN near band edge UV emission peak and a stronger broad defect-related visible emission band for the structure grown on the GaN template. Only a strong ZnO NBE UV emission was observed for the sample grown on the ZnO template. Quarter-wafer chemical lift-off (CLO) of the InGaN-based p-i-n structures from the sapphire substrate was achieved by temporary-bonding the GaN surface to rigid glass support with wax and then selectively dissolving the ZnO in 0.1M HCl. XRD studies revealed that the epitaxial nature and strong preferential c-axis orientation of the layers had been maintained after lift-off. This demonstration of CLO scale-up, without compromising the crystallographic integrity of the (In)GaN p-i-n structure opens up the perspective of transferring GaN based devices off of sapphire substrates industrially. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source
Q. Y. Lu, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 201102 (2014)-- November 17, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Long Wavelength Type-II Photodiodes Operating at Room Temperature
H. Mohseni and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 13 (5)-- May 1, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2 × 108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays [reprint (PDF)]
 
8.  Demonstration of mid-infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on GaAs substrate
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, S. Bogdanov, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 22-- June 8, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A)in excess of 1600 Ω·cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6 X 108 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Photodetector with a High Detectivity
H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270N-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently been considered as strong candidates for numerous applications such as night vision, space communication, gas analysis and medical diagnosis involving middle and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR respectively) operation. This is due to their unique properties arising from their 3-dimensional confinement potential that provides a discrete density of states. They are expected to outperform quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a consequence of their natural sensitivity to normal incident radiation, their higher responsivity and their higher-temperature operation. So far, most of the QDIPs reported in the literature were based on the InAs/GaAs system and were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here, we report on the growth of a high detectivity InGaAs/InGaP QDIP grown on a GaAs substrate using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Ilkay Demir, Yoann Robin, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Konstantinos Zekentes, and Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi A, 1–6 (2016)-- September 30, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN layers have been grown on 200 nm period of nanopatterned Si (111) substrates by cantilever epitaxy and compared with AlN layers grown by maskless lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) on micropatterned Si (111) substrates. The material quality of 5–10 µm thick AlN grown by LEO is comparable to that of much thinner layers (2 µm) grown by cantilever epitaxy on the nanopatterned substrates. Indeed, the latter exhibited root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.65 nm and X-ray diffraction full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 710 arcsec along the (0002) reflection and 930 arcsec along the (10̅15) reflection. The corresponding room temperature photoluminescence spectra was dominated by a sharp band edge peak. Back emission ultra violet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) were fabricated by flip chip bonding to patterned AlN heat sinks followed by complete Si (111) substrate removal demonstrating a peak pulsed power of ∼0.7 mW at 344 nm peak emission wavelength. The demonstrated UV LEDs were fabricated on a cost effective epitaxial structure grown on the nanopatterned Si substrate with a total thickness of 3.3 µm [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
Erdem Cicek, Ryan McClintock, Abbas Haddadi, William A. Gaviria Rojas, and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 50, Issue 8, p 591-595-- August 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on solar-blind ultraviolet, AlxGa1-x N- based,p-i-n,focal plane array (FPA) with 92% operability. At the peak detection wavelength of 278 nm, 320×256-FP A-pixel showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) and responsivity of 49% and 109 mA/W, respectively, increasing to 66% under 5 volts of reverse bias. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density: <7×10-9A/cm², at FPA operating voltage of 2 volts of reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Np. 8, p. 081106-1-- August 20, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Angled cavity broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are investigated with surface gratingbased distributed feedback (DFB) mechanisms. It is found that an angled cavity incorporating a one dimensional DFB with grating lines parallel to the laser facet offers the simplest solution for single mode and diffraction limited emission in the facet normal direction. A room temperature single mode QCL with the highest output power for wavelengths longer than 10 micron is demonstrated. This structure could be applied to a wide range of laser structures for power scaling along with spectral and spatial beam control. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Very high performance LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 7082, San Diego, CA 2008, p. 708205-- September 3, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
LWIR and VLWIR type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have for long time suffered from a high dark current level and a low dynamic resistance which hampers the its emergence to the infrared detection and imaging industry. However, with the use of M-structure superlattice, a new Type-II binary InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice design, as an effective blocking barrier, the dark current in type-II superlattice diode has been significantly reduced. We have obtained comparable differential resistance product to the MCT technology at the cut-off wavelength of 10 and 14μm. Also, this new design is compatible with the optical optimization scheme, leading to high quantum efficiency, high special detectivity devices for photon detectors and focal plane arrays. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling in long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb superlattice
F. Callewaert, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 104, 053508 (2014)-- February 6, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared minority electron unipolar photodetector based on InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices is demonstrated. At 77 K, a dark current of 3 × 10−5 A/cm² and a differential resistance-area of 3 700 Ω·cm² are achieved at the turn-on bias, with a 50%-cutoff of 10.0 μm and a specific detectivity of 6.2 × 1011 Jones. The dark current is fitted as a function of bias and temperature using a model combining generation-recombination and trap-assisted tunneling. Good agreement was observed between the theory and the experimental dark current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Highly temperature insensitive quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, E. Selcuk, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 25-- December 20, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
An InP based quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterostructure emitting around 5 μm is grown with gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The QCL core design takes a shallow-well approach to maximize the characteristic temperatures, T(0) and T(1), for operations above room temperature. A T(0) value of 383 K and a T(1) value of 645 K are obtained within a temperature range of 298–373 K. In room temperature continuous wave operation, this design gives a single facet output power of 3 W and a wall plug efficiency of 16% from a device with a cavity length of 5 mm and a ridge width of 8 μm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot infrared photodetector operating at room temperature and focal plane array
Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; Wei Zhang; Manijen Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 65420R (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have attracted much attention because of their novel properties and thus possible practical applications including the lasers, detectors and modulators. Especially the photodetectors which have quantum dots in their active region have been developed and show promising performances such as high operation temperature due to three dimensional confinement of the carriers and normal incidence in contrast to the case of quantum well detectors which require special optical coupling schemes. Here we report our recent results for mid-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The material system we have investigated consists of 25 period self-assembled InAs quantum dot layers on InAlAs barriers, which are lattice-matched to InP substrates, covered with InGaAs quantum well layers and InAlAs barriers. This active region was sandwiched by highly doped InP contact layers. The device operates at 4.1 μm with a peak detectivity of 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a quantum efficiency of 35 %. The photoresponse can be observed even at room temperature resulting in a peak detectivity of 6×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. A 320×256 focal plane array has been fabricated in this kind of device. Its performance will also be discussed here. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  Study of Au coated ZnO nanoarrays for surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensing
Gre´gory Barbillon, Vinod E. Sandana,Christophe Humbert, Benoit Be´lier, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh H. Teherani, Philippe Bove Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghid
Cite this: J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 3528-- March 20, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
At present, the simultaneous attainment of good reproducibility and high enhancement factors (EF) are key challenges in the development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)substrates for improved chemical and biological sensing. SERS substrates are generally based on distributions of metallic nanoparticles/structures with different shapes and architectures which are prepared by either thermal dewetting, precipitation from colloidal suspensions1–4 or advanced (e.g. deep UV or electron beam (EBL)) lithographic techniques.5–9 Although such substrates can exhibit large Raman enhancements, the former two techniques (colloidal and thermal dewetting) give poor SERS reproducibility while deep UV and EBL are too expensive and/or complex for mass production.
 
7.  High Performance InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes for the Very Long Wavelength Infrared Range
H. Mohseni, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, Y.S. Park
Applied Physics Letters 78 (15)-- April 9, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of high-performance p-i-n photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices with 50% cut-off wavelength λc = 16 μm operating at 80 K. Material is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates with excellent crystal quality as evidenced by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The processed devices show a current responsivity of 3.5 A/W at 80 K leading to a detectivity of ∼ 1.51×1010 cm·Hz½/W. The quantum efficiency of these devices is about 35% which is comparable to HgCdTe detectors with a similar active layer thickness. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  High performance quantum dot-quantum well infrared focal plane arrays
S. Tsao, A. Myzaferi, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050J-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot (QD) devices are a promising technology for high operating temperature detectors. We have studied InAs QDs embedded in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well structure on InP substrate for middle wavelength infrared detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs). This combined dot-well structure has weak dot confinement of carriers, and as a result, the device behavior differs significantly from that in more common dot systems with stronger confinement. We report on our studies of the energy levels in the QDWIP devices and on QD-based detectors operating at high temperature with D* over 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 150 K operating temperature and high quantum efficiency over 50%. FPAs have been demonstrated operating at up to 200 K. We also studied two methods of adapting the QDWIP device to better accommodate FPA readout circuit limitations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
7.  First Demonstration of ~ 10 microns FPAs in InAs/GaSb SLS
M. Razeghi, P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, A. Hood, D. Hoffman, R. McClintock, Y. Wei, E. Michel, V. Nathan and M. Tidrow
IEEE LEOS Newsletter 20 (5)-- October 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The concept of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was first brought by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki, et al. in the 1970s. There had been few studies on this material system until two decades later when reasonable quality material growth was made possible using molecular beam epitaxy. With the addition of cracker cells for the group V sources and optimizations of material growth conditions, the superlattice quality become significantly improved and the detectors made of these superlattice materials can meet the demand in some practical field applications. Especially in the LWIR regime, it provides a very promising alternative to HgCdTe for better material stability and uniformity, etc. We have developed the empirical tight binding model (ETBM) for precise determination of the superlattice bandgap. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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