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1.  High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (8)-- February 23, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetectors with a peak responsivity of 136 mA/W at 282 nm without bias. This corresponds to a high external quantum efficiency of 60%, which improves to a value as high as 72% under 5 V reverse bias. We attribute the high performance of these devices to the use of a very-high quality AlN and Al0.87Ga0.13N/AlN superlattice material and a highly conductive Si–In co-doped Al0.5Ga0.5N layer [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Power 3-12 μm Infrared Lasers: Recent Improvements and Future Trends
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, and Y.S. Park
Advanced Research Workshop on Semiconductor Nanostructures, Queenstown, New Zealand; Proceedings -- February 5, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we discuss the progress of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Room temperature QCL operation has been reported for lasers emitting between 5-11 μm, with 9-11 μm lasers operating up to 425 K. Laser technology for the 3-5 μm range takes advantage of a strain-balanced active layer design. We also demonstrate record room temperature peak output powers at 9 and 11 μm (2.5 and 1 W, respectively) as well as record low 80K threshold current densities (250 A/cm²) for some laser designs. Preliminary distributed feedback (DFB) results are also presented and exhibit single mode operation for 9 μm lasers at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Characteristics of high quality p-type AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattices
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, S.R. Darvish, Z. Lin, K. Mi, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 80 (12)-- March 18, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
Very-high-quality p-type AlxGa1–xN/GaN superlattices have been grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy through optimization of Mg flow and the period of the superlattice. For the superlattice with x = 26%, the hole concentration reaches a high value of 4.2×1018 cm–3 with a resistivity as low as 0.19 Ω · cm by Hall measurement. Measurements confirm that superlattices with a larger period and higher Al composition have higher hole concentration and lower resistivity, as predicted by theory. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Low-threshold and high power (~9.0 μm) quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature
A. Matlis, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, K.J. Luo, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, A. Rybaltowski, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 77 (12)-- September 18, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a low threshold current density and high power for λ ∼ 9 μm AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature. The threshold current density is 1.95 kA/cm² at 300 K and 0.61 kA/cm² at 80 K for 5 μs pulses at 200 Hz repetition rate. The peak output power is 700 mW at room temperature and 1.3 W at 80 K per two facets for cavity length is 3 mm with a stripe width of 20 μm. The characteristic temperature T0 is 185 °C. The slope efficiency is 450 and 800 mW/A at 300 and 80 K, respectively. In continuous wave operation, the output power is more than 150 mW at 80 K and 25 mW at 140 K. This high performance was achieved by improving the material growth and processing technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Solar blind GaN p-i-n photodiodes
D. Walker, A. Saxler, P. Kung, X. Zhang, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 72 (25)-- June 22, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the growth and characterization of GaN p-i-n photodiodes with a very high degree of visible blindness. The thin films were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The room-temperature spectral response shows a high responsivity of 0.15 A/W up until 365 nm, above which the response decreases by six orders of magnitude. Current/voltage measurements supply us with a zero bias resistance of 1011  Ω. Lastly, the temporal response shows a rise and fall time of 2.5 μs measured at zero bias. This response time is limited by the measurement circuit. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Multi-color 4–20 μm In-P-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
In order to tune the wavelength of lattice-matched QWIP detectors over the range from 4 - 20 &mum, new designs are demonstrated for the first time which combine InGaAlAs and InGaAsP layers lattice-matched to InP and grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate the first long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors using the lattice-matched n-doped InGaAlAs/InP materials system. Samples with AlAs mole fractions of 0.0, 0.1, and 0.15 result in cutoff wavelengths of 8.5, 13.3, and 19.4 μm, respectively. A 45 degree facet coupled illumination responsivity of R equals 0.37 A/W and detectivity of D*(λ) equals 1x109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at T = 77 K, for a cutoff wavelength λc equals 13.3 μm have been achieved. Based on the measured intersubband photoresponse wavelength, a null conduction band offset is expected for In0.52Ga0.21Al0.27As/InP heterojunctions. We also report quantum well infrared photodetector structures of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As grown on InP substrate with photoresponse at 4 μm suitable for mid-wavelength infrared detectors. These detectors exhibit a constant peak responsivity of 30 mA/W independent of temperature in the range from T equals 77 K to T equals 200 K. Combining these two materials, we report the first multispectral detectors that combine lattice-matched quantum wells of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InP. Utilizing two contacts, a voltage tunable detector with (lambda) p equals 8 micrometer at a bias of V equals 5 V and λp equals 4 μm at V equals 10 V is demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power InAsSb/InPAsSb/InAs mid-infrared lasers
A. Rybaltowski, Y. Xiao, D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Yi, H. Feng, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (17)-- October 27, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate high-power InAsSb/InPAsSb laser bars (λ ≈ 3.2 μm) consisting of three 100 μm-wide laser stripes of 700 μm cavity length, with peak output power up to 3 W at 90 K, and far-fields for the direction perpendicular to the junction as narrow as 12° full width half maximum. Spectra and far-field patterns of the laser bars are shown to have excellent characteristics for a wide range of operating conditions, suggesting the possibility of even higher light power emission with good beam quality. Joule heating is shown to be the major factor limiting higher power operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  GaN, GaAlN, and AlN for use in UV Detectors for Astrophysics: An Update
P. Kung, A. Saxler, X. Zhang, D. Walker, M. Razeghi, and M. Ulmer
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
In SPIE Proceeding 2397 we demonstrated that there is a large payoff still to be gained by further improvements in the performance of solar blind UV detectors for astronomical purposes. We suggested that a particularly promising future technology is one based on the ability of investigators to produce high-quality films made of wide bandgap III-IV semiconductors. Here we report on significant progress we have made over the past year to fabricate and test single-pixel devices. The next step will be to measure and improve detective efficiency, measure the solar blindness over a larger dynamic range, and begin developing multiple-pixel designs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High quality AlN and GaN epilayers grown on (00*1) sapphire, (100) and (111) silicon substrates
P. Kung, A. Saxler, X. Zhang, D. Walker, T.C. Wang, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 66 (22)-- May 29, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of high quality AlN and GaN thin films on basal plane sapphire, (100), and (111) silicon substrates is reported using low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray rocking curve linewidths of about 100 and 30 arcsec were obtained for AlN and GaN on sapphire, respectively. Room‐temperature optical transmission and photoluminescence (of GaN) measurements confirmed the high quality of the films. The luminescence at 300 and 77 K of the GaN films grown on basal plane sapphire, (100), and (111) silicon was compared. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth of In1-xTlxSb, a New Infrared Material, by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, C, Besikci, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (3)-- July 19, 1993 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth of In1-xTlxSb, a new III-V alloy for long-wavelength infrared detector applications, by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. In1-xTlxSb with good surface morphology was obtained on both GaAs and InSb substrates at a growth temperature of 455 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed resolved peaks of In1-xTlxSb and InSb films. Infrared absorption spectrum of In1-xTlxSb showed a shift toward lower energies compared to InSb spectrum. Hall mobility data on In1-xTlxSb/InSb/GaAs structure showed enhanced mobility at low temperatures compared to InSb/GaAs structure. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Intersubband hole absorption in GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells grown by Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, E. Michel, O. Duchemin, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi with G. Brown and S.M. Hegde (Wright Laboratory)
Applied Physics Letters 65 (9)-- August 29, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
P-doped GaAs‐GaInP quantum wells have been grown on GaAs substrate by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Structural quality has been evidenced by x-ray diffraction. A narrow low-temperature photoluminescence full width at half‐maximum has been measured. Strong hole intersubband absorption has been observed at 9 μm, and its dependence on light polarization has been investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Graphene versus oxides for transparent electrode applications
Sandana, V. E.; Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Bove, P.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862603 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to their combination of good electrical conductivity and optical transparency, Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) are the most common choice as transparent electrodes for optoelectronics applications. In particular, devices, such as LEDs, LCDs, touch screens and solar cells typically employ indium tin oxide. However, indium has some significant drawbacks, including toxicity issues (which are hampering manufacturing), an increasing rarefication (due to a combination of relative scarcity and increasing demand [1]) and resulting price increases. Moreover, there is no satisfactory option at the moment for use as a p-type transparent contact. Thus alternative materials solutions are actively being sought. This review will compare the performance and perspectives of graphene with respect to TCOs for use in transparent conductor applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Substrate emission quantum cascade ring lasers with room temperature continuous wave operation
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680N-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade ring lasers around 5 μm with single mode operation up to 0.51 W output power. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. Light is coupled out of the ring cavity through the substrate with a second order distributed feedback grating. The substrate emission scheme allows for epilayer-down bonding, which leads to room temperature continuous wave operation. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Geiger-mode operation of ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes grown on sapphire and free-standing GaN substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 26, p. 261107 (2010);-- June 28, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) were grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing (FS) c-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. At a reverse-bias of 70 V, APDs grown on sapphire substrates exhibited a dark current density of 2.7×10−4 A/cm² whereas APDs grown on FS-GaN substrates had a significantly lower dark current density of 2.1×10−6 A/cm². Under linear-mode operation, APDs grown on FS-GaN achieved avalanche gain as high as 14 000. Geiger-mode operation conditions were studied for enhanced SPDE. Under front-illumination the 625 μm² area APD yielded a SPDE of 13% when grown on sapphire substrates compared to more than 24% when grown on FS-GaN. The SPDE of the same APD on sapphire substrate increased to 30% under back-illumination—the FS-GaN APDs were only tested under front illumination due to the thick absorbing GaN substrate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of ZnO nanostructures grown using pulsed laser deposition, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor transport
V.E. Sandana, D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, H-J Drouhin, M.C. Clochard, V. Sallett, G. Garry, and F. Falyouni
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1678-1683-- May 29, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
This article compares the forms and properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on Si (111) and c-plane sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates using three different growth processes: metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and physical vapor transport (PVT). A very wide range of ZnO nanostructures was observed, including nanorods, nanoneedles, nanocombs, and some novel structures resembelling “bevelled” nanowires. PVT gave the widest family of nanostructures. PLD gave dense regular arrays of nanorods with a preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane on both Si and c-Al2O3 substrates, without the use of a catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that nanostructures grown by PLD were better crystallized and more highly oriented than those grown by PVT and MOCVD. Samples grown on Si showed relatively poor XRD response but lower wavelength emission and narrower linewidths in PL studies. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Influence of Residual Impurity Background on the Non-radiative Recombination Processes in High Purity InAs/GaSb superlattice Photodiodes
E.C.F. da Silva, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, B. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 89 (24)-- December 11, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The influence of the impurity background on the recombination processes in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.8 μm was investigated by electroluminescence measurements. Using an iterative fitting procedure based on the dependence of the quantum efficiency of the electroluminescence on the injection current, the Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes were determined [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room-temperature, high-power and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 9.6 µm
S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (20)-- May 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers is reported. Continuous-wave output powers of 100 mW at 25 °C and 20 mW at 50 °C are obtained. The device exhibits a cw threshold current density of 1.34 kA/cm2, a maximum cw wall-plug efficiency of 1% at 25 °C, and a characteristic temperature of ~190 K in pulsed mode. Single-mode emission near 9.6 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio of ≥ 30 dB and a tuning range of 2.89 cm–1 from 15 to 50 °C is obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C.S. Kim, J.R. Meyer, J. Nguyen, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 612704-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in a single spectral mode at 4.8 µm and at temperatures up to 333 K has been reported. In the present work, we provide detailed measurements and modeling of its performance characteristics. The sidemode suppression ratio exceeds 25 dB, and the emission remains robustly single-mode at all currents and temperatures tested. Cw output powers of 99 mW at 298 K and 357 mW at 200 K are obtained at currents well below the thermal rollover point. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power CW Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.R. Meyer, W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, I. Vurgaftman, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the cw operation of quantum cascade lasers that do not require cryogenic cooling and emit at λ = 4.7-6.2 µm. At 200 K, more than 1 W of output power is obtained from 12-µm-wide stripes, with a wall-plug efficiency (ηwall) near 10%. Room-temperature cw operation has also been demonstrated, with a maximum output power of 640 mW (ηwall = 4.5%) at 6 µm and 260 mW (ηwall = 2.3%) at 4.8 µm. Far-field characterization indicates that whereas the beam quality remains close to the diffraction limit in all of the tested lasers, in the devices emitting at 6.2 µm the beam tends to steer by as much as 5-10° degrees in either direction with varying temperature and pump current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Very high quality p-type AlxGa1-xN/GaN superlattice
A. Yasan and M. Razeghi
special ISDRS issue of Solid State Electronics Journal, 47-- January 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
Very high quality p-type AlxGa1−xN/GaN superlattice has been achieved through optimization of Mg flow and period of superlattice. Theoretical model was used to optimize the structure of superlattice by choosing suitable Al compositions and superlattice periods. The experiments show that for x=0.26, the resistivity is as low as 0.19 Ω cm and hole concentration is as high as 4.2×1018 cm−3, the highest values ever reported for p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices. Hall effect measurement and admittance spectroscopy on the samples confirm the high quality of the superlattices. The activation energy calculated for p-type GaN and p-type A0.1Ga0.9N/GaN superlattice is estimated to be not, vert, similar 125 and 3 meV respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Development of Quantum Cascade Lasers for High Peak Output Power and Low Threshold Current Density
S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Solid State Electronics 46-- January 1, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
Design and material optimization are used to both decrease the threshold current density and increase the output power for quantum cascade lasers. Waveguides are designed to try and minimize free-carrier and surface-plasmon absorption. Excellent material characterization is also presented, showing excellent control over layer thickness, interface quality, and doping level. Experiments are done to both optimize the injector doping level and to maximize the output power from a single aperture. At 300 K, a threshold current density as low as 1.8 kA/cm² is reported, along with peak powers of approximately 2.5 W. Strain-balanced lasers are also demonstrated at λnot, vert, similar5 μm, exhibiting threshold current densities<300 A/cm² at 80 K. These values represent the state-of-the-art for mid-infrared lasers with λ>4 μm [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Very Long Wavelength Infrared Type-II Detectors Operating at 80K
H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, W.C. Mitchel, and Y.S. Park
Applied Physics Letters 77 (11)-- September 11, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a demonstration of very long wavelength infrared detectors based on InAs/GaSb superlattices operating at T = 80 K. Detector structures with excellent material quality were grown on an optimized GaSb buffer layer on GaAs semi-insulating substrates. Photoconductive devices with 50% cutoff wavelength of λc = 17  μm showed a peak responsivity of about 100 mA/W at T = 80  K. Devices with 50% cutoff wavelengths up to λc = 22  μm were demonstrated at this temperature. Good uniformity was obtained over large areas even for the devices with very long cutoff wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  8.5 μm Room Temperature Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report room-temperature pulsed-mode operation of 8.5 μm quantum cascade lasers grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The theory necessary to understand the operation of the laser is presented and current problems are analyzed. Very good agreement is shown to exist between theoretical and experimental emission wavelengths. The high- temperature operation is achieved with 1 μs pulses at a repetition rate of 200 Hz. Peak output power in these conditions is in excess of 700 mW per 2 facets at 79 K and 25 mW at 300 K. Threshold current as a function of temperature shows an exponential dependence with T0 equals 188 K for a 1.5 mm cavity. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Electrical Characterization of AlxGa1-xN for UV Photodetector Applications
A. Saxler, M. Ahoujja, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Ultraviolet photodetectors have many military and commercial applications. However, for many of these applications, the photodetectors must be solar blind. This means that the photodetectors must have a cutoff wavelength of less than about 270 nm. Semiconductor based devices would then need energy gaps of over 4.6 eV. In the AlxGa1-xN system, the aluminum mole fraction, x, required is over 40%. As the energy gap is increased, doping becomes much more difficult, especially p-type doping. This report is a study of the electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN to enable better control of the doping. Magnesium doped p-type AlxGa1-xN has been studied using high-temperature Hall effect measurements. The acceptor ionization energy has been found to increase substantially with the aluminum content. Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were also grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short- period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. Silicon doped n-type films have also been studied. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors Based on InSbBi Grown on GaAs Substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (16)-- October 20, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the operation of InSbBi infrared photoconductive detectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The fabricated photodetector showed a cutoff wavelength of 7.7 μm at 77 K. The responsivity of the InSbBi photodetector at 7 μm was about 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The corresponding Johnson-noise limited detectivity was 4.7×108  cm· Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime was estimated to be about 86 ns from the voltage-dependent responsivity measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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