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1.  Comparison of Trimethylgallium and Triethylgallium for the Growth of GaN
A. Saxler, D. Walker, P. Kung, X. Zhang, M. Razeghi, J. Solomon, W. Mitchel, and H.R. Vydyanath
Applied Physics Letters 71 (22)-- December 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN films grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as gallium precursors are compared. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Hall effect, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and etch pit density measurements. GaN layers grown using triethylgallium exhibited superior electrical and optical properties and a lower carbon impurity concentration. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  The Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of InSb on (111) GaAs
E. Michel, J. Kim, J. Xu, S. Javadpour, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (2)-- July 8, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
The molecular beam epitaxial growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs has been investigated. It was found that for a given Sb/In ratio, a higher growth temperature was required for the growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs compared to that on (001) GaAs. This difference has been attributed to the bonding characteristics of the (111)B and (001) surface. Once growth had been optimized, it was found that the material characteristics of (111)B InSb were almost identical to that of (001) InSb, i.e., independent of orientation. For example, the x-ray full width at half-maximum and 300 K mobility had the same absolute values for (111) InSb and (001)InSb and followed the same dependence with the sample thickness. Te was found to be a well-behaved n-type dopant for (111)B InSb. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Background Limited Performance in p-doped GaAs/Ga[0.71]In[0.29]As[0.39]P[0.61] Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
J. Hoff, S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, J. Piotrowski, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi and G. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 67 (1)-- July 3, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Background limited infrared photodetection has been achieved up to 100 K at normal incidence with p-type GaAs/Ga0.71In0.29As0.39P0.61 quantum well intersubband photodetectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse covers the wavelength range from 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The device shows photovoltaic response, the cutoff wavelength increases slightly with bias, and the responsivity increases nonlinearly with bias. These effects are attributed to an asymmetric quantum well profile. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Ultraviolet Detectors for AstroPhysics Present and Future
M. Ulmer, M. Razeghi, and E. Bigan
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 239-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Astronomical instruments for the study of UV astronomy have been developed for NASA missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The systems that are `blind to the visible' (`solar-blind') yet sensitive to the UV that have been flown in satellites have detective efficiencies of about 10 to 20%, although typically electron bombardment charge coupled devices are higher at 30 - 40% and ordinary CCDs achieve 1 - 5%. Therefore, there is a large payoff still to be gained by further improvements in the performance of solar blind UV detectors. We provide a brief review of some aspects of UV astronomy, UV detector development, and possible technologies for the future. We suggest that a particularly promising future technology is one based on the ability of investigators to produce high quality films made of wide bandgap III-V semiconductors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  The correlation between x-ray diffraction patterns and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices
X.G. He, M. Erdtmann, R. Williams, S. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (22)-- November 28, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
Strong correlation between x‐ray diffraction characteristics and strain distribution inside GaInP/GaAs superlattices has been reported. It is found that the symmetry of (002) diffraction patterns can be used to evaluate the interface strain status. A sample with no interfacial strains has a symmetric (002) diffraction pattern and weak (004) diffraction pattern. It is also demonstrated that strain distribution in superlattices can be readily estimated qualitatively by analyzing x-ray diffraction patterns. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Novel process for direct bonding of GaN onto glass substrates using sacrificial ZnO template layers to chemically lift-off GaN from c-sapphire
Rogers, D. J.; Ougazzaden, A.; Sandana, V. E.; Moudakir, T.; Ahaitouf, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Gautier, S.; Goubert, L.; Davidson, I. A.; Prior, K. A.; McClintock, R. P.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82630R (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN was grown on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. The ZnO then served as a sacrificial release layer, allowing chemical lift-off of the GaN from the c-Al2O3 substrate via selective wet etching of the ZnO. The GaN was subsequently direct-wafer-bonded onto a glass substrate. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Room Temperature Photoluminescence & optical microscopy confirmed bonding of several mm2 of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a soda lime glass microscope slide with no obvious deterioration of the GaN morphology. Using such an approach, InGaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming and reusing the substrate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of ultraviolet APDs grown on free-standing GaN and sapphire substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801P, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
There is a need for semiconductor-based ultraviolet photodetectors to support avalanche gain in order to realize better performance andmore effective compete with existing technologies. Wide bandgap III-Nitride semiconductors are the promising material system for the development of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that could be a viable alternative to current bulky UV detectors such as photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in IIINitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  On the interface properties of ZnO/Si electroluminescent diodes
J.L. Pau, J. Piqueras, D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, K. Minder, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 3, p. 033719-1-- February 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO layers grown on n–Si(100), n+–Si(100), and n–Si(111) substrates by pulsed-laser deposition were found to give electroluminescence. Light emission was observed in the form of discrete spots for currents over 1 mA with a white appearance to the naked eye. The intensity of these spots showed an erratic behavior over time, appearing and disappearing at random, while showing an associated random telegraph noise in the current signal. Regardless the substrate used, the electroluminescence spectra had a main broadband emission centered at about 600 nm and a relatively small peak at around 380 nm which corresponds to the energy of ZnO near band edge emission. Furthermore, the devices exhibited rectifying characteristics, whose current blocking direction depended on the substrate orientation. Optimization of ZnO conductivity and performing sample growth in N2 ambient were found to be critical to enhance the emission intensity. Rutherford backscattering characterization revealed the existence of an intermixed region at the interface between ZnO and Si. To study the electronic properties at the interface, frequency dependent capacitance measurements were carried out. The junction capacitance became frequency dependent at the bias voltages at which light emission occurs due to the relatively slow trapping and generation processes at deep centers. These centers are believed to play an important role in the mechanism of light emission. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Advances in APDs for UV astronomy
Melville P. Ulmer; Ryan M. McClintock; Jose L. Pau; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6686, UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV, 668605 (September 13, 2007)-- November 13, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent work of our group of the development of avalanche photo diodes based on (Al)GaN. The goal of this group is to achieve single photon counting. In this paper we first give the scientific motivation for making such a device in the context of UV astronomy and then describe current work and plans for future development. The development includes improving the sensitivity to be able to carry out single photon detection and the fabrication of arrays. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-power mid- and far- wavelength infrared lasers for free space communication
M. Razeghi; A. Evans; J. Nguyen; Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S.R. Darvish; K. Mi
Proc. SPIE 6593, Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications II, 65931V (June 12, 2007)-- June 12, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Laser-based free-space communications have been developed to serve specific roles in "last mile" high-speed data networks due to their high security, low cost, portability, and high bandwidth. Conventional free-space systems based on near infrared optical devices suffer from reliability problems due to atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects, such as those encountered with storms, dust, and fog. Mid-infrared wavelengths are less affected by atmospheric effects and can significantly enhance link up-time and range. This paper will discuss some of the recent advances in high-power, high temperature, high reliability mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers and their potential application in highly reliable free space communication links. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Positive and negative luminescence in binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61271H-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
In the present work, we show measurements of both positive and negative luminescence of binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes in the 3 to 13 μm spectral range. Through a radiometric calibration technique, we demonstrate temperature independent negative luminescence efficiencies of 45 % in the midwavelength (MWIR) sample from 220 K to 320 K without anti-reflective coating and values reaching 35 % in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) spectrum sample. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Ridge-Width Dependence on High-Temperature Continuous-Wave Quantum-Cascade Laser Operation
S. Slivken, J.S. Yu, A. Evans, L. Doris, J. David, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16 (3)-- March 1, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers (λ=6 μm) up to a temperature of 313 K (40°C). The maximum CW optical output powers range from 212 mW at 288 K to 22 mW at 313 K and are achieved with threshold current densities of 2.21 and 3.11 kA/cm2, respectively, for a high-reflectivity-coated 12-μm-wide and 2-mm-long laser. At room temperature (298 K), the power output is 145 mW at 0.87 A, corresponding to a power conversion efficiency of 1.68%. The maximum CW operating temperature of double-channel ridge waveguide lasers mounted epilayer-up on copper heatsinks is analyzed in terms of the ridge width, which is varied between 12 and 40 μm. A clear trend of improved performance is observed as the ridge narrows. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Very High Average Power at Room Temperature from λ ~ 5.9 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 82 (20)-- May 19, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a very high average output power at room temperature for quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ ~ 5.9 µm. For high-reflectivity-coated 2-mm-long cavities, a low threshold current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 was obtained at room temperature. From 300 to 400 K, the characteristic temperature (T0) was 198 K. A maximum average output power of 0.67 W was achieved. In addition, 0.56 W average output power was observed at a duty cycle of 56%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  AlxGa1-xN Materials and Device Technology for Solar Blind Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications
R. McClintock, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, F. Shahedipour, A. Yasan, C. Jelen, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4288, pp. 219-- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
There has been a growing interest for the development of solar blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors for use in a variety of applications, including early missile threat warning, flame monitoring, UV radiation monitoring and chemical/biological reagent detection. The AlxGa1-xN material system has emerged as the most promising approach for such devices. However, the control of the material quality and the device technology are still rather immature. We report here the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, the n-type and the p-type doping of high quality AlxGa1-xN thin films on sapphire substrates over a wide range of Al concentration. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High quality LEO growth and characterization of GaN films on Al2O3 and Si substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, and J. Diaz
SPIE International Conference on Solid State Crystals, Zakopane, Poland; Proceedings 3725-- October 12, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN films on (00.1) Al2O3 and (111) Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The LEO on Si substrates was possible after achieving quasi monocrystalline GaN template films on (111) Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess the quality of the LEO films. Lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates were achieved for both LEO growths of GaN on sapphire and silicon substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes
E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (8)-- February 22, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1−xN p-i-n photodiodes (0 < x < 0.15) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible rejection of six orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 365 to 338 nm. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances, the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. This behavior is justified by the strong frequency dependence of the device capacitance. By an admittance analysis, we conclude that speed is not limited by deep levels, but by substitutional Mg capture and emission time. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation
J. Diaz, H. Yi, M. Razeghi and G.T. Burnham
Applied Physics Letters 71 (21)-- November 24, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the long-term reliability measurement on uncoated Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power and high-temperature operation. No degradation in laser performance has been observed for over 30 ,000 h of lifetime testing in any of randomly selected several 100 μm-wide uncoated lasers operated at 60 °C with 1 W continuous wave output power. This is the first and the most conclusive evidence ever reported that directly shows the high long-term reliability of uncoated Al-free lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Intrinsic AlGaN photodetectors for the entire compositional range
D. Walker, X. Zhang, A. Saxler, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- February 12, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
AlxGa1-xN ultraviolet photoconductors with cut- off wavelengths from 365 nm to 200 nm have been fabricated and characterized. Various characteristics of the devices, such as photoresponse, voltage-dependent responsivity, frequency-dependent responsivity and noise spectral density, were measured and cross-referenced with optical, electrical and structural characteristics of the material to provide information about the mechanisms taking place during detection. The maximum detectivity reached 5.5 X 108 cm·Hz½/W at a modulating frequency of 14 Hz. The effective majority carrier lifetime in AlxGa1-xN materials, derived from frequency-dependent photoconductivity measurements, has been estimated to be from 6 to 35 msec. The frequency-dependent noise-spectrum shows that it is dominated by Johnson-noise at high frequencies for low Al-composition samples. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  p-doped GaAs/Ga0.51In0.49P quantum well intersub-band photodetectors
J. Hoff, X. He, M. Erdtmann, E. Bigan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Journal of Applied Physics 78 (3)-- August 1, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Lattice‐matched p-doped GaAs–Ga0.51In0.49P quantum well intersub‐band photodetectors with three different well widths have been grown on GaAs substrates by metal‐organic chemical‐vapor deposition and fabricated into mesa structures. The photoresponse cutoff wavelength varies between 3.5 and 5.5 μm by decreasing the well width from 50 down to 25 Å. Dark current measurements as a function of temperature reveal activation energies for thermionic emission that closely correspond to measured cutoff wavelengths. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with Kronig–Penney calculations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Nickel oxide growth on Si (111), c-Al2O3 and FTO/glass by pulsed laser deposition
V. E. Sandana ; D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; P. Bove ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
03/07/2014-- March 7, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
NiO was grown on Si (111), c-Al2O3 and FTO/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed that layers grown on c-Al2O3 were fcc NiO with a dense morphology of cubic grains that were strongly (111) oriented along the growth direction. The relatively low ω rocking curve linewidth, of 0.12°suggests that there may have been epitaxial growth on the c-Al2O3 substrate. XRD and SEM indicated that films grown on Si (111) were also fcc NiO, with cubic grains, but that the grain orientation was random. This is consistent with the presence of an amorphous SiO2 layer at the surface of the Si substrate, which precluded epitaxial growth. NiO grown at lower temperature (200°C) on temperature-sensitive FTO/glass substrates showed no evidence of crystallinity in XRD and SEM studies. After flash annealing in air, however, peaks characteristic of randomly oriented fcc NiO appeared in the XRD scans and the surface morphology became more granular in appearance. Such layers appear promising for the development of future dye-sensitised solar cell devices based on NiO grown by PLD. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference-frequency generation
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 25, p. 251121-1-- December 17, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference-frequency generation. Two mid-infrared active cores based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a THz nonlinearity specially optimized at the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Effects of substrate quality and orientation on the characteristics of III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol 7945, p. 79451A-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Al(Ga)N/GaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effects of material quality on room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of RTDs are investigated by growing the RTD structure on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. This reveals that NDR characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness and dislocations density). The effects of the aluminum content of AlGaN double barriers (DB) and polarization fields on NDR characteristic of AlGaN/GaN RTDs were also investigated by employing low dislocation density c-plane (polar) and m-plane (nonpolar) freestanding GaN substrates. Lower aluminum content in the DB RTD active layer and minimization of dislocations and polarization fields enabled a more reliable and reproducible NDR behaviour at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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