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416.  Multiple-band, Single-mode, High-power, Phase-locked, Mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Arrays
Manijeh Razeghi, Wenjia Zhou, Quanyong Lu, Donghai Wu, and Steven Slivken
Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 -- September 15, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Single-mode, 16-channel, phase-locked laser arrays based on quantum cascade laser technology are demonstrated at multiple spectral bands across the mid-infrared spectrum region. High peak output power of 50W is achieved around the long-wavelength band of 7.7µm, while a side mode suppression ratio over 25dB is obtained. Far field distribution measurement result indicates a uniform phase distribution across the array output. [reprint (PDF)]
 
354.  High brightness ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on patterned silicon substrate
Yoann Robin, Kai Ding, Ilkay Demir, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Manijeh Razeghi
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 90 (2019) 87–91-- November 5, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the fabrication of high brightness AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LED) on patterned silicon. Using the lateral epitaxial overgrowth approach, we demonstrate the growth of a 6 μm thick AlN layer of high crystalline quality. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a rocking curve with a full width at half maximum of 553 and 768″ for the (00.2) and (10.2) planes, respectively. The low dislocation density of the AlN template enabled the growth of bright AlGaN/ GaN quantum wells emitting at 336 nm. By appropriate flip-chip bonding and silicon substrate removal processing steps, the patterned AlN surface was exposed and efficient bottom-emission UV-LEDs were realized. Improvement of the AlN quality and the structure design allowed the optical output power to reach the milliwatt range under pulsed current, exceeding the previously reported maximum efficiency. Further investigations of the optical power at different pulsed currents and duty cycles show that thermal management in this device structure is still challenging, especially in continuous wave mode operation. The strategy presented here is of interest, since AlN crystalline quality improvement and optimization of the light extraction are the main issues inhibiting efficient UV emitter on silicon fabrication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
182.  High Frequency Extended Short-Wavelength Infrared Heterojunction Photodetectors Based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb Type-II Superlattices
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Ryan McClintock, Arash Dehzangi , Victor Lopez-Dominguez, Pedram Khalili Amiri, Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 54, NO. 6-- December 1, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors, with 50% cut-off wavelength of 2.1 µm and a −3 dB cut-off frequency of 4.8 GHz, are demonstrated, for 10 µm diameter circular mesas under 15 V applied reverse bias. A study of the cut-off frequency with applied bias and mesa size was performed to evaluate some of the limiting factors of photodetectors high frequency performance. [reprint (PDF)]
 
37.  GaN-based nanostructured photodetectors
J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, P. Giedraitis, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-14-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The use of nanostructures in semiconductor technology leads to the observation of new phenomena in device physics. Further quantum and non-quantum effects arise from the reduction of device dimension to a nanometric scale. In nanopillars, quantum confinement regime is only revealed when the lateral dimensions are lower than 50 nm. For larger mesoscopic systems, quantum effects are not observable but surface states play a key role and make the properties of nanostructured devices depart from those found in conventional devices. In this work, we present the fabrication of GaN nanostructured metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) and p-i-n photodiodes (PIN PDs) by e-beam lithography, as well as the investigation of their photoelectrical properties at room temperature. The nanopillar height and diameter are about 520 nm and 200 nm, respectively. MSMs present dark currents densities of 0.4 A/cm2 at ±100 V. A strong increase of the optical response with bias is observed, resulting in responsivities higher than 1 A/W. The relationship between this gain mechanism and surface states is discussed. PIN PDs yield peak responsivities (Rpeak) of 35 mA/W at -4 V and show an abnormal increase of the response (Rpeak > 100 A/W) under forward biases. [reprint (PDF)]
 
37.  III-Nitride avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedratis, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0U-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Research into avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing photodetectors to utilize low-noise impact ionization based gain, GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can deliver gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results regarding linear and Geiger mode III-Nitride based APDs. This includes novel device designs such as separate absorption and multiplication APDs (SAM-APDs). We also discuss control of the material quality and the critical issue of p-type doping - demonstrating a novel delta-doping technique for improved material quality and enhanced electric field confinement. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of these devices are then analyzed under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
37.  High quantum efficiency back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, M.P. Ulmer, and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 21, p. 211107-1-- November 24, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Back-illuminated avalanche photodiodes (APDs) composed of heterojunctions of either p-GaN/i-GaN/n-AlGaN or p-GaN/i-GaN/n-GaN/n-AlGaN were fabricated on AlN templates. At low voltage, an external quantum efficiency of 57% at 352 nm with a bandpass response was achieved by using AlGaN in the n-layer. Dependency of gain and leakage current on mesa area for these heterojunction APDs were studied. Back-illumination via different wavelength sources was used to demonstrate the advantages of hole-initiated multiplication in GaN APDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications
M. Razeghi and C. Bayram
SPIE Proceedings, Dresden, Germany (May 4-6, 2009), Vol. 7366, p. 73661F-1-- May 20, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  High performance antimony based type-II superlattice photodiodes on GaAs substrates
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981T-- April 13, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on GaSb substrate have achieved significant advances in both structural design and material growth, making Type-II superlattice infrared detector a rival competitor to the state-of-the-art MCT technology. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost. The device performances of Type-II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
H.K. Lee, K.S. Chung, J.S. Yu and M. Razeghi
Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 206, p. 356-362-- February 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We have theoretically investigated and compared the thermal characteristics of 10.6 μm InGaAs/InAlAs/InP buried heterostructure (BH) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with different heat-sinking configurations by a steady-state heat-transfer analysis. The heat-source densities were obtained from laser threshold power densities measured experimentally under room-temperature continuous-wave mode. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat-dissipation model was used to calculate the temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance (Gth) inside the device. For good thermal characteristics, the QCLs in the long-wavelength infrared region require the relatively narrow BH structure in combination with epilayer-down bonding due to thick active core/cladding layers and high insulator losses. The single-ridge BH structure results in slightly higher thermal conductance by 2-4% than the double-channel (DC) ridge BH structure. For W = 12 m with 5 μm thick electroplated Au, the single-ridge BH laser with epilayer-down bonding exhibited the highest Gth value of 201.9 W/K cm2, i.e. increased by nearly 36% with respect to the epilayer-up bonded DC ridge waveguide laser. This value is improved by 50% and 62% with respect to the single-ridge BH laser and DC ridge waveguide laser with W = 20 μm in the epilayer-up bonding scheme, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Comprehensive study of blue and green multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown on conventional and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, Vol. 95, p. 307-314-- November 29, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Growths of blue and green multi-quantum wells (MQWs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are realized on lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN, and compared with identical structures grown on conventional GaN. Atomic force microscopy is used to confirm the significant reduction of dislocations in the wing region of our LEO samples before active-region growth. Differences between surface morphologies of blue and green MQWs are analyzed. These MQWs are integrated into LEDs. All devices show a blue shift in the electroluminescence (EL) peak and narrowing in EL spectra with increasing injection current, both characteristics attributed to the band-gap renormalization. Green LEDs show a larger EL peak shift and a broader EL spectrum due to larger piezoelectric field and more indium segregation in the MQWs, respectively. Blue LEDs on LEO GaN show a higher performance than those on conventional GaN; however, no performance difference is observed for green LEDs on LEO GaN versus conventional GaN. The performance of the green LEDs is shown to be primarily limited by the active layer growth quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source
Q. Y. Lu, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 201102 (2014)-- November 17, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency
Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, S.A. Pour, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Jose, CA Volume 7222-0O-- January 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate optimization of continuous wave (cw) operation of 4.6 µm quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). A 19.7 µm by 5 mm, double channel processed device exhibits 33% cw WPE at 80 K. Room temperature cw WPE as high as 12.5% is obtained from a 10.6 µm by 4.8 mm device, epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount. With the semi-insulating regrowth in a buried ridge geometry, 15% WPE is obtained with 2.8 W total output power in cw mode at room temperature. This accomplishment is achieved by systematically decreasing the parasitic voltage drop, reducing the waveguide loss and improving the thermal management. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  

-- November 30, 1999
 
36.  Fabrication of nanostructured heterojunction LEDs using self-forming Moth-Eye Arrays of n-ZnO Nanocones Grown on p-Si (111) by PLD
D.J. Rogers; V.E. Sandana; F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; H.-J. Drouhin
Proc. SPIE 7217, Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices IV, 721708 (February 17, 2009)-- February 17, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (111) substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. The impact of growth temperature (Ts) and Ar pressure (PAr) on the morphology, crystal structure and photoluminescence was investigated. Various types of ZnO nanostructures were obtained. Self-forming arrays of vertically-aligned nanorods and nanocones with strong c-axis crystallographic orientation and good optical response were obtained at higher Ts. The nanocone, or "moth-eye" type structures were selected for LED development because of their graded effective refractive index, which could facilitate improved light extraction at the LED/air interface. Such moth-eye arrays were grown on p-type Si (111) substrates to form heteroj unction LEDs with the n-type ZnO nanocones acting as an active component of the device. These nanostructured LEDs gave rectifying I/V characteristics with a threshold voltage of about 6V and a blueish-white electroluminescence, which was clearly visible to the naked eye. [reprint (PDF)]
 
36.  Background limited performance of long wavelength infrared focal plane arrays fabricated from type-II InAs/GaSb M-structure superlattice
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Porceedings, Vol. 7298, Orlando, FL 2009, p. 72981Q-- April 13, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent advances in growth techniques, structure design and processing have lifted the performance of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. The introduction of a M-structure design improved both the dark current and R0A of Type-II photodiodes. This new structure combined with a thick absorbing region demonstrated background limited performance at 77K for a 300K background and a 2-π field of view. A focal plane array with a 9.6 μm 50% cutoff wavelength was fabricated with this design and characterized at 80K. The dark current of individual pixels was measured around 1.3 nA, 7 times lower than previous superlattice FPAs. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The quantum efficiency of detectors without anti-reflective coating was 72%. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK. The deposition of an anti-reflective coating improved the NEDT to 20 mK and the quantum efficiency to 89%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
27.  Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser array
W. Zhou, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 112, 181106-- May 4, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
27.  Type-II superlattice-based extended short-wavelength infrared focal plane array with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice etch-stop layer to allow near-visible light detection
Romain Chevallier, Arash Dehzangi, Abbas Haddadi, and Manijeh Razeghi
Optics Letters Vol. 42, Iss. 21, pp. 4299-4302 (2017)-- October 17, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
A versatile infrared imager capable of imaging the near-visible to the extended short-wavelength infrared (e-SWIR) is demonstrated using e-SWIR InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodiodes. A bi-layer etch-stop scheme consisting of bulk InAs0.91Sb0.09 and AlAs0.1Sb0.9/GaSb superlattice layers is introduced for substrate removal from the hybridized back-side illuminated photodetectors. The implementation of this new technique on an e-SWIR focal plane array results in a significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1.8–0.8μm spectral region, while maintaining a high QE at wavelengths longer than 1.8μm. Test pixels exhibit 100% cutoff wavelengths of ∼2.1 and ∼2.25μm at 150 and 300K, respectively. They achieve saturated QE values of 56% and 68% at 150 and 300K, respectively, under back-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. At 150K, the photodetectors (27μm×27μm area) exhibit a dark current density of 4.7×10−7  A/cm2 under a −50  mV applied bias providing a specific detectivity of 1.77×1012  cm·Hz1/2/W. At 300K, the dark current density reaches 6.6×10−2  A/cm2 under −50 mV bias, providing a specific detectivity of 5.17×109  cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
23.  Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlatticebased heterojunction phototransistors: back to the future
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, Thomas Yang, Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV- Page-1054004-1-- January 26, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Most of reported HPTs in literatures are based on InGaAs compounds that cover NIR spectral region. However, InGaAs compounds provide limited cut-off wavelength tunability. In contrast, type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are a developing new material system with intrinsic advantages such as great flexibility in bandgap engineering, low growth and manufacturing cost, high-uniformity, auger recombination suppression, and high carrier effective mass that are becoming an attractive candidate for infrared detection and imaging from short-wavelength infrared to very long wavelength infrared regime. We present the recent advancements in T2SL-based heterojunction phototransistors in e– SWIR, MWIR and LWIR spectral ranges. A mid-wavelength infrared heterojunction phototransistor based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. Then, we present the effect of vertical scaling on the optical and electrical performance of heterojunction phototransistors, where the performance of devices with different base width was compared as the base was scaled from 60 down to 40 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
19.  Dark current reduction in microjunction-based compound electron barrier type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice-based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV Page. 1054007-1-- January 26, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
Reduction of dark current density in microjunction-based InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattice long-wavelength infrared photodetectors was demonstrated. A double electron barrier design was used to suppress both generation-recombination and surface dark currents. The photodetectors exhibited high surface resistivity after passivation with SiO2, which permits the use of small size features without having strong surface leakage current degrading the electrical performance. Fabricating a microjunction structure (25×25 μm² mesas with 10×10 μm² microjunctions) with this photodetector double barrier design results in a dark current density of 6.3×10-6 A/cm² at 77 K. The device has an 8 μm cut-off wavelength at 77 K and exhibits a quantum efficiency of 31% for a 2 μm-thick absorption region, which results in a specific detectivity value of 1.2×1012 cm·Hz1/2/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
18.  High performance photodiodes based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
A. M. Hoang, G. Chen, R. Chevallier, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 251105 (2014)-- June 23, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Very long wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb Type-II superlattices are demonstrated on GaSb substrate. A heterostructure photodiode was grown with 50% cut-off wavelength of 14.6 μm. At 77 K, the photodiode exhibited a peak responsivity of 4.8 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 46% at −300 mV bias voltage from front side illumination without antireflective coating. With the dark current density of 0.7 A/cm², it provided a specific detectivity of 1.4 × 1010 Jones. The device performance was investigated as a function of operating temperature, revealing a very stable optical response and a background limited performance below 50 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
18.  Dark current reduction in microjunction-based double electron barrier type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice long-wavelength infrared photodetectors
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, & Manijeh Razeghi
Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 12617 (2017)-- October 3, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
Microjunction InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based long-wavelength infrared photodetectors with reduced dark current density were demonstrated. A double electron barrier design was employed to reduce both bulk and surface dark currents. The photodetectors exhibited low surface leakage after passivation with SiO2, allowing the use of very small size features without degradation of the dark current. Fabricating microjunction photodetectors (25 × 25 µm² diodes with 10 × 10 µm² microjunctions) in combination with the double electron barrier design results in a dark current density of 6.3 × 10−6 A/cm² at 77 K. The device has an 8 µm cut-off wavelength at 77 K and exhibits a quantum efficiency of 31% for a 2 µm-thick absorption region, which results in a specific detectivity value of 1.2 × 1012 cm·Hz½/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
17.  Toward realization of small-size dual-band long-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices
Romain Chevallier, Abbas Haddadi, Manijeh Razeghi
Solid-State Electronics-- June 20, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
In this study, we demonstrate 12 × 12 µm² high-performance, dual-band, long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photodetectors based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattices. The structure consists of two back-to-back heterojunction photodiodes with 2 µm-thick p-doped absorption regions. High quality dry etching combined with SiO2 passivation results in a surface resistivity value of 7.9 × 105 Ω·cm for the longer (red) channel and little degradation of the electrical performance. The device reaches dark current density values of 4.5 × 10−4 A/cm² for the longer (red) and 1.3 × 10−4 A/cm² for the shorter (blue) LWIR channels at quantum efficiency saturation. It has 50% cut-off wavelengths of 8.3 and 11.2 µm for the blue and red channel, respectively, at 77 K in back-side illumination configuration and exhibits quantum efficiencies of 37% and 29%, respectively. This results in specific detectivity values of 2.5 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W and 1.3 × 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
16.  Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K
Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Sourav Adhikary, Romain Chevallier, and Manijeh Razeghi
APL Materials 5, 035502 (2016)-- February 13, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ∼10 μm at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω·cm² and a dark current density of 8 × 10−5 A/cm², under −80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 Jones and a background–limited operating temperature of 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
16.  Recent advances in antimonide-based gap-engineered Type-II superlattices material system for 2 and 3 colors infrared imagers
Manijeh. Razeghi, Abbas Haddadi, Arash Dehzangi, Romain Chevallier, and Thomas Yang
Proceedings of SPIE 10177, Infrared Technology and Applications XLIII, 1017705-- May 9, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx type-II superlattices (T2SLs) is a system of multi-interacting quantum wells. Since its introduction, this material system has drawn a lot of attention especially for infrared detection. In recent years, InAs/InAs1- xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material quality, device structure designs and device fabrication process which elevated the performances of T2SL-based photodetectors to a comparable level to the state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection such as Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT). In this paper, we will present the current status of InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1-xSbx T2SL-based photodetectors for detection in different infrared regions, from short-wavelength (SWIR) to long-wavelength (LWIR) infrared, and the future outlook of this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
15.  The new oxide paradigm for solid state ultraviolet photodetectors
D. J. Rogers, P. Bove, X. Arrateig, V. E. Sandana, F. H. Teherani, M. Razeghi, R. McClintock, E. Frisch, S. Harel,
Proceedings Volume 10533, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IX; 105331P-- March 22, 2018 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandgap of wurzite ZnO layers grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition was engineered from 3.7 to 4.8 eV by alloying with Mg. Above this Mg content the layers transformed from single phase hcp to mixed hcp/fcc phase before becoming single phase fcc above a bandgap of about 5.5 eV. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors based on gold Inter-Digitated-Transducer structures were fabricated from the single phase hcp layers by single step negative photolithography and then packaged in TO5 cans. The devices gave over 6 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal with solar rejection ratios (I270 : I350) of over 3 x 105 and dark signals of 300 pA (at a bias of -5V). Spectral responsivities were engineered to fit the “Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches” industry standard form and gave over two decade higher responsivities (14 A/W, peaked at 270 nm) than commercial SiC based devices. Homogeneous Ga2O3 layers were also grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by PLD. Optical transmission spectra were coherent with a bandgap that increased from 4.9 to 5.4 eV when film thickness was decreased from 825 to 145 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were of the β-Ga2O3 (monoclinic) polytype with strong (-201) orientation. β-Ga2O3 MSM photodetectors gave over 4 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal (at -5V bias) with dark currents of 250 pA and spectral responsivities of up to 40 A/W (at -0.75V bias). It was found that the spectral responsivity peak position could be decreased from 250 to 230 nm by reducing film thickness from 825 to 145 nm. This shift in peak responsivity wavelength with film thickness (a) was coherent with the apparent bandgap shift that was observed in transmission spectroscopy for the same layers and (b) conveniently provides a coverage of the spectral region in which MgZnO layers show fcc/hcp phase mixing. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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