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4.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Hood, J. Nah, and M. Razeghi
International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films (ICMCTF), San Diego, CA; Thin Solid Films 447-448-- January 30, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, excellent infrared detectors have been demonstrated using Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice materials sensitive at wavelengths from 3 μm to greater than 32 μm. These results indicate that Type-II superlattice devices may challenge the preponderance of HgCdTe and other state-of-the-art infrared material systems. As such, surface passivation is becoming an increasingly important issue as progress is made towards the commercialization of Type-II devices and focal plane array applications. This work focuses on initial attempts at surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes using PECVD-grown thin layers of SiO2. Our results indicate that silicon dioxide coatings deposited at various temperatures improve photodetector resistivity by several times. Furthermore, reverse-bias dark current has been reduced significantly in passivated devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High Power 3-12 μm Infrared Lasers: Recent Improvements and Future Trends
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, and Y.S. Park
Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 11 (2-3)-- October 1, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we discuss the progress of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Room temperature QCL operation has been reported for lasers emitting between 5-11 μm, with 9-11 μm lasers operating up to 425 K. Laser technology for the 3-5 μm range takes advantage of a strain-balanced active layer design. We also demonstrate record room temperature peak output powers at 9 and 11 μm (2.5 and 1 W, respectively) as well as record low 80K threshold current densities (250 A/cm²) for some laser designs. Preliminary distributed feedback (DFB) results are also presented and exhibit single mode operation for 9 μm lasers at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High-Average-Power, High-Duty-Cycle (~6 μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscience & Technology 9-- December 9, 2002 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth and Characterization of Very Long Wavelength Type-II Infrared Detectors
H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth and characterization of type-II IR detectors with a InAs/GaSb superlattice active layer in the 15-19 μm wavelength range. The material was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The material was processed into photoconductive detectors using standard photolithography, dry etching, and metalization. The 50 percent cut-off wavelength of the detectors is about 15.5 μm with a responsivity of 90 mA/W at 80 K. The 90 percent-10 percent cut-off energy width of the responsivity is only 17 meV which is an indication of the uniformity of the superlattices. These are the best reported values for type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Roadmap of Semiconductor Infrared Lasers and Detectors for the 21st Century
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Since the first discovery, semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors have found many various applications in military, communications, medical, and industry sections. In this paper, the current status of semiconductor infrared lasers and detectors will be reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods and techniques is discussed later. Some basic physical limitations of current technology are studied and the direction to overcome these problems will be suggested. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  8.5 μm Room Temperature Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report room-temperature pulsed-mode operation of 8.5 μm quantum cascade lasers grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The theory necessary to understand the operation of the laser is presented and current problems are analyzed. Very good agreement is shown to exist between theoretical and experimental emission wavelengths. The high- temperature operation is achieved with 1 μs pulses at a repetition rate of 200 Hz. Peak output power in these conditions is in excess of 700 mW per 2 facets at 79 K and 25 mW at 300 K. Threshold current as a function of temperature shows an exponential dependence with T0 equals 188 K for a 1.5 mm cavity. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Generalized k·p perturbation theory for atomic-scale superlattices
H. Yi and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 56 (7)-- August 15, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We present a generalized k⋅p perturbation method that is applicable for atomic-scale superlattices. The present model is in good quantitative agreement with full band theories with local-density approximation, and approaches results of the conventional k⋅p perturbation method (i.e., Kane’s Hamiltonian) with the envelope function approximation for superlattices with large periods. The indirect band gap of AlAs/GaAs superlattices with short periods observed in experiments is explained using this method. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Modulation-doped Field-effect Transistor Structures
C. Besikci, Y. Civan, S. Ozder, O. Sen, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Semiconductor Science Technology 12-- January 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
Lattice-matched Ga0.51In0.49P/GaAs and strained Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy by using Si as dopant. Detailed electrical characterization results are presented. The Ga0.5In0.49P/In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs sample yielded dark two-dimensional electron gas densities of 3.75 x 1012 cm-2 (300 K) and 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 (77 K) which are comparable to the highest sheet electron densities reported in AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/InGaAs/InP modulation-doped heterostructures. Persistent photoconductivity was observed in the strained samples only. A 0.797 eV deep level has been detected in the undoped GaInP layers of the structures. Another level, with DLTS peak height dependent on the filling pulse width, has been detected at the interface of the strained samples. Based on the DLTS and Hall effect measurement results, this level, which seems to be the origin of persistent photoconductivity, can be attributed to the strain relaxation related defects. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper presents an overview of semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) detectors that are currently available and associated technologies that are undergoing further development. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further consideration are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the current state-of-the-art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main effort are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide-band-gap semiconductors between them the most promising are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is finally described in detail. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of high quality AlN and GaN thin films on sapphire and silicon substrates
P. Kung, X. Zhang, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality AlN and GaN epilayers have been grown on basal plane sapphire by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The X-ray rocking curve linewidth of the AlN and GaN films were about 100 and 30 arcsecs respectively. Sharp absorption edges were determined at 6.1 and 3.4 eV respectively. Successful donor-bound excitonic luminescence emissions were detected for GaN films grown on sapphire and silicon. Two additional lines at 3.37 and 3.31 eV were observed on GaN on sapphire and assumed to be impurity-related. Doping of GaN layers was achieved with magnesium. Mg-related photoluminescence emissions were successfully detected on as-grown samples, without any post-growth treatment. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Extended electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers with digital concatenated gratings
S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 231110 (2013)-- December 6, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
In this report, the sampled grating distributed feedback laser architecture is modified with digital concatenated gratings to partially compensate for the wavelength dependence of optical gain in a standard high efficiency quantum cascade laser core. This allows equalization of laser threshold over a wide wavelength range and demonstration of wide electrical tuning. With only two control currents, a full tuning range of 500 nm (236 cm−1) has been demonstrated. Emission is single mode, with a side mode suppression of >20 dB. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Superlattice sees colder objects in two colors and high resolution
M. Razeghi
SPIE Newsroom-- February 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
A special class of semiconductor material can now detect two wavebands of light with energies less than a tenth of an electron volt in high resolution using the same IR camera. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Conference on Infrared Sensors, Devices and Applications; and Single Photon Imaging II, Vol. 8155, p. 81551O-1-- August 21, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A·cm-2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Reliability in room-temperature negative differential resistance characteristics of low-aluminum contact AlGaN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 18, p. 181109-1-- November 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
AlGaN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), consisting of 20% (10%) aluminum-content in double-barrier (DB) active layer, were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding polar (c-plane) and nonpolar (m-plane) GaN substrates. RTDs were fabricated into 35-μm-diameter devices for electrical characterization. Lower aluminum content in the DB active layer and minimization of dislocations and polarization fields increased the reliability and reproducibility of room-temperature negative differential resistance (NDR). Polar RTDs showed decaying NDR behavior, whereas nonpolar ones did not significantly. Averaging over 50 measurements, nonpolar RTDs demonstrated a NDR of 67 Ω, a current-peak-to-valley ratio of 1.08, and an average oscillator output power of 0.52 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 4, p. 042103-1-- January 25, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. RTDs were fabricated via standard processing steps. RTDs demonstrate a clear negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature (RT). The NDR was observed around 4.7 V with a peak current density of 59 kA/cm² and a peak-to-valley ratio of 1.6 at RT. Dislocation-free material is shown to be the key for the performance of GaN RTDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Beryllium compensation doping of InAs/GaSb infrared superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, M. Razeghi and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 143507-1-- October 1, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with dark current measurements on InAs/GaSb long wavelength infrared superlattice photodiodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates are reported. By varying the beryllium concentration in the InAs layer of the active region, the residually n-type superlattice is compensated to become slightly p-type. By adjusting the doping, the dominant dark current mechanism can be varied from diffusion to Zener tunneling. Minimization of the dark current leads to an increase of the zero-bias differential resistance from less than 4 to 32 cm2 for a 100% cutoff of 12.05 µm [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Type II superlattice infrared detectors and focal plane arrays
Vaidya Nathan; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 654209 (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Type II superlattce photodetectors have recently experienced significant improvements in both theoretical structure design and experimental realization. Empirical Tight Binding Method is initiated and developed for Type II superlattice. Growth characteristics such as group V segregation and incorporation phenomena are taken into account in the model and shown higher precision. A new Type II structure, called M-structure, is introduced and theoretically demonstrated high R0A, high quantum efficiency. Device design is optimized to improve the performance. As a result, 55% quantum efficiency and 10 Ohm·cm² R0A are achieved for an 11.7 μm cut-off photodetector at 77K. FPA imaging at longwavelength is demonstrated with a capability of imaging up to 171K. At 81K, the noise equivalent temperature difference presented a peak at 0.33K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Room-temperature, high-power and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 9.6 µm
S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (20)-- May 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers is reported. Continuous-wave output powers of 100 mW at 25 °C and 20 mW at 50 °C are obtained. The device exhibits a cw threshold current density of 1.34 kA/cm2, a maximum cw wall-plug efficiency of 1% at 25 °C, and a characteristic temperature of ~190 K in pulsed mode. Single-mode emission near 9.6 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio of ≥ 30 dB and a tuning range of 2.89 cm–1 from 15 to 50 °C is obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High Quantum Efficiency Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 434-- January 25, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind p-i-n photodetectors with a record peak responsivity of 150 mA/W at 280 nm, corresponding to a high external quantum efficiency of 68%, increasing to 74% under 5 volts reverse bias. Through optimization of the p-AlGaN layer, we were able to remove the out-of-band negative photoresponse originating from the Schottky-like p-type metal contact, and hence significantly improve the degree of solar-blindness [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Monolithic Integration of GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrate
M. Erdtmann and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
Using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, we have grown GaInAs/InP QWIP structures on GaAs-coated Si substrate. First, the procedure to optimize the epitaxy of the InP buffer layer on Si substrate is given. Excellent crystallinity and a mirror-like surface morphology were obtained by using both a two-step growth process at the beginning of the InP buffer layer growth and several series of thermal cycle annealing throughout the InP buffer layer growth. Second, results of fabricated GaInAs/InP QWIPs on Si substrate are presented. At a temperature of 80 K, the peak response wavelength occurs at 7.4 μm. The responsivities of QWIPs on both Si and InP substrates with identical structures are equal up to biases of 1.5 V. At a bias of 3 V, the responsivity of the QWIPs on Si substrate is 1.0 A/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth and Characterization of Type-II Non-Equilibrium Photovoltaic Detectors for Long Wavelength Infrared Range
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, A. Tahraoui, M. Razeghi, G. Brown and W. Mitche
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
Growth and characterization of type-II detectors for mid-IR wavelength range is presented. The device has a p-i-n structure is designed to operate in the non-equilibrium mode with low tunneling current. The active layer is a short period InAs/GaSb superlattice. Wider bandgap p-type AlSb and n-type InAs layers are used to facilitate the extraction of both electronics and holes from the active layer for the first time. The performance of these devices were compared to the performance of devices grown at the same condition, but without the AlSb barrier layers. The processed devices with the AlSb barrier show a peak responsivity of about 1.2 A/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 1.1 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 8 μm at 80 K at zero bias. The details of the modeling, growth, and characterizations will be presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  AlxGa1-xN p-i-n Photodiodes on Sapphire Substrates
D. Walker, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, J. Wu, M. Hamilton, I.H. Lee, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1-xN p-i-n photodiodes (0.05 ≤ to X ≤ 0.30) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The devices present a visible-rejection of about four orders of magnitude with a cutoff wavelength that shifts from 350 nm to 291 nm. They also exhibit a constant responsivity for five decades (30 mW/m² to 1 kW/m²) of optical power density. Using capacitance measurements, the values for the acceptor concentration in the p-AlxGa1-xN region and the unintentional donor concentration in the intrinsic region are found. Photocurrent decays are exponential for high load resistances, with a time constant that corresponds to the RC product of the system. For low load resistances the transient response becomes non-exponential, with a decay time longer than the RC constant. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Continuous-wave room-temperature operation of InGaN/GaN multiquantum well lasers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
M. Razeghi, A. Saxler, P. Kung, D. Walker, X. Zhang, A. Rybaltowski, Y. Xiao, H.J. Yi and J. Diaz
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 3284, pp. 113-- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
Continuous-wave (CW) room temperature operation of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) lasers is reported. Far-field beam divergence as narrow as 13 degrees and 20 degrees for parallel and perpendicular directions to epilayer planes were measured, respectively. The MQW lasers showed strong beam polarization anisotropy as consistent with QW laser gain theory. Dependencies of threshold current on cavity-length and temperature are also consistent with conventional laser theory. No significant degradation in laser characteristics was observed during lifetime testing for over 140 hours of CW room temperature operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Observation of Room Temperature Surface-Emitting Stimulated Emission from GaN:Ge by Optical pumping
X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 80 (11)-- December 1, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
Optically pumped surface-emitting stimulated emission at room temperature was observed from GaN:Ge grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The sample was optically pumped perpendicularly on the top surface while the stimulated emission was collected from the back colinearly with the pump beam. The cavity was formed by the GaN/air and GaN/sapphire interfaces without any other structure. The stimulated emission was gain guided by the pump beam. The threshold optical pump density for stimulated emission was approximately 2.8 MW/cm² and the linewidth was 2.5 nm. The emission from GaN:Ge showed a redshift as the pump density increased. The comparison between theoretical calculations and experimental results suggested that many-body interactions can account well for the redshift. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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