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1.  Gain and recombination dynamics in photodetectors made with quantum nanostructures: the quantum dot in a well and the quantum well
B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, S. Abdollahi Pour, T. Yamanaka, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, Vol. 18, No. 14-- October 6, 2008 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Reliability of strain-balanced Ga0.331In0.669As/Al0.659In0.341As/InP quantum-cascade lasers under continuous-wave room-temperature operation
A. Evans and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (26)-- June 26, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Constant current aging is reported for two randomly selected high-reflectivity-coated QCLs with an output power over 100 mW. QCLs are tested under continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 298 K(25 °C) corresponding to an internal temperature of 378 K (105 °C). Over 4000 h of continuous testing is reported without any decrease in output power. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  The Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of InSb on (111) GaAs
E. Michel, J. Kim, J. Xu, S. Javadpour, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (2)-- July 8, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
The molecular beam epitaxial growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs has been investigated. It was found that for a given Sb/In ratio, a higher growth temperature was required for the growth of InSb on (111)B GaAs compared to that on (001) GaAs. This difference has been attributed to the bonding characteristics of the (111)B and (001) surface. Once growth had been optimized, it was found that the material characteristics of (111)B InSb were almost identical to that of (001) InSb, i.e., independent of orientation. For example, the x-ray full width at half-maximum and 300 K mobility had the same absolute values for (111) InSb and (001)InSb and followed the same dependence with the sample thickness. Te was found to be a well-behaved n-type dopant for (111)B InSb. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers
Steven Slivken; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9755, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics-- February 13, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Investigation of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; P. Bove ; A. Lusson ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86261X (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
MgZnO thin films were grown on c-sapphire and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a ZnMgO target with 4 at% Mg. The MgZnO grown on the ZnO underlayer showed significantly better crystal quality than that grown directly on sapphire. AFM studies revealed a significant deterioration in surface morphology for the MgZnO layers compared with the ZnO underlayer. Optical transmission studies indicated a MgZnO bandgap of 3.61eV (compared with 3.34eV for the ZnO), which corresponds to a Mg content of about 16.1 at%. The MgZnO/ZnO heterojunction showed an anomalously low resistivity, which was more than two orders of magnitude less than the MgZnO layer and an order of magnitude lower than that for the ZnO layer. It was suggested that this may be attributable to the presence of a 2D electron gas at the ZnMgO/ZnO heterointerface. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
S. Bogdanov, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 183501-1-- May 2, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Dielectric passivation of long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with different active region doping profiles has been studied. SiO2 passivation was shown to be efficient as long as it was not put in direct contact with the highly doped superlattice. A hybrid graded doping profile combined with the shallow etch technique reduced the surface leakage current in SiO2 passivated devices by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the usual design. As a result, at 77 K the SiO(2) passivated devices with 10.5 μm cutoff wavelength exhibit an R0A of 120 Ω·cm², RmaxA of 6000 Ω·cm², and a dark current level of 3.5×10−5 A·cm−2 at −50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Photoluminescence characteristics of polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN superlattices
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, P. Lavenus, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 12, p. 121918-1-- September 20, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices (SLs) with various (GaN) well widths (1.6 to 6.4 nm) have been grown on polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence (PL) studies of SLs have been carried out to determine and correlate effects of well width and polarization field on the room-temperature PL characteristics. A theoretical model was applied to explain PL energy-dependency on well width and crystalline orientation taking into account internal electric field for polar substrate. Absence of induced-internal electric field in nonpolar SLs was confirmed by stable PL peak energy and stronger PL intensity as a function of excitation power density than polar ones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Demonstration of high performance long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodidoe grown on GaAs substrate
S. Abdollahi Pour, B.M. Nguyen, S. Bogdanov, E.K. Huang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 17, p. 173505-- October 26, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength at 11 µm, on GaAs substrate. Despite a 7.3% lattice mismatch to the substrate, photodiodes passivated with polyimide exhibit an R0A value of 35 Ω·cm² at 77 K, which is in the same order of magnitude as reference devices grown on native GaSb substrate. With a reverse applied bias less than 500 mV, the dark current density and differential resistance-area product are close to that of devices on GaSb substrate, within the tolerance of the processing and measurement. The quantum efficiency attains the expected value of 20% at zero bias, resulting in a Johnson limited detectivity of 1.1×1011 Jones. Although some difference in performances is observed, devices grown on GaAs substrate already attained the background limit performance at 77 K with a 300 K background and a 2-π field of view. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal analysis of buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers for long-wavelength infrared emission using 2D anisotropic heat-dissipation model
H.K. Lee, K.S. Chung, J.S. Yu and M. Razeghi
Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 206, p. 356-362-- February 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We have theoretically investigated and compared the thermal characteristics of 10.6 μm InGaAs/InAlAs/InP buried heterostructure (BH) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with different heat-sinking configurations by a steady-state heat-transfer analysis. The heat-source densities were obtained from laser threshold power densities measured experimentally under room-temperature continuous-wave mode. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat-dissipation model was used to calculate the temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance (Gth) inside the device. For good thermal characteristics, the QCLs in the long-wavelength infrared region require the relatively narrow BH structure in combination with epilayer-down bonding due to thick active core/cladding layers and high insulator losses. The single-ridge BH structure results in slightly higher thermal conductance by 2-4% than the double-channel (DC) ridge BH structure. For W = 12 m with 5 μm thick electroplated Au, the single-ridge BH laser with epilayer-down bonding exhibited the highest Gth value of 201.9 W/K cm2, i.e. increased by nearly 36% with respect to the epilayer-up bonded DC ridge waveguide laser. This value is improved by 50% and 62% with respect to the single-ridge BH laser and DC ridge waveguide laser with W = 20 μm in the epilayer-up bonding scheme, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Background limited long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes operating at 110 K
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 12, p. 123502-1-- September 22, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
The utilization of the P+-pi-M-N+ photodiode architecture in conjunction with a thick active region can significantly improve long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes. By studying the effect of the depletion region placement on the quantum efficiency in a thick structure, we achieved a topside illuminated quantum efficiency of 50% for an N-on-P diode at 8.0 µm at 77 K. Both the double heterostructure design and the application of polyimide passivation greatly reduce the surface leakage, giving an R0A of 416 Ω·cm2 for a 1% cutoff wavelength of 10.52 µm, a Shot–Johnson detectivity of 8.1×1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K, and a background limited operating temperature of 110 K with 300 K background. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Current status of high performance quantum cascade lasers at the center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi; A. Evans; Y. Bai; J. Nguyen; S. Slivken; S.R. Darvish; K. Mi
Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials. 588-593:[4266015] (2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Mid-infrared laser sources are highly desired for laser-based trace chemical sensors, military countermeasures, free-space communications, as well as developing medical applications. While application development has been limited by the availability of adequate mid-infrared sources, InP-based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) hold promise as inexpensive, miniature, portable solutions capable of producing high powers and operating at high temperatures with excellent beam quality and superior reliability. This paper discusses the most recent developments of application-ready high power (> 100 mW), continuous-wave (CW), mid-infrared QCLs operating above room temperature with lifetimes exceeding 13,000 hours. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Temperature dependent characteristics of λ ~ 3.8 µm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (25)-- June 19, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The highest-performance device displays pulsed laser action at wavelengths between 3.4 and 3.6 μm, for temperatures up to 300 K, with a low temperature (80 K) threshold current density of approximately 2.6 kA/cm2, and a characteristic temperature of T0~130 K. The shortest wavelength QCL (λ ~ 3.05 μm) has a higher threshold current density (~12 kA/cm2 at T=20 K) and operates in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  320x256 Solar-Blind Focal Plane Arrays based on AlxGa1-xN
R. McClintock, K. Mayes, A. Yasan, D. Shiell, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (1)-- January 3, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet focal plane arrays operating at a wavelength of 280 nm. The electrical characteristics of the individual pixels are discussed, and the uniformity of the array is presented. The p–i–n photodiode array was hybridized to a 320×256 read-out integrated circuit entirely within our university research lab, and a working 320×256 camera was demonstrated. Several example solar-blind images from the camera are also provided. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski
Journal of Applied Physics Applied Physics Review 79 (10)-- May 15, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
In this review article a comprehensive analysis of the developments in ultraviolet (UV) detector technology is described. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further considerations are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the basic theory of photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors is presented in a uniform way convenient for various detector materials. Next, the current state of the art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main efforts are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide band-gap semiconductors the most promising of which are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is finally described in detail. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and characterization of InGaAs/InGaP quantum dots for mid-infrared photoconductive detector
S. Kim, H. Mohseni, M. Erdtmann, E. Michel, C. Jelen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 73 (7)-- August 17, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report InGaAs quantum dot intersubband infrared photodetectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The optimum growth conditions were studied to obtain uniform InGaAs quantum dots constructed in an InGaP matrix. Normal incidence photoconductivity was observed at a peak wavelength of 5.5 μm with a high responsivity of 130 mA/W and a detectivity of 4.74×107  cm· Hz½/W at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  AlGaN-based deep UV light emitting diodes with peak emission below 255 nm
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 197-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth and fabrication of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak emission of below 255 nm. In order to achieve such short wavelength UV LEDs, the Al mole fractions in the device layers should be greater than ~60%. This introdues serious challenges on the growth and doping of AlxGa1-xN epilayers. However, with the aid of a high-quality AlN template layer and refinement of the growth conditions we have been able to demonstrate UV LEDs emitting below 255 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of chemical and laser lift-off for the transfer of InGaN-based p-i-n junctions from sapphire to glass substrates
D. J. Rogers ; P. Bove ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; K. Pantzas ; T. Moudakir ; G. Orsal ; G. Patriarche ; S. Gautier ; A. Ougazzaden ; V. E. Sandana ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 862611 (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
InGaN-based p-i-n structures were transferred from sapphire to soda-lime glass substrates using two approaches: (1) laser-lift-off (LLO) and thermo-metallic bonding and (2) chemical lift-off (LLO) by means sacrificial ZnO templates and direct wafer bonding. Both processes were found to function at RT and allow reclaim of the expensive single crystal substrate. Both approaches have also already been demonstrated to work for the wafer-scale transfer of III/V semiconductors. Compared with the industry-standard LLO, the CLO offers the added advantages of a lattice match to InGaN with higher indium contents, no need for an interfacial adhesive layer (which facilitates electrical, optical and thermal coupling), no damaged/contaminated GaN surface layer, simplified sapphire reclaim (GaN residue after LLO may complicate reclaim) and cost savings linked to elimination of the expensive LLO process. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Room temperature neagtive differential resistance characteristics of polar III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 9, p. 092104-1-- August 30, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), consisting Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN double-barrier (DB) active layers, were grown on c-plane lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN/sapphire and c-plane freestanding (FS) GaN. RTDs on both templates, fabricated into mesa diameters ranging from 5 to 35 μm, showed negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature. NDR characteristics (voltage and current density at NDR onset and current-peak-to-valley ratio) were analyzed and reported as a function of device size and substrate choice. Our results show that LEO RTDs perform as well as FS ones and DB active layer design and quality have been the bottlenecks in III-nitride RTDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Material and design engineering of (Al)GaN for high-performance avalanche photodiodes and intersubband applications
M. Razeghi and C. Bayram
SPIE Proceedings, Dresden, Germany (May 4-6, 2009), Vol. 7366, p. 73661F-1-- May 20, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Numerous applications in scientific, medical, and military areas demand robust, compact, sensitive, and fast ultraviolet (UV) detection. Our (Al)GaN photodiodes pose high avalanche gain and single-photon detection efficiency that can measure up to these requirements. Inherit advantage of back-illumination in our devices offers an easier integration and layout packaging via flip-chip hybridization for UV focal plane arrays that may find uses from space applications to hostile-agent detection. Thanks to the recent (Al)GaN material optimization, III-Nitrides, known to have fast carrier dynamics and short relaxation times, are employed in (Al)GaN based superlattices that absorb in near-infrared regime. In this work, we explain the origins of our high performance UV APDs, and employ our (Al)GaN material knowledge for intersubband applications. We also discuss the extension of this material engineering into the far infrared, and even the terahertz (THz) region. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of type-II superlattice and HgCdTe infrared detector technologies
Jagmohan Bajaj; Gerry Sullivan; Don Lee; Ed Aifer; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 65420B (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Performance of HgCdTe detector technology surpasses all others in the mid-wave and long-wave infrared spectrum. This technology is relatively mature with current effort focused on improving uniformity, and demonstrating increased focal plane array (FPA) functionality. Type-II superlattice (InAs-GaSb and related alloys) detector technology has seen rapid progress over the past few years. The merits of the superlattice material system rest on predictions of even higher performance than HgCdTe and of engineering advantages. While no one has demonstrated Type-II superlattice detectors with performance superior to HgCdTe detectors, the difference in performance between these two technologies is decreasing. In this paper, we review the status and highlight relative merits of both HgCdTe and Type-II superlattice based detector technologies. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Quantum Efficiency AlGaN Solar-Blind Photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (8)-- February 23, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet p-i-n photodetectors with a peak responsivity of 136 mA/W at 282 nm without bias. This corresponds to a high external quantum efficiency of 60%, which improves to a value as high as 72% under 5 V reverse bias. We attribute the high performance of these devices to the use of a very-high quality AlN and Al0.87Ga0.13N/AlN superlattice material and a highly conductive Si–In co-doped Al0.5Ga0.5N layer [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Detectivity GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Grown on Si Substrates
J. Jiang, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 14 (3)-- March 1, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter, we report an improvement in the growth and the device performance of GaInAs-InP quantum well infrared photodetectors grown on Si substrates. Material growth techniques, like low-temperature nucleation layers and thick buffer layers were used to grow InP on Si. An in situ thermal cycle annealing technique was used to reduce the threading dislocation density in the InP-on-Si. Detector dark current was reduced 2 orders of magnitude by this method. Record high detectivity of 2.3 × 109 cm·Hz½·W-1 was obtained for QWIP-on-Si detectors in the 7-9 μm range at 77 K [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Photodetector with a High Detectivity
H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270N-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently been considered as strong candidates for numerous applications such as night vision, space communication, gas analysis and medical diagnosis involving middle and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR respectively) operation. This is due to their unique properties arising from their 3-dimensional confinement potential that provides a discrete density of states. They are expected to outperform quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a consequence of their natural sensitivity to normal incident radiation, their higher responsivity and their higher-temperature operation. So far, most of the QDIPs reported in the literature were based on the InAs/GaAs system and were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here, we report on the growth of a high detectivity InGaAs/InGaP QDIP grown on a GaAs substrate using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Energy harvesting from millimetric ZnO single wire piezo-generators
Rogers, D. J.; Carroll, C.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Goubert, L.; Largeteau, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Demazeau, G.; McClintock, R.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Oxide-based Materials and Devices III. Edited by Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Look, David C.; Rogers, David J. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8263, article id. 82631X, 7 pp. (2012).-- February 9, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
This work reports on investigations into the possibility of harvesting energy from the piezoelectric response of millimetric ZnO rods to movement. SEM & PL studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO rods revealed sizes ranging from 1 - 3 mm x 100 - 400 microns and suggested that each was a wurtzite monocrystal. Studies of current & voltage responses as a function of time during bending with a probe arm gave responses coherent with those reported elsewhere in the literature for ZnO nanowires or micro-rod single wire generators. The larger scale of these rods provided some advantages over such nano- and microstructures in terms of contacting ease, signal level & robustness. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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