Page 15 of 23:  Prev << 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  >> Next  (567 Items)

4.  High power InAsSb/InPAsSb/InAs mid-infrared lasers
A. Rybaltowski, Y. Xiao, D. Wu, B. Lane, H. Yi, H. Feng, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (17)-- October 27, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate high-power InAsSb/InPAsSb laser bars (λ ≈ 3.2 μm) consisting of three 100 μm-wide laser stripes of 700 μm cavity length, with peak output power up to 3 W at 90 K, and far-fields for the direction perpendicular to the junction as narrow as 12° full width half maximum. Spectra and far-field patterns of the laser bars are shown to have excellent characteristics for a wide range of operating conditions, suggesting the possibility of even higher light power emission with good beam quality. Joule heating is shown to be the major factor limiting higher power operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Temperature insensitivity of the Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs lasers for λ = 808 and 908 nm
M. Razeghi, H. Yi, J. Diaz, S. Kim, and M. Erdtmann
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings 3001-- February 12, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
n this work, we present our recent achievements for the reliability of the Al-free lasers at high temperatures and high powers. Laser operations up to 30,000 hours were achieved without any degradation in the lasers characteristics from 7 randomly selected InGaAsP/GaAs diodes for λ = 808 nm. The test were performed for lasers without mirror-coating for optical power of 0.5 to 1 W CW at 50 approximately 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct demonstration of the extremely high reliability of Al-free diodes operations at high powers and temperatures for periods of time much longer than practical need (approximately 3 years). The characteristics during the tests are discussed in detail. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire
D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, S. Javadpour, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 68 (15)-- April 8, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
AlxGa1−xN (0≤x≤0.50) ultraviolet photoconductors with a minimum cutoff wavelength shorter than 260 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The AlGaN active layers were grown on (00⋅1) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The spectral responsivity of the GaN detector at 360 nm is about 1 A/W biased at 8 V at room temperature. The carrier lifetime derived from the voltage‐dependent responsivity is 0.13–0.36 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Crystallography of epitaxial growth of wurtzite-type thin films on sapphire substrates
P. Kung, C.J. Sun, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (9)-- May 1, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
In this article, we present a crystallographic model to describe the epitaxial growth of wurtzite‐type thin films such as gallium nitride (GaN) on different orientations of sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. Through this model, we demonstrate the thin films grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 have a better epilayer‐substrate interface quality than those grown on (01⋅2)Al2O3. We also show the epilayer grown on (00⋅1)Al2O3 are gallium‐terminated, and both (00⋅1) and (01⋅2) surfaces of sapphire crystals are oxygen‐terminated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Ultraviolet Detectors for AstroPhysics Present and Future
M. Ulmer, M. Razeghi, and E. Bigan
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 239-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
Astronomical instruments for the study of UV astronomy have been developed for NASA missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The systems that are `blind to the visible' (`solar-blind') yet sensitive to the UV that have been flown in satellites have detective efficiencies of about 10 to 20%, although typically electron bombardment charge coupled devices are higher at 30 - 40% and ordinary CCDs achieve 1 - 5%. Therefore, there is a large payoff still to be gained by further improvements in the performance of solar blind UV detectors. We provide a brief review of some aspects of UV astronomy, UV detector development, and possible technologies for the future. We suggest that a particularly promising future technology is one based on the ability of investigators to produce high quality films made of wide bandgap III-V semiconductors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Optical Investigations of GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells and Superlattices Grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
Omnes F., and Razeghi M.
Applied Physics Letters 59 (9), p. 1034-- May 28, 1991 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent experimental results on the photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation of GaAs‐Ga0.51In0.49P lattice‐matched quantum wells and superlattices are discussed. The full width at half maximum of a 10‐period GaAs‐GaInP superlattice with Lz=90 Å and LB=100 Å is 4 meV at 4 K. The photoluminescence excitation exhibits very sharp peaks attributed to the electron to light‐hole and electron to heavy‐hole transitions. The GaInP‐GaAs interface suffers from memory effect of In, rather than P or As elements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Gallium nitride on silicon for consumer & scalable photonics
C. Bayram, K.T. Shiu, Y. Zhu, C.W. Cheng, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863112-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 4, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a unique material system that has been heavily exploited for photonic devices thanks to ultraviolet-to-terahertz spectral tunability. However, without a cost effective approach, GaN technology is limited to laboratory demonstrations and niche applications. In this investigation, integration of GaN on Silicon (100) substrates is attempted to enable widespread application of GaN based optoelectronics. Controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates is demonstrated via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). CMOS-compatible fabrication scheme is used to realize [SiO2-Si{111}-Si{100}] groove structures on conventional 200-mm Si(100) substrates. MOCVD growth (surface treatment, nucleation, initiation) conditions are studied to achieve controlled GaN epitaxy on such grooved Si(100) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to determine uniformity and defectivity of the GaN. Our results show that aforementioned groove structures along with optimized MOCVD growth conditions can be used to achieve controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Low irradiance background limited type-II superlattice MWIR M-barrier imager
E.K. Huang, S. Abdollahi Pour, M.A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
OSA Optics Letters (OL), Vol. 37, No. 11, p. 2025-2027-- June 1, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320 × 256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and ∼99%operability. The 280 K blackbody’s photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of ∼5 × 1012 ph·cm−2·s−1. Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a ∼5 pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of ∼5 × 1010 ph·cm−2·s−1 and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F∕2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array’s uniform responsivity. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Stable single mode terahertz semiconductor sources at room temperature
M. Razeghi
2011 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, ISDRS [6135180] (2011).-- December 7, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Terahertz (THz) range is an area of the electromagnetic spectra which has lots of applications but it suffers from the lack of simple working devices which can emit THz radiation, such as the high performance mid-infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on InP technology. The applications for the THz can be found in astronomy and space research, biology imaging, security, industrial inspection, etc. Unlike THz QCLs based on the fundamental oscillators, which are limited to cryogenic operations, semiconductor THz sources based on nonlinear effects of mid-IR QCLs do not suffer from operating temperature limitations, because mid-IR QCLs can operate well above room temperature. THz sources based on difference frequency generation (DFG) utilize nonlinear properties of asymmetric quantum structures, such as QCL structures. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices
M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek and R. McClintock
IEEE Photonics Society 23rd Annual Meeting, November 7-10, 2010, Denver, CO, Proceedings, p. 351-352-- January 20, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
III-nitride optoelectronic devices are discussed. Ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices are reported. Demonstration of single photon detection efficiencies of 33% in the ultraviolet regime, intersubband energy level as low as in the mid-infrared regime, and GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with negative resistance of 67 Ω are demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Spatial Noise and Correctability of Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quanutm Electronics, April 2010, Vol. 46, No. 4, p. 584-588-- April 1, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
A long wavelength infrared focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices was fabricated and characterized at 80 K. The noise equivalent temperature difference of the array was measured as low as 23 mK (f# = 2), for an integration time of 0.129 ms. The spatial noise of the array was dominated by the nonuniformity of the illumination through the circular aperture. A standard two-point nonuniformity correction improved the inhomogeneity equivalent temperature difference to 16 mK. The correctability just after calibration was 0.6. The long-term stability time was superior to 25 hours. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Hybrid green LEDs with n-type ZnO substituted for N-type GaN in an inverted P-N junction
F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; D.J. Rogers; Can Bayram; R. McClintock
LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, LEOS '09. IEEE, [5343231] (2009) -- October 4, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, the GaN and ZnO materials systems have attracted considerable attention because of their use in a broad range of emerging applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. GaN and ZnO are similar materials with direct wide bandgaps, wurtzite crystal structure, high thermal stability and comparable thermal expansion coefficients, which makes them well suited for heterojunction fabrication. Two important advantages of GaN over ZnO are the reliable p-type doping and the mature know-how for bandgap engineering. Thus GaN-based LEDs can be made to emit from the deep UV right into the green through alloying with Al and In, respectively. The performance is not identical at all wavelengths, however, and the performance of InGaN-based green LEDs is still relatively poor. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Geiger-mode operation of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
J. L. Pau, R. McClintock, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung, M. Razeghi, E. Muñoz, and D. Silversmith
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 04, p. 041104 -1-- July 23, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the Geiger-mode operation of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes fabricated on transparent AlN templates specifically for back illumination in order to enhance hole-initiated multiplication. The spectral response in Geiger-mode operation was analyzed under low photon fluxes. Single photon detection capabilities were demonstrated in devices with areas ranging from 225 to 14,063 µm2. Single photon detection efficiency of 20% and dark count rate < 10 kHz were achieved in the smallest devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent advances in high power mid- and far-wavelength infrared lasers for free space communication
S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Optics East Conference, October 1-4, 2006, Boston, MA Proceedings – Active and Passive Optical Components for Communications VI, Vol. 6389, p. 63890S-1-- October 4, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Link reliability is a significant issue for free space optical links. Inclement weather, such as fog, can seriously reduce the transmission of light through the atmosphere. However, this effect, for some types of fog, is wavelength-dependent. In order to improve link availability in both metro and hostile environments, mid- and far-wavelength infrared diode lasers can be of use. This paper will discuss some of the recent advances in high-power, uncooled quantum cascade lasers and their potential for use in long range and/or highly reliable free space communication links. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Solar-blind avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, K. Minder, A. Yasan, C. Bayram, F. Fuchs, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61271D-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
There is a need for semiconductor based UV photodetectors to support avalanche gain in order to realize better performance and more effectively compete with existing photomultiplier tubes. However, there are numerous technical issues associated with the realization of high-quality solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs). In this paper, APDs operating at 280 nm, within the solar-blind region of the ultraviolet spectrum, are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Beam Steering in High-Power CW Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, C.S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J.R. Meyer, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (6)-- June 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the light-current (L-I), spectral, and far-field characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with seven different wavelengths in the λ=4.3 to 6.3 μm range. In continuous-wave (CW) mode, the narrow-stripe (≈13 μm) epitaxial- side-up devices operated at temperatures up to 340 K, while at 295 K the CW output power was as high as 640 mW with a wallplug efficiency of 4.5%. All devices with λ≥4.7 μm achieved room-temperature CW operation, and at T=200 K several produced powers exceeding 1 W with ≈10% wallplug efficiency. The data indicated both spectral and spatial instabilities of the optical modes. For example, minor variations of the current often produced nonmonotonic hopping between spectra with envelopes as narrow as 5-10 nm or as broad as 200-250 nm. Bistable beam steering, by far-field angles of up to ±12° from the facet normal, also occurred, although even in extreme cases the beam quality never became worse than twice the diffraction limit. The observed steering is consistent with a theory for interference and beating between the two lowest order lateral modes. We also describe simulations of a wide-stripe photonic-crystal distributed-feedback QCL, which based on the current material quality is projected to emit multiple watts of CW power into a single-mode beam at T=200 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High-Power Continuous-Wave Operation of Quantum-Cascade Lasers Up to 60 °C
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, J. David, L. Doris, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16 (3)-- March 1, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
High-temperature high-power continuous-wave (CW) operation of high-reflectivity-coated 12 μm wide quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ = 6 μm with a thick electroplated Au top contact layer is reported for different cavity lengths. For a 3 mm long laser, the CW optical output powers of 381 mW at 293 K and 22 mW at maximum operating temperature of 333 K (60°C) are achieved with threshold current densities of 1.93 and 3.09 kA/cm2, respectively. At 298 K, the same cavity gives a maximum wall plug efficiency of 3.17% at 1.07 A. An even higher CW optical output power of 424 mW at 293 K is obtained for a 4-mm-long laser and the device also operates up to 332 K with an output power of 14 mW. Thermal resistance is also analyzed at threshold as a function of cavity length. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High Power 3-12 μm Infrared Lasers: Recent Improvements and Future Trends
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, and Y.S. Park
Advanced Research Workshop on Semiconductor Nanostructures, Queenstown, New Zealand; Proceedings -- February 5, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we discuss the progress of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Room temperature QCL operation has been reported for lasers emitting between 5-11 μm, with 9-11 μm lasers operating up to 425 K. Laser technology for the 3-5 μm range takes advantage of a strain-balanced active layer design. We also demonstrate record room temperature peak output powers at 9 and 11 μm (2.5 and 1 W, respectively) as well as record low 80K threshold current densities (250 A/cm²) for some laser designs. Preliminary distributed feedback (DFB) results are also presented and exhibit single mode operation for 9 μm lasers at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent Advances in InAs/GaSb Superlattices for Very Long Wavelength Infrared Detection
G.J. Brown, F. Szmulowicz, K. Mahalingam, S. Houston, Y. Wei, A. Gin and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 4999, pp. 457-- January 27, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
New infrared (IR) detector materials with high sensitivity, multi-spectral capability, improved uniformity and lower manufacturing costs are required for numerous long and very long wavelength infrared imaging applications. One materials system has shown great theoretical and, more recently, experimental promise for these applications: InAs/InxGa1-xSb type-II superlattices. In the past few years, excellent results have been obtained on photoconductive and photodiode samples designed for infrared detection beyond 15 microns. The infrared properties of various compositions and designs of these type-II superlattices have been studied. The infrared photoresponse spectra are combined with quantum mechanical modeling of predicted absorption spectra to provide insight into the underlying physics behind the quantum sensing in these materials. Results for superlattice photodiodes with cut-off wavelengths as long as 25 microns are presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Aluminum gallium nitride short-period superlattices doped with magnesium
A. Saxler, W.C. Mitchel, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (14)-- April 9, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Short-period superlattices consisting of alternating layers of GaN:Mg and AlGaN:Mg were grown by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The electrical properties of these superlattices were measured as a function of temperature and compared to conventional AlGaN:Mg layers. It is shown that the optical absorption edge can be shifted to shorter wavelengths while lowering the acceptor ionization energy by using short-period superlattice structures instead of bulk-like AlGaN:Mg. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High quality LEO growth and characterization of GaN films on Al2O3 and Si substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, and J. Diaz
SPIE International Conference on Solid State Crystals, Zakopane, Poland; Proceedings 3725-- October 12, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN films on (00.1) Al2O3 and (111) Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The LEO on Si substrates was possible after achieving quasi monocrystalline GaN template films on (111) Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to assess the quality of the LEO films. Lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates were achieved for both LEO growths of GaN on sapphire and silicon substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors Based on InSbBi Grown on GaAs Substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (16)-- October 20, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the operation of InSbBi infrared photoconductive detectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The fabricated photodetector showed a cutoff wavelength of 7.7 μm at 77 K. The responsivity of the InSbBi photodetector at 7 μm was about 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The corresponding Johnson-noise limited detectivity was 4.7×108  cm· Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime was estimated to be about 86 ns from the voltage-dependent responsivity measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Compressively-strained multiple quantum well InAsSb lasers emitting at 3.6 μm grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
B. Lane, D. Wu, A. Rybaltowski, H. Yi, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 70 (4)-- January 27, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
A compressively strained InAsSb/InAs multiple quantum-well (MQW) structure was grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Maximum output power (from two facets) up to 1 W with differential efficiency about 70% was obtained from a MQW laser with stripe width of 100 μm and cavity length of 700 μm for emitting wavelength of 3.65 μm at 90 K in pulse mode operation. About 2 times lower threshold current density was obtained from the MQW lasers for a temperature range of 90 to 140 K compared to the double heterostructure lasers grown on the same growth conditions. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Optical Absorption and Photoresponse in fully Quaternary p-type Quantum Well Detectors
J. Hoff, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Photonics West '96 Photodetectors: Materials and Devices; Proceedings 2685-- January 27, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
Acceptor doped, non-strained aluminum-free Quantum Well Intersubband Photodetectors lattice matched to GaAs with Ga0.79In0.21As0.59P0.41 wells and Ga0.62In0.38As0.22P0.78 barriers have been demonstrated on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. These devices which operate at normal incidence demonstrate a unique spectral response which extends from approximately 2 μm up to 10 μm. To explain such a broad spectral shape, a detailed theoretical analysis based on the 8 x 8 Kane Hamiltonian was necessary to probe all aspect of optical absorption. The results of this analysis revealed that spectral shape results from the influence of the Spin Split-off band on the band structure and the optical matrix. [reprint (PDF)]
 

Page 15 of 23:  Prev << 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  >> Next  (567 Items)