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4.  Low-Threshold 7.3 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy
S. Slivken, A. Matlis, A. Rybaltowski, Z. Wu and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (19)-- May 19, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report low-threshold 7.3 μm superlattice-based quantum cascade lasers. The threshold current density is 3.4 kA/cm² at 300 K and 1.25 kA/cm² at 79 K in pulsed mode for narrow (∼20 μm), 2 mm-long laser diodes. The characteristic temperature (T0) is 210 K. The slope efficiencies are 153 and 650 mW/A at 300 and 100 K, respectively. Power output is in excess of 100 mW at 300 K. Laser far-field intensity measurements give divergence angles of 64° and 29° in the growth direction and in the plane of the quantum wells, respectively. Far-field simulations show excellent agreement with the measured results. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Interface-induced Suppression of the Auger Recombination in Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices
H. Mohseni, V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 58 (23)-- December 15, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
The temperature dependence of the nonequilibrium carriers lifetime has been deduced from the measurement of the photocurrent response in InAs/GaSb superlattices. Based on the temperature dependence of the responsivity and modeling of the transport parameters we have found that the carrier lifetime weakly depends on temperature in the high-temperature region. This indicates the temperature dependence of the Auger recombination rate with no threshold that differs it from that in the bulk material and can be attributed to the interface-induced suppression of the Auger recombination in thin quantum wells. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of 8.5 μm Quantum Cascade Laser
S. Slivken, C. Jelen, A. Rybaltowski, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (18)-- November 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate preliminary results for an 8.5 μm laser emission from quantum cascade lasers grown in a single step by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. 70 mW peak power per two facets is recorded for all devices tested at 79 K with 1 μs pulses at 200 Hz. For a 3 mm cavity length, lasing persists up to 270 K with a T0 of 180 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Sb-based infrared materials and photodetectors for the near room temperature applications
J.D. Kim, E. Michel, H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, J.J. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 2999, pp. 55-- February 12, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth of InSb, InAsSb, and InTlSb alloys for infrared photodetector applications. The fabrication and characterization of photodetectors based on these materials are also reported. Both photoconductive and photovoltaic devices are investigated. The materials and detector structures were grown on (100) and (111)B semi-insulating GaAs and GaAs coated Si substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Photoconductive detectors fabricated from InAsSb and InTlSb have been operated in the temperature range from 77 K to 300 K. The material parameters for photovoltaic device structures have been optimized through theoretical calculations based on fundamental mechanisms. InSb p-i-n photodiodes with 77 K peak responsivities approximately 103 V/W were grown on Si and (111) GaAs substrates. An InAsSb photovoltaic detector with a composition of x equals 0.85 showed photoresponse up to 13 micrometers at 300 K with a peak responsivity of 9.13 X 10-2 V/W at 8 micrometers . The RoA product of InAsSb detectors has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  InSb Infrared Photodetectors on Si Substrates Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
E. Michel, J. Xu, J.D. Kim, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 8 (5) pp. 673-- May 1, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-in Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsitivity at 4 μm is about 1.0×103 V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8×1010 cm·Hz½/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA's in the future. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  A Crystallographic Model of (00*1) Aluminum Nitride Epitaxial Thin Film Growth on (00*1) Sapphire Substrate
C.J. Sun, P. Kung, A. Saxler, H. Ohsato, M. Razeghi, and K. Haritos
Journal of Applied Physics 75 (8)-- April 15, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
A direct comparison of the physical properties of GaN thin films is made as a function of the choice of substrate orientations. Gallium nitride single crystals were grown on (0001) and (011-bar 2) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Better crystallinity with fine ridgelike facets is obtained on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. Also lower carrier concentration and higher mobilities indicate both lower nitrogen vacancies and less oxygen incorporation on the (011-bar 2) sapphire. The results of this study show better physical properties of GaN thin films achieved on (011-bar 2) sapphire. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb for p-i-n Photodetectors
G. Singh, E. Michel, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, J. Xu, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 13 (2)-- March 1, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-inch Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsitivity at 4 μm is about 1.0×103 V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8×1010 cm·Hz½/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA's in the future. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Defects in Organometallic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy-Grown GaInP Layers
Feng S.L., Bourgoin J.C., Omnes F., and Razeghi M.
Applied Physics Letters 59 (8), p. 941-- May 28, 1991 ...[Visit Journal]
Non-intentionally doped metalorganic vapor‐phase epitaxy Ga1−x InxP layers, having an alloy composition (x = 0.49) corresponding to a lattice matched to GaAs, grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, have been studied by capacitance‐voltage and deep-level transient spectroscopy techniques. They are found to exhibit a free‐carrier concentration at room temperature of the order of 1015 cm−3. Two electron traps have been detected. The first one, at 75 meV below the conduction band, is in small concentration (∼1013 cm−3) while the other, at about 0.9 eV and emitting electrons above room temperature, has a concentration in the range 1014–1015 cm−3. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Breakthroughs Bring THz Spectroscopy, Sensing Closer to Mainstream
MANIJEH RAZEGHI, QUANYONG LU, SANTANU MANNA, DONGHAI WU AND STEVEN SLIVKEN, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
www.photonics.com-- December 1, 2016
The terahertz (THz) electromagnet­ic spectrum (1 to 10 THz), sitting between the infrared wavelengths on the higher fre­quency side and microwaves on the lower frequency side, lies unique and important properties. THz waves can pass through a number of materials, including synthetics, textiles, paper and cardboard. Many bio­molecules, proteins, explosives or narcot­ics feature characteristic absorption I ines - so-called spectral "fingerprints" - at frequencies between 1 and 10 THz.
 
4.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Nickel oxide growth on Si (111), c-Al2O3 and FTO/glass by pulsed laser deposition
V. E. Sandana ; D. J. Rogers ; F. Hosseini Teherani ; P. Bove ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
03/07/2014-- March 7, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
NiO was grown on Si (111), c-Al2O3 and FTO/glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed that layers grown on c-Al2O3 were fcc NiO with a dense morphology of cubic grains that were strongly (111) oriented along the growth direction. The relatively low ω rocking curve linewidth, of 0.12°suggests that there may have been epitaxial growth on the c-Al2O3 substrate. XRD and SEM indicated that films grown on Si (111) were also fcc NiO, with cubic grains, but that the grain orientation was random. This is consistent with the presence of an amorphous SiO2 layer at the surface of the Si substrate, which precluded epitaxial growth. NiO grown at lower temperature (200°C) on temperature-sensitive FTO/glass substrates showed no evidence of crystallinity in XRD and SEM studies. After flash annealing in air, however, peaks characteristic of randomly oriented fcc NiO appeared in the XRD scans and the surface morphology became more granular in appearance. Such layers appear promising for the development of future dye-sensitised solar cell devices based on NiO grown by PLD. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Radiometric characterization of long-wavelength infrared type II strained layer superlattice focal plane array under low-photon irradiance conditions
J. Hubbs, V. Nathan, M. Tidrow, and M. Razeghi
Optical Engineering, Vol. 51, No. 6, p. 064002-1-- June 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the results of the radiometric characterization of an “M” structure long wavelength infrared Type-II strained layer superlattice(SLS) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) developed by Northwestern University (NWU). The performance of the M-structure SLS IRFPA was radiometrically characterized as a function of photon irradiance, integration time, operating temperature, and detector bias. Its performance is described using standard figures of merit: responsivity, noise, and noise equivalent irradiance. Assuming background limited performance operation at higher irradiances, the detector quantum efficiency for the SLS detector array is approximately 57%. The detector dark density at 80 K is 142 μA∕cm², which represents a factor of seven reduction from previously measured devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High power, continuous wave, quantum cascade ring laser
Y. Bai, S. Tsao, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Q.Y. Lu, D. Caffey, M. Pushkarsky, T. Day and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 99, No. 26, p. 261104-1-- December 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate a quantum cascade ring laser with high power room temperature continuous wave operation. A second order distributed feedback grating buried inside the waveguide provides both in-plane feedback and vertical power outcoupling. Total output power reaches 0.51 W at an emission wavelength around 4.85 μm. Single mode operation persists up to 0.4 W. The far field analysis indicates that the device operates in a high order mode. The magnetic and electric components of the ring-shaped lasing beam are in radial and azimuthal directions, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth and characterization of long wavelength infrared Type-II superlattice Photodiodes on a 3
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7945, p. 79451O-- January 23, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
One of the great advantages of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice over other competing technologies for the third generation infrared imagers is the potential to have excellent uniformity across a large area as the electronic structure of the material is controlled by the layer thicknesses, not by the composition of the materials. This can economize the material growth, reduce the fabrication cost, and especially allow the realization of large format imagers. In this talk, we report the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Type-II superlattices on a 3-inch GaSb substrate for long wavelength infrared detection. The material exhibits excellent structural, optical and electrical uniformity via AFM, Xray, quantum efficiency and I-V measurements. At 77K, 11μm cutoff photodiodes exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0x10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6 x 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Demonstration of negative differential resistance in GaN/AlN resonant tunneling didoes at room temperature
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 8, p. 083505-- April 15, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and negative differential resistance with peak-to-valley ratios as high as 2.15 at room temperature was demonstrated. Effect of material quality on RTDs’ performance was investigated by growing RTD structures on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. Our results reveal that negative differential resistance characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness) and MOCVD is a suitable technique for III-nitride-based quantum devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Noise analysis in Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 14-- October 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang, A. Evans, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000A-1-8.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate electrically pumped, room temperature, single mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting at ~ 4.75 µm. Ridge waveguides of 50 µm and 100 µm width were fabricated with both PCDFB and Fabry-Perot feedback mechanisms. The Fabry-Perot device has a broad emitting spectrum and a broad far-field character. The PCDFB devices have primarily a single spectral mode and a diffraction limited far field characteristic with a full angular width at half-maximum of 4.8 degrees and 2.4 degrees for the 50 µm and 100 µm ridge widths, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Influence of Residual Impurity Background on the Non-radiative Recombination Processes in High Purity InAs/GaSb superlattice Photodiodes
E.C.F. da Silva, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, B. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 89 (24)-- December 11, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The influence of the impurity background on the recombination processes in type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.8 μm was investigated by electroluminescence measurements. Using an iterative fitting procedure based on the dependence of the quantum efficiency of the electroluminescence on the injection current, the Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes were determined [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Performance characteristics of high-purity mid-wave and long-wave infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodiodes
A. Hood, M. Razeghi, V. Nathan and M.Z. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270U-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report on recent advances in the development of mid-, long-, and very long-wavelength infrared (MWIR, LWIR, and VLWIR) Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodiodes. The residual carrier background of binary Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes of cut-off wavelengths around 5 µm has been studied in the temperature range between 10 and 200 K. A four-point, capacitance-voltage technique on mid-wavelength and long-wavelength Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared photodiodes reveal residual background concentrations around 5×1014 cm-3. Additionally, recent progress towards LWIR photodiodes for focal plane array imaging applications is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Fabrication of Indium Bumps for Hybrid Infrared Focal Plane Array Applications
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Infrared Physics and Technology, 45 (2)-- March 1, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Hybrid infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) have found many applications. In hybrid IR FPAs, FPA and Si read out integrated circuits (ROICs) are bonded together with indium bumps by flip-chip bonding. Taller and higher uniformity indium bumps are always being pursued in FPA fabrication. In this paper, two indium bump fabrication processes based on evaporation and electroplating techniques are developed. Issues related to each fabrication technique are addressed in detail. The evaporation technique is based on a unique positive lithography process. The electroplating method achieves taller indium bumps with a high aspect ratio by a unique “multi-stack” technique. This technique could potentially benefit the fabrication of multi-color FPAs. Finally, a proposed low-cost indium bump fabrication technique, the “bump transfer”, is given as a future technology for hybrid IR FPA fabrication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Very High Average Power at Room Temperature from λ ~ 5.9 μm Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 82 (20)-- May 19, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a very high average output power at room temperature for quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ ~ 5.9 µm. For high-reflectivity-coated 2-mm-long cavities, a low threshold current density of 1.7 kA/cm2 was obtained at room temperature. From 300 to 400 K, the characteristic temperature (T0) was 198 K. A maximum average output power of 0.67 W was achieved. In addition, 0.56 W average output power was observed at a duty cycle of 56%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Low-threshold and high power (~9.0 μm) quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature
A. Matlis, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, K.J. Luo, J. Diaz, Z. Wu, A. Rybaltowski, C. Jelen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 77 (12)-- September 18, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a low threshold current density and high power for λ ∼ 9 μm AlInAs/GaInAs quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature. The threshold current density is 1.95 kA/cm² at 300 K and 0.61 kA/cm² at 80 K for 5 μs pulses at 200 Hz repetition rate. The peak output power is 700 mW at room temperature and 1.3 W at 80 K per two facets for cavity length is 3 mm with a stripe width of 20 μm. The characteristic temperature T0 is 185 °C. The slope efficiency is 450 and 800 mW/A at 300 and 80 K, respectively. In continuous wave operation, the output power is more than 150 mW at 80 K and 25 mW at 140 K. This high performance was achieved by improving the material growth and processing technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Short Wavelength Solar-Blind Detectors: Status, Prospects, and Markets
M. Razeghi
IEEE Proceedings, Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Devices: The Third Generation Semiconductor Comes of Age 90 (6)-- June 1, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent advances in the research work on III-nitride semiconductors and AlxGa1-xN materials in particular has renewed the interest and led to significant progress in the development of ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors able to detect light in the mid- and near-UV spectral region (λ∼200-400 nm). There have been a growing number of applications which require the use of such sensors and, in many of these, it is important to be able to sense UV light without detecting infrared or visible light, especially from the Sun, in order to minimize the chances of false detection or high background. The research work on short-wavelength UV detectors has, therefore, been recently focused on realizing short-wavelength "solar-blind" detectors which, by definition, are insensitive to photons with wavelengths longer than ∼285 nm. In this paper the development of AlxGa1-xN-based solar-blind UV detectors will be reviewed. The technological issues pertaining to material synthesis and device fabrication will be discussed. The current state-of-the-art and future prospects for these detectors will be reviewed and discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Exciton localization in group-III nitride quantum wells
V.I. Litvinov and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 59 (15)-- May 15, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Exciton density of states broadened by compositional disorder in the group-III nitride quantum well is calculated. The excitonic photoluminescence linewidth is estimated and related to the material parameters of the alloy for two limiting cases of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional excitons in the quantum well. It is shown that the effect of the compositional fluctuations depends on dimensionality of the exciton: the 2D excitons are more sensitive to the inhomogeneities than 3D ones. The broad near-band-gap energy states distribution for quasi-two-dimensional excitons is consistent with the experimental evidence of the spontaneous and stimulated emissions from excitonic states localized on compositional fluctuations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Band-gap narrowing and potential fluctuation in Si-doped GaN
I.H. Lee, J.J. Lee, P. Kung, F.J. Sanchez, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (1)-- January 4, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We investigate the optical properties of two sets of Si-doped GaN epitaxial layers with different degree of compensation. The electron concentration dependence of the band-gap energy measured by photoluminescence is interpreted as band-gap narrowing effect and evaluated by a simple relation. The photoluminescence peak positions of heavily compensated samples are shifted downward with respect to those of moderately compensated samples, and the down shift becomes larger at higher electron density. Based on analysis of photoluminescence spectra, these prominent behaviors are accounted for by band-edge potential fluctuation associated with inhomogeneous residual impurities. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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