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4.  Reliable GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with reproducible room-temperature negative differential resistance
C. Bayram, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826827-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
negative differential resistance (NDR). Compared to other negative resistance devices such as (Esaki) tunnel and transferred-electron devices, RTDs operate much faster and at higher temperatures. III-nitride materials, composed of AlGaInN alloys, have wide bandgap, high carrier mobility and thermal stability; making them ideal for high power high frequency RTDs. Moreover, larger conduction band discontinuity promise higher NDR than other materials (such as GaAs) and room-temperature operation. However, earlier efforts on GaN-based RTD structures have failed to achieve a reliable and reproducible NDR. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that minimizing dislocation density and eliminating the piezoelectric fields enable reliable and reproducible NDR in GaN-based RTDs even at room temperature. Observation of NDR under both forward and reverse bias as well as at room and low temperatures attribute the NDR behaviour to quantum tunneling. This demonstration marks an important milestone in exploring III-nitride quantum devices, and will pave the way towards fundamental quantum transport studies as well as for high frequency optoelectronic devices such as terahertz emitters based on oscillators and cascading structures. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Geiger-mode operation of ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes grown on sapphire and free-standing GaN substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 26, p. 261107 (2010);-- June 28, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) were grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing (FS) c-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. At a reverse-bias of 70 V, APDs grown on sapphire substrates exhibited a dark current density of 2.7×10−4 A/cm² whereas APDs grown on FS-GaN substrates had a significantly lower dark current density of 2.1×10−6 A/cm². Under linear-mode operation, APDs grown on FS-GaN achieved avalanche gain as high as 14 000. Geiger-mode operation conditions were studied for enhanced SPDE. Under front-illumination the 625 μm² area APD yielded a SPDE of 13% when grown on sapphire substrates compared to more than 24% when grown on FS-GaN. The SPDE of the same APD on sapphire substrate increased to 30% under back-illumination—the FS-GaN APDs were only tested under front illumination due to the thick absorbing GaN substrate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Effects of well width and growth temperature on optical and structural characteristics of AlN/GaN superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 20, p. 201906-1-- November 16, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) employing various well widths (from 1.5 to 7.0 nm) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique at various growth temperatures (Ts) (from 900 to 1035 °C). The photoluminescence (PL), x-ray diffraction, and intersubband (ISB) absorption characteristics of these SLs and their dependency on well width and growth temperature are investigated. Superlattices with thinner wells (grown at the same Ts) or grown at lower Ts (employing the same well width) are shown to demonstrate higher strain effects leading to a higher PL energy and ISB absorption energy. Simulations are employed to explain the experimental observations. ISB absorptions from 1.04 to 2.15 µm are demonstrated via controlling well width and growth temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Fabrication and characterization of novel hybrid green light emitting didoes based on substituting n-type ZnO for n-type GaN in an inverted p-n junction
C. Bayram, D. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1784-1788-- May 29, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Details of the fabrication and characterization of hybrid green light emitting diodes, composed of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN on AlN/sapphire, are reported. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence were used to study the hybrid device. The effects of solvents, annealing, and etching on n-ZnO are discussed. Successful hybridization of ZnO and (In)GaN into a green light emitting diode was realized. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process
J.M. Jung, C.R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi and W.G. Jung
Journal of Alloys and Compounds-- September 15, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The 3D type, flower-like ZnO nanostructures from particle to flower-like or chestnut bur are fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layer substrate through the simple-route hydrothermal process. Structural characterization was made for the ZnO 3D nanostructures synthesized in different pH ranging from 9.5 to 11.0. The growth model was proposed and discussed regarding the fabrication mechanism and morphology of ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure. The flower-like ZnO is composed of many thin single crystals ZnO nanorods. Bigger and thicker ZnO structure is fabricated with the increase of pH in solution. The enhanced UV emission in the PL measurement and the spectra in the Raman spectroscopy for ZnO–GaN heterojunction material were discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Techniques for High-Quality SiO2 Films
J. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices IV, Vol. 6479, p. 64791K-1-8-- January 29, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the comparison of optical, structural, and electrical properties of SiO2 using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and ion-beam sputtering deposition. High-quality, low-temperature deposition of SiO2 by ion-beam sputtering deposition is shown to have lower absorption, smoother and more densely packed films, a lower amount of fixed oxide charges, and a lower trapped-interface density than SiO2 by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This high-quality SiO2 is then demonstrated as an excellent electrical and mechanical surface passivation layer on Type-II InAs/GaSb photodetectors [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Non-equilibrium radiation of long wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, F. Fuchs and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 99-- February 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The emission behavior of binary-binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 and 13 μm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental setup the internal and external quantum efficiencies have been determined in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K for both the negative and positive luminescences. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 72-- August 17, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We present data and calculations and examine the factors that determine the detectivities in self-assembled InAs and InGaAs based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). We investigate a class of devices that combine good wavelength selectivity with “high detectivity.” We study the factors that limit the temperature performance of quantum dot detectors. For this we develop a formalism to evaluate the optical absorption and the electron transport properties. We examine the performance limiting factors and compare theory with experimental data. We find that the notion of a phonon bottleneck does not apply to large-diameter lenslike quantum dots, which have many closely spaced energy levels. The observed strong decrease of responsivity with temperature is ultimately due to a rapid thermal cascade back into the ground states. High temperature performance is improved by engineering the excited state to be near the continuum. The good low temperature (77 K) performance in strongly bound QDIPs is shown to be due to the high gain and the low noise achievable in these micron size devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.8 µm quantum-cascade lasers at room temperature
A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 85 (12)-- September 20, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Continuous-wave (cw) operation of quantum-cascade lasers emitting at λ~4.8 µm is reported up to a temperature of 323 K. Accurate control of layer thickness and strain-balanced material composition is demonstrated using x-ray diffraction. cw output power is reported to be in excess of 370 mW per facet at 293 K, and 38 mW per facet at 323 K. Room-temperature average power measurements are demonstrated with over 600 mW per facet at 50% duty cycle with over 300 mW still observed at 100% (cw) duty cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High Quality Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices with Cutoff Wavelength ~3.7 µm Using Interface Engineering
Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Gin, A. Hood, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M. Tidrow
Journal of Applied Physics, 94 (7)-- October 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent advance in the area of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices that have cutoff wavelength of ~3.7 µm. With GaxIn1–x type interface engineering techniques, the mismatch between the superlattices and the GaSb (001) substrate has been reduced to <0.1%. There is no evidence of dislocations using the best examination tools of x-ray, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The full width half maximum of the photoluminescence peak at 11 K was ~4.5 meV using an Ar+ ion laser (514 nm) at fluent power of 140 mW. The integrated photoluminescence intensity was linearly dependent on the fluent laser power from 2.2 to 140 mW at 11 K. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurement revealed a characteristic temperature of one T1 = 245 K at sample temperatures below 160 K with fluent power of 70 mW, and T1 = 203 K for sample temperatures above 180 K with fluent power of 70 and 420 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Novel Sb-based Alloys for Uncooled Infrared Photodetector Applications
M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the growth and characterization of InSbBi, InTlSb, InTlP, and the quaternary alloys for uncooled long- wavelength infrared photodetector applications. The layers were grown on InSb and GaAs substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The incorporation of Bi and Tl in InSb was investigated with high-resolution x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and optical photoresponse measurements. We also demonstrate the photodetectors fabricated from the grown InSbBi and InTlSb alloys. InSb0.96Bi0.04 photoconductive detectors exhibited a responsivity of 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The estimated Johnson noise limited detectivity at 7 micrometers was 1.7 X 108 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K. A room temperature operating InSb0.95Bi0.05 photodetector was also demonstrated. Photoresponse up to 12 micrometers was achieved at 300 K. The responsivity and Johnson noise-limited detectivity at 10.6 μm were 1.9 mV/W and 1.2 X 106 cm·Hz½/W, respectively. Photoresponse up to 15 μm was achieved at 300 K from quaternary InTlAsSb and InBiAsSb alloys. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits (OEICs) for Next Generation WDM Communications
M. Razeghi and S. Slivken
SPIE Conference, Boston, MA, -- July 29, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper reviews some of the key enabling technologies for present and future optoelectronic intergrated circuits. This review concentrates mainly on technology for lasers, waveguides, modulators, and fast photodetectors as the basis for next generation communicatiosn systems. Emphasis is placed on intergrations of components and mass production of a generic intelligent tranciever. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Uncooled InAs/GaSb Type-II infrared detectors grown on GaAs substrate for the 8–12 μm atmospheric window
H. Mohseni, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. Brown, and W. Mitchel
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 35 (7)-- July 1, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2×108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade laser
S. Slivken, V. Litvinov, M. Razeghi, and J.R. Meyer
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (2)-- January 15, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Relaxation kinetics in a quantum cascade intersubband laser are investigated. Distribution functions and gain spectra of a three-subband double-quantum-well active region are obtained as a function of temperature and injection current. The potentially important role of the nonequilibrium phonons at lasing threshold is shown and discussed in details. It is shown that the threshold current is strongly dependent of the power dissipated in the active region in steady state. The numerical calculations for an 8.5 μm laser illustrate the general issues of relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade lasers. Temperature dependence of the threshold current is obtained in a good agreement with the experiments. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation
J. Diaz, H. Yi, M. Razeghi and G.T. Burnham
Applied Physics Letters 71 (21)-- November 24, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the long-term reliability measurement on uncoated Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ = 808 nm) lasers at high-power and high-temperature operation. No degradation in laser performance has been observed for over 30 ,000 h of lifetime testing in any of randomly selected several 100 μm-wide uncoated lasers operated at 60 °C with 1 W continuous wave output power. This is the first and the most conclusive evidence ever reported that directly shows the high long-term reliability of uncoated Al-free lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Intrinsic AlGaN photodetectors for the entire compositional range
D. Walker, X. Zhang, A. Saxler, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- February 12, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
AlxGa1-xN ultraviolet photoconductors with cut- off wavelengths from 365 nm to 200 nm have been fabricated and characterized. Various characteristics of the devices, such as photoresponse, voltage-dependent responsivity, frequency-dependent responsivity and noise spectral density, were measured and cross-referenced with optical, electrical and structural characteristics of the material to provide information about the mechanisms taking place during detection. The maximum detectivity reached 5.5 X 108 cm·Hz½/W at a modulating frequency of 14 Hz. The effective majority carrier lifetime in AlxGa1-xN materials, derived from frequency-dependent photoconductivity measurements, has been estimated to be from 6 to 35 msec. The frequency-dependent noise-spectrum shows that it is dominated by Johnson-noise at high frequencies for low Al-composition samples. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski
Journal of Applied Physics Applied Physics Review 79 (10)-- May 15, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
In this review article a comprehensive analysis of the developments in ultraviolet (UV) detector technology is described. At the beginning, the classification of UV detectors and general requirements imposed on these detectors are presented. Further considerations are restricted to modern semiconductor UV detectors, so the basic theory of photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors is presented in a uniform way convenient for various detector materials. Next, the current state of the art of different types of semiconductor UV detectors is presented. Hitherto, the semiconductor UV detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main efforts are currently directed to a new generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide band-gap semiconductors the most promising of which are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is finally described in detail. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Well Resolved Room Temperature Photovoltage Spectra of GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells and Superlattices
Xiaoguang He and Manijeh Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 62 (6)-- February 8, 1993 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first well resolved room‐temperature photovoltage spectra due to the sublevel transitions in the GaInP‐GaAs superlattices and multiquantum wells grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Sharp well resolved peaks attributed to exciton absorption of the electron‐to‐light hole and electron‐to‐heavy hole have been observed at room temperature. This indicates that GaAs‐GaInP is a promising material for the application of the modulators, optical switches, and optical bistable divices. Satisfactory agreements between experimental measurements and theoretical results have been obtained. These results demonstrate that photovoltage spectroscopy is a simple, but very powerful tool to study quantum confinement structures.   [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Optical Investigations of GaAs-GaInP Quantum Wells Grown on the GaAs, InP, and Si Substrates
H. Xiaoguang, M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 61 (14)-- October 5, 1992 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first photoluminescence investigation of GaAs‐Ga0.51In0.49P lattice matched multiquantum wells grown by the low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition simultaneously in the same run on GaAs, Si, and InP substrates. The sharp photoluminescence peaks indicate the high quality of the samples on three different substrates. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence indicates that the intrinsic excitonic transitions dominate at low temperature and free‐carrier recombinations at room temperature. The photoluminescence peaks of the samples grown on Si and InP substrates shift about 15 meV from the corresponding peaks of the sample grown on the GaAs substrate. Two possible interpretations are provided for the observed energy shift. One is the diffusion of In along the dislocation threads from GaInP to GaAs and another is the localized strain induced by defects and In segregations. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High-performance bias-selectable dual-band mid-/long-wavelength infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices
M. Razeghi; A. Haddadi; A.M. Hoang; G. Chen; S. Ramezani-Darvish; P. Bijjam
Proc. SPIE 8704, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIX, 87040S (June 11, 2013)-- June 11, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a bias selectable dual-band mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector's electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature's 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Amorphous ZnO films grown by room temperature pulsed laser deposition on paper and mylar for transparent electronics applications
D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi, and H.J. Drouhin
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol. 7940, p. 79401K-- January 24, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the development of next-generation transparent thin film transistors for use in applications such as electronic paper and flexible organic light emitting diode panels. Amongst the transparent conducting oxides attracting the most interest at present are Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors (AOS) based on ZnO because they exhibit enhanced electron mobility (μ), superior capacity for processability in air and improved thermodynamic stability compared with conventional covalent amorphous semiconductors and existing AOS. Moreover, they give excellent performance when fabricated at relatively low temperature and can readily be made in large area format. Thus, they are projected to resolve the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance and thereby allow fabrication on inexpensive heatsensitive substrates. For the moment, however, an undesireable post-deposition annealing step at a temperature of about 200ºC is necessary in order to obtain suitable electrical and optical properties. This paper demonstrates the possibility of directly engineering amorphous ZnO with relatively high conductiviy at room temperature on paper and mylar substrates using pulsed laser deposition. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  GaN avalanche photodiodes grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrate
Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 20, p. 201908-1-- May 17, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
M-plane GaN avalanche p-i-n photodiodes on low dislocation density freestanding m-plane GaN substrates were realized using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High quality homoepitaxial m-plane GaN layers were developed; the root-mean-square surface roughness was less than 1 Å and the full-width-at-half-maximum value of the x-ray rocking curve for (1010) diffraction of m-plane GaN epilayer was 32 arcsec. High quality material led to a low reverse-bias dark current of 8.11 pA for 225 μm² mesa photodetectors prior to avalanche breakdown, with the maximum multiplication gain reaching about 8000. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent performance records for mid-IR quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi; Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S. Kuboya; S.R. Darvish
Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Basic Research and Practical Applications, 2009. TERA-MIR International Workshop [5379656], (2009) -- November 9, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
The wall plug efficiency of the mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in room temperature continuous wave operation is brought to 17%. Peak output power from a broad area (400 μm x 3 mm) device gives 120 W output power in pulsed mode operation at room temperature. Using a single-well-injector design, specifically made for low temperature operation, a record wall plug efficiency of 53% is demonstrated at 40 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Microstructural compositional, and optical characterization of GaN grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on ZnO epilayers
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, T. Moudakir, S. Gautier, F. Jomard, M. Molinari, M. Troyon, D. McGrouther, J.N. Chapman, M. Razeghi and A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1655-1657-- May 29, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
This article presents the results of microstructural, compositional, and optical characterization of GaN films grown on ZnO buffered c-sapphire substrates. Transmission electron microscopy showed epitaxy between the GaN and the ZnO, no degradation of the ZnO buffer layer, and no evidence of any interfacial compounds. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed negligible Zn signal in the GaN layer away from the GaN/ZnO interface. After chemical removal of the ZnO, room temperature (RT) cathodoluminescence spectra had a single main peak centered at ~ 368 nm (~3.37 eV), which was indexed as near-band-edge (NBE) emission from the GaN layer. There was no evidence of the ZnO NBE peak, centered at ~379 nm (~3.28 eV), which had been observed in RT photoluminescence spectra prior to removal of the ZnO. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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