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1.  Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on sapphire and silicon substrates
P. Kung, D. Walker, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 74 (4)-- January 25, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN films on (00.1) Al2O3 and (111) Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth on Si substrates was possible after achieving quasi-monocrystalline GaN template films on (111) Si substrates. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to assess the quality of the lateral epitaxial overgrown films. Lateral growth rates more than five times as high as vertical growth rates were achieved for both lateral epitaxial overgrowths of GaN on sapphire and silicon substrates. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb for p-i-n Photodetectors
G. Singh, E. Michel, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, J. Xu, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 13 (2)-- March 1, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
The InSb infrared photodetectors grown heteroepitaxially on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are reported. Excellent InSb material quality is obtained on 3-inch Si substrates (with a GaAs predeposition) as confirmed by structural, optical, and electrical analysis. InSb infrared photodetectors on Si substrates that can operate from 77 K to room temperature have been demonstrated. The peak voltage-responsitivity at 4 μm is about 1.0×103 V/W and the corresponding Johnson-noise-limited detectivity is calculated to be 2.8×1010 cm·Hz½/W. This is the first important stage in developing InSb detector arrays or monolithic focal plane arrays (FPAs) on silicon. The development of this technology could provide a challenge to traditional hybrid FPA's in the future. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High peak power 16 m InP-related quantum cascade laser
A. Szerlinga,∗, S. Slivkenb, M. RazeghibaInstytut
ELSEVIER-- July 22, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
tIn this paper ∼16 m-emitting multimode InP-related quantum cascade lasers are presented with themaximum operating temperature 373 K, peak and average optical power equal to 720 mW and 4.8 mW at303 K, respectively, and the characteristic temperature (T0) 272 K. Two types of the lasers were fabricatedand characterized: the lasers with a SiO2layer left untouched in the area of the metal-free window ontop of the ridge, and the lasers with the SiO2layer removed from the metal-free window area. Dual-wavelength operation was obtained, at  ∼ 15.6 m (641 cm−1) and at  ∼ 16.6 m (602 cm−1) for laserswith SiO2removed, while within the emission spectrum of the lasers with SiO2left untouched only theformer lasing peak was present. The parameters of these devices like threshold current, optical powerand emission wavelength are compared. Lasers without the SiO2layer showed ∼15% lower thresholdcurrent than these ones with the SiO2layer. The optical powers for lasers without SiO2layer were almosttwice higher than for the lasers with the SiO2layer on the top of the ridge. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Advanced InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photovoltaic Detectors for Very-Long Wavelength Infrared Applications
Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 80 (18)-- May 6, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the temperature dependence of the photoresponse of very long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based photovoltaic detectors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The detectors had a 50% cutoff wavelength of 18.8 μm and a peak current responsivity of 4 A·W-1 at 80 K. A peak detectivity of 4.5×1010 cm· Hz½·W-1 was achieved at 80 K at a reverse bias of 110 mV. The generation–recombination lifetime was 0.4 ns at 80 K. The cutoff wavelength increased very slowly with increasing temperature with a net shift from 20 to 80 K of only 1.2 μm [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Negative luminescence of long-wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 87 (20)-- November 14, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The electrically pumped emission behavior of binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 µm and 13 µm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental setup, the internal and external quantum efficiency has been determined in the temperature range between 80 K and 300 K for both, the negative and positive luminescence. The negative luminescence efficiency approaches values as high as 35% without antireflection coating. The temperature dependence of the internal quantum efficiency near zero-bias voltage allows for the determination of the electron-hole-electron Auger recombination coefficient of Γn=1×1024 cm6 s–1. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Solar blind GaN p-i-n photodiodes
D. Walker, A. Saxler, P. Kung, X. Zhang, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 72 (25)-- June 22, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We present the growth and characterization of GaN p-i-n photodiodes with a very high degree of visible blindness. The thin films were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The room-temperature spectral response shows a high responsivity of 0.15 A/W up until 365 nm, above which the response decreases by six orders of magnitude. Current/voltage measurements supply us with a zero bias resistance of 1011  Ω. Lastly, the temporal response shows a rise and fall time of 2.5 μs measured at zero bias. This response time is limited by the measurement circuit. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Molecular beam epitaxial growth of InSb p-i-n photodetectors on GaAs and Si
E. Michel, R. Peters, S. Slivken, C. Jelen, P. Bove, J. Xu, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Materials, Physics and Devices, SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA; Proceedings, Vol. 2397-- February 6, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality InSb has been grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and optimized using Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction. A 4.8 micrometers InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 degree(s)C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an X-ray rocking curve FWHM of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92300 cm2V-1s-1 at 77 K, the best reported to date for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs. InSb p-i-n structures of 5.8 micrometers grown under the same conditions demonstrated a X-ray Full Width at Half Maximum of 101 arcsec and 131 arcsec for GaAs and Si substrates, respectively, and exhibited excellent uniformity of +/- 3 arcsec over a 3' substrate. Prototype InSb p-i-n detectors on Si have been fabricated and have demonstrated photovoltaic response at 6.5 micrometers up to 200 K. These p-i-n detectors have also exhibited the highest D* for a device grown onto Si. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Engineering Multi-Section Quantum Cascade Lasers for Broadband Tuning
Steven Slivken and Manijeh Razeghi
Photonics 3, 41 (2016)-- June 27, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
In an effort to overcome current limitations to electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers, a strategy is proposed which combines heterogeneous quantum cascade laser gain engineering with sampled grating architectures. This approach seeks to not only widen the accessible spectral range for an individual emitter, but also compensate for functional non-uniformity of reflectivity and gain lineshapes. A trial laser with a dual wavelength core is presented which exhibits electroluminescence over a 750 cm−1 range and discrete single mode laser emission over a 700 cm−1 range. Electrical tuning over 180 cm−1 is demonstrated with a simple sampled grating design. A path forward to even wider tuning is also described using more sophisticated gain and grating design principles. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and infrared focal plane array
Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Gin, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 309-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattices grown on n-type GaSb substrate with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Ilkay Demir, Yoann Robin, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Konstantinos Zekentes, and Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi-- April 4, 2017 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of thick, high quality, and low stress AlN films on Si substrates is highly desired for a number of applications like the development of micro and nano electromechanical system (MEMS and NEMS) technologies [1] and particularly for fabricating AlGaNbased UV LEDs [2–5]. UV LEDs are attractive as they are applied in many areas, such as biomedical instrumentations and dermatology, curing of industrial resins and inks, air purification, water sterilization, and many others [2, 3]. UV LEDs have been generally fabricated on AlN, GaN, Al2O3, or SiC substrates because of better lattice mismatching to AlGaN material systems. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Structural and compositional characterization of MOVPE GaN thin films transferred from sapphire to glass substrates using chemical lift-off and room temperature direct wafer bonding and GaN wafer scale MOVPE growth on ZnO-buffered sapphire
S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, G. Patriarche, D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, Y. El Gmili, K. Pantzas, Suresh Sundaram, D. Troadec, P.L. Voss, M. Razeghi, A. Ougazzaden
Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 370, Pages 63-67 (2013)-- May 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN thin films were grown on ZnO/c-Al2O3 with excellent uniformity over 2 in. diameter wafers using a low temperature/pressure MOVPE process with N2 as a carrier and dimethylhydrazine as an N source. 5 mm×5 mm sections of similar GaN layers were direct-fusion-bonded onto soda lime glass substrates after chemical lift-off from the sapphire substrates. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the bonding of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a glass substrate with a very good quality of interface, i.e. continuous/uniform adherence and absence of voids or particle inclusions. Using this approach, (In) GaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming the expensive sapphire substrate so it can be utilized again for growth. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Negative and positive luminescence in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (12)-- December 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum efficiency of negative and positive luminescence in binary type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been investigated in the midinfrared spectral range around the 5-μm wavelength. The negative luminescence efficiency is nearly independent on temperature in the entire range from 220 to 325 K. For infrared diodes with a 2-μm absorbing layer, processed without anti-reflection coating, a negative luminescence efficiency of 45% is found, indicating very efficient minority carrier extraction. The temperature dependent measurements of the quantum efficiency of the positive luminescence enables for the determination of the capture cross section of the Shockley-Read-Hall centers involved in the competing nonradiative recombination. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Novel process for direct bonding of GaN onto glass substrates using sacrificial ZnO template layers to chemically lift-off GaN from c-sapphire
Rogers, D. J.; Ougazzaden, A.; Sandana, V. E.; Moudakir, T.; Ahaitouf, A.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Gautier, S.; Goubert, L.; Davidson, I. A.; Prior, K. A.; McClintock, R. P.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82630R (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
GaN was grown on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. The ZnO then served as a sacrificial release layer, allowing chemical lift-off of the GaN from the c-Al2O3 substrate via selective wet etching of the ZnO. The GaN was subsequently direct-wafer-bonded onto a glass substrate. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Room Temperature Photoluminescence & optical microscopy confirmed bonding of several mm2 of crack-free wurtzite GaN films onto a soda lime glass microscope slide with no obvious deterioration of the GaN morphology. Using such an approach, InGaN based devices can be lifted-off expensive single crystal substrates and bonded onto supports with a better cost-performance profile. Moreover, the approach offers the possibility of reclaiming and reusing the substrate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  ZnO Thin Films & Nanostructures for Emerging Optoelectronic Applications
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V.E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050K-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process
J.M. Jung, C.R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi and W.G. Jung
Journal of Alloys and Compounds-- September 15, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
The 3D type, flower-like ZnO nanostructures from particle to flower-like or chestnut bur are fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layer substrate through the simple-route hydrothermal process. Structural characterization was made for the ZnO 3D nanostructures synthesized in different pH ranging from 9.5 to 11.0. The growth model was proposed and discussed regarding the fabrication mechanism and morphology of ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure. The flower-like ZnO is composed of many thin single crystals ZnO nanorods. Bigger and thicker ZnO structure is fabricated with the increase of pH in solution. The enhanced UV emission in the PL measurement and the spectra in the Raman spectroscopy for ZnO–GaN heterojunction material were discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Non-equilibrium radiation of long wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Hood, F. Fuchs and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 99-- February 15, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The emission behavior of binary-binary type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been studied in the spectral range between 8 and 13 μm. With a radiometric calibration of the experimental setup the internal and external quantum efficiencies have been determined in the temperature range between 80 and 300 K for both the negative and positive luminescences. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors Based on InSbBi Grown on GaAs Substrates
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 71 (16)-- October 20, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate the operation of InSbBi infrared photoconductive detectors grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The fabricated photodetector showed a cutoff wavelength of 7.7 μm at 77 K. The responsivity of the InSbBi photodetector at 7 μm was about 3.2 V/W at 77 K. The corresponding Johnson-noise limited detectivity was 4.7×108  cm· Hz½/W. The carrier lifetime was estimated to be about 86 ns from the voltage-dependent responsivity measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of High Quality InSb
E. Michel, G. Singh, S. Slivken, C. Besikci, P. Bove, I. Ferguson, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 65 (26)-- December 26, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter we report on the growth of high quality InSb by molecular beam epitaxy that has been optimized using reflection high energy electron diffraction. A 4.8 µm InSb layer grown on GaAs at a growth temperature of 395 °C and a III/V incorporation ratio of 1:1.2 had an x-ray rocking curve of 158 arcsec and a Hall mobility of 92,300 cm²·V−1 at 77 K. This is the best material quality obtained for InSb nucleated directly onto GaAs reported to date. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL
Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi and F. Tittel
Optics Express, Vol. 21, No. 1, p. 1008-- January 14, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a stateof-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm−1, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection,respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  ZnO nanorod electrodes for hydrogen evolution and storage
Harinipriya, S.; Usmani, B.; Rogers, D. J.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Lusson, A.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82631Y (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to the attractive combination of a relatively high specific heat of combustion with a large specific energy capacity, molecular hydrogen (H2) is being investigated for use as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy-efficient H2 production and safe storage remain key technical obstacles to implementation of an H2 based economy, however. ZnO has been investigated for use as an alternative photocatalytic electrode to TiO2 for solarpowered photo-electro-chemical (PEC) electrolysis, in which H2 is generated by direct water splitting in a cell with a metal cathode and a semiconducting anode. In this investigation, ZnO NR grown on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition were investigated for use as electrodes in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The electrochemical potential and Fermi energy of the ZnO NR were estimated from the electrochemical current density in acid and alkaline solutions via phenomenological thermodynamic analysis. As well as acting as an effective electrocalytic cathode, the ZnO NR appear to operate as a hydrogen reservoir. These results indicate that the ZnO NR have excellent potential for the storage of evolved H2. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 4, p. 042103-1-- January 25, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. RTDs were fabricated via standard processing steps. RTDs demonstrate a clear negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature (RT). The NDR was observed around 4.7 V with a peak current density of 59 kA/cm² and a peak-to-valley ratio of 1.6 at RT. Dislocation-free material is shown to be the key for the performance of GaN RTDs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Optical Response in Forward Biased (In,Ga)N-GaN Multiquantum-Well Diodes Under Barrier Illumination
J.L. Pau, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, K. Minder, D. Silversmith and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 4, p. 346-353.-- April 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors report on the current–voltage (I–V) characteristic under forward biases obtained in low leakage, small size p-(In,Ga)N–GaN-n multiquantum well diodes. Under barrier illumination, the devices present a high optical response with capabilities to detect optical powers in the pW range without further amplification. This response is attributed to the screening of the internal electric fields. Recombination times of a few seconds are found to be associated to this mechanism. Moreover, a step-like feature is found in the I– V characteristic before the diode turn-on voltage. Our model proposes tunneling current through the multi-quantum-well structure as responsible of this feature. Fast modulation of the tunneling effect under barrier illumination is used to evaluate the detection of low photon fluxes. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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