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2.  High-power, room-temperature and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ = 4.8 µm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, A. Evans, B. Gokden and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 87 (4)-- July 25, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The authors present high-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers. Continuous-wave output powers of 56 mW at 25 °C and 15 mW at 40 °C are obtained. Single-mode emission near 7.8 µm with a side-mode suppression ratio of >=30 dB and a tuning range of 2.83 cm−1 was obtained between 15 and 40 °C. The device exhibits no beam steering with a full width at half maximum of 27.4° at 25 °C in cw mode. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb photoconductors for long wavelength infrared range
H. Mohseni, E. Michel, J. Sandven, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and G. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 71 (10)-- September 8, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
In this letter we report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates for long wavelength infrared detectors. Photoconductive detectors fabricated from the superlattices showed photoresponse up to 12 µm and peak responsivity of 5.5 V/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 1.33 × 109 cm·Hz½/W at 10.3 µm at 78 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  ZnO Thin Films & Nanostructures for Emerging Optoelectronic Applications
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V.E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7605, p. 76050K-1-- January 27, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Photoconductance measurements on InTlSb/InSb/GaAs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
P.T. Staveteig, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 64 (4)-- January 24, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
We report infrared photoconductors based on InTlSb/InSb grown by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The photoresponse spectrum extends up to 8 μm at 77 K. The absolute magnitude of the photoresponse is measured as a function of bias. The specific detectivity is estimated to be 3×108 Hz½·cm·W-1 at 7 μm wavelength. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High power, electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers
Steven Slivken; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9755, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics-- February 13, 2016 ...[Visit Journal]
Mid-infrared laser sources (3-14 μm wavelengths) which have wide spectral coverage and high output power are attractive for many applications. This spectral range contains unique absorption fingerprints of most molecules, including toxins, explosives, and nerve agents. Infrared spectroscopy can also be used to detect important biomarkers, which can be used for medical diagnostics by means of breath analysis. The challenge is to produce a broadband midinfrared source which is small, lightweight, robust, and inexpensive. We are currently investigating monolithic solutions using quantum cascade lasers. A wide gain bandwidth is not sufficient to make an ideal spectroscopy source. Single mode output with rapid tuning is desirable. For dynamic wavelength selection, our group is developing multi-section laser geometries with wide electrical tuning (hundreds of cm-1). These devices are roughly the same size as a traditional quantum cascade lasers, but tuning is accomplished without any external optical components. When combined with suitable amplifiers, these lasers are capable of multi-Watt single mode output powers. This manuscript will describe our current research efforts and the potential for high performance, broadband electrical tuning with the quantum cascade laser. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type-II Antimonide-based Superlattices for the Third Generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Manijeh Razeghi, Edward Kwei-wei Huang, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Siamak Abdollahi Pour, and Pierre-Yves Delaunay
SPIE Proceedings, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXVI, Vol. 7660, pp. 76601F-- May 10, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, the Type-II superlattice (T2SL) material platform has seen incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties which has lead to unprecedented development in the arena of device design. Its versatility in band-structure engineering is perhaps one of the greatest hallmarks of the T2SL that other material platforms are lacking. In this paper, we discuss advantages of the T2SL, specifically the M-structure T2SL, which incorporates AlSb in the traditional InAs/GaSb superlattice. Using the M-structure, we present a new unipolar minority electron detector coined as the p-M-p, the letters which describe the composition of the device. Demonstration of this device structure with a 14 μm cutoff attained a detectivity of 4x1010 Jones (-50 mV) at 77 K. As device performance improves year after year with novel design contributions from the many researchers in this field, the natural progression in further enabling the ubiquitous use of this technology is to reduce cost and support the fabrication of large infrared imagers. In this paper, we also discuss the use of GaAs substrates as an enabling technology for third generation imaging on T2SLs. Despite the 7.8% lattice mismatch between the native GaSb and alternative GaAs substrates, T2SL photodiodes grown on GaAs at the MWIR and LWIR have been demonstrated at an operating temperature of 77 K [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Investigations of p-type signal for ZnO thin films grown on (100) GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, T. Monteiro, M. Soares, A. Neves, M. Carmo, S. Periera, M.R. Correia, A. Lusson, E. Alves, N.P. Barradas, J.K. Morrod, K.A. Prior, P. Kung, A. Yasan, and M. Razeghi
Phys. Stat. Sol. C, 3 (4)-- March 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
n this work we investigated ZnO films grown on semi-insulating (100) GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Samples were studied using techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, temperature dependent photoluminescence, C-V profiling and temperature dependent Hall measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High Quality Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices with Cutoff Wavelength ~3.7 µm Using Interface Engineering
Y. Wei, J. Bae, A. Gin, A. Hood, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M. Tidrow
Journal of Applied Physics, 94 (7)-- October 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent advance in the area of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices that have cutoff wavelength of ~3.7 µm. With GaxIn1–x type interface engineering techniques, the mismatch between the superlattices and the GaSb (001) substrate has been reduced to <0.1%. There is no evidence of dislocations using the best examination tools of x-ray, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The full width half maximum of the photoluminescence peak at 11 K was ~4.5 meV using an Ar+ ion laser (514 nm) at fluent power of 140 mW. The integrated photoluminescence intensity was linearly dependent on the fluent laser power from 2.2 to 140 mW at 11 K. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurement revealed a characteristic temperature of one T1 = 245 K at sample temperatures below 160 K with fluent power of 70 mW, and T1 = 203 K for sample temperatures above 180 K with fluent power of 70 and 420 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices
M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek and R. McClintock
IEEE Photonics Society 23rd Annual Meeting, November 7-10, 2010, Denver, CO, Proceedings, p. 351-352-- January 20, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
III-nitride optoelectronic devices are discussed. Ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices are reported. Demonstration of single photon detection efficiencies of 33% in the ultraviolet regime, intersubband energy level as low as in the mid-infrared regime, and GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with negative resistance of 67 Ω are demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High performance LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors and infrared focal plane array
Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Gin, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 309-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs-GaSb superlattices grown on n-type GaSb substrate with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Long Wavelength Type-II Photodiodes Operating at Room Temperature
H. Mohseni and M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 13 (5)-- May 1, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
The operation of uncooled InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength of λc=8 μm and a peak detectivity of 1.2 × 108 cm·Hz½/W at zero bias is demonstrated. The detectivity is similar to the best uncooled HgCdTe detectors and microbolometers. However, the R0A product is more than two orders of magnitude higher than HgCdTe and the device is more than four orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. These features combined with their low 1/f noise and high uniformity make these type-II photodiodes an excellent choice for uncooled high-speed IR imaging arrays [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Modulation-doped Field-effect Transistor Structures
C. Besikci, Y. Civan, S. Ozder, O. Sen, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Semiconductor Science Technology 12-- January 1, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
Lattice-matched Ga0.51In0.49P/GaAs and strained Ga0.51In0.49P/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy by using Si as dopant. Detailed electrical characterization results are presented. The Ga0.5In0.49P/In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs sample yielded dark two-dimensional electron gas densities of 3.75 x 1012 cm-2 (300 K) and 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 (77 K) which are comparable to the highest sheet electron densities reported in AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/InGaAs/InP modulation-doped heterostructures. Persistent photoconductivity was observed in the strained samples only. A 0.797 eV deep level has been detected in the undoped GaInP layers of the structures. Another level, with DLTS peak height dependent on the filling pulse width, has been detected at the interface of the strained samples. Based on the DLTS and Hall effect measurement results, this level, which seems to be the origin of persistent photoconductivity, can be attributed to the strain relaxation related defects. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth of “moth-eye” ZnO nanostructures on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and steel substrates by pulsed laser deposition
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani, Philippe Bove, Michael Molinari, Michel Troyon, Alain Largeteau, Gérard Demazeau, Colin Scott, Gaelle Orsal, Henri-Jean Drouhin, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi C., 1-5 (2013)-- August 6, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, arrays of black-body-like ZnO moth-eye nanostructures were grown on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and high manganese austenitic steel substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nanostructures to be well-crystallised wurtzite ZnO with strong preferential c-axis crystallographic orientation along the growth direction for all the substrates. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies revealed emission characteristic of the ZnO near band edge for all substrates. Such moth-eye nanostructures have a graded effective refractive index and exhibit black-body characteristics. Coatings with these features may offer improvements in photovoltaic and LED performance. Moreover, since ZnO nanostructures can be grown readily on a wide range of substrates it is suggested that such an approach could facilitate growth of GaN-based devices on mismatched and/or technologically important substrates, which may have been inaccessible till present. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent advances of terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8119, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications II, 81190D (September 07, 2011)-- November 7, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz quantum cascade laser (QCLs), however, the maximum operating temperature is still limited below 200 K (without magnetic field). THz QCL based on difference frequency generation (DFG) represents a viable technology for room temperature operation. Recently, we have demonstrated room temperature THz emission (∼ 4 THz) up to 8.5 μW with a power conversion efficiency of 10 μW/W². A dual-period distributed feedback grating is used to filter the mid-infrared spectra in favor of an extremely narrow THz linewidth of 6.6 GHz. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Toward realizing high power semiconductor terahertz laser sources at room temperature
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8023, Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems V: Advance Applications in Industry and Defense, 802302 (May 25, 2011)-- May 25, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers promising applications in science, industry, and military. THz penetration through nonconductors (fabrics, wood, plastic) enables a more efficient way of performing security checks (for example at airports), as illegal drugs and explosives could be detected. Being a non-ionizing radiation, THz radiation is environment-friendly enabling a safer analysis environment than conventional X-ray based techniques. However, the lack of a compact room temperature THz laser source greatly hinders mass deployment of THz systems in security check points and medical centers. In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCLs), with maximum operating temperatures close to 200 K (without magnetic field). However, higher temperature operation is severely limited by a small LO-phonon energy (∼ 36 meV) in this material system. With a much larger LO-phonon energy of ∼ 90 meV, III-Nitrides are promising candidates for room temperature THz lasers. However, realizing high quality material for GaN-based intersubband devices presents a significant challenge. Advances with this approach will be presented. Alternatively, recent demonstration of InP based mid-infrared QCLs with extremely high peak power of 120 W at room temperature opens up the possibility of producing high power THz emission with difference frequency generation through two mid-infrared wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal characteristics and analysis of quantum cascade lasers for biochemical sensing applications
J.S. Yu, H.K. Lee, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Biosensing II, San Diego, CA (August 2-6, 2009), Vol. 7397, p. 739705-1-- August 2, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We studied the thermal characteristics and analysis of InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in terms of internal temperature distribution, heat flux, and thermal conductance from the heat transfer simulation. The heat source densities were obtained from threshold power densities measured experimentally for QCLs under room-temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of a thick electroplated Au around the laser ridges helps increase the heat removal from devices. The two-dimensional anisotropic heat dissipation model was used to analyze the thermal behaviors inside the device. The simulation results were also compared with those estimated from experimental data. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Recent advances in high power mid- and far-wavelength infrared lasers for free space communication
S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Optics East Conference, October 1-4, 2006, Boston, MA Proceedings – Active and Passive Optical Components for Communications VI, Vol. 6389, p. 63890S-1-- October 4, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Link reliability is a significant issue for free space optical links. Inclement weather, such as fog, can seriously reduce the transmission of light through the atmosphere. However, this effect, for some types of fog, is wavelength-dependent. In order to improve link availability in both metro and hostile environments, mid- and far-wavelength infrared diode lasers can be of use. This paper will discuss some of the recent advances in high-power, uncooled quantum cascade lasers and their potential for use in long range and/or highly reliable free space communication links. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Negative and positive luminescence in mid-wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, F. Fuchs, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (12)-- December 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
The quantum efficiency of negative and positive luminescence in binary type-II InAs-GaSb superlattice photodiodes has been investigated in the midinfrared spectral range around the 5-μm wavelength. The negative luminescence efficiency is nearly independent on temperature in the entire range from 220 to 325 K. For infrared diodes with a 2-μm absorbing layer, processed without anti-reflection coating, a negative luminescence efficiency of 45% is found, indicating very efficient minority carrier extraction. The temperature dependent measurements of the quantum efficiency of the positive luminescence enables for the determination of the capture cross section of the Shockley-Read-Hall centers involved in the competing nonradiative recombination. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Cavity Length Effects of High-Temperature High-Power Continuous Wave Characteristics in Quantum-Cascade Lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, J. David, L. Doris, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 83 (25)-- December 22, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the cavity-length dependent high-temperature high-power cw characteristics in λ=6 µm quantum-cascade lasers with a thick electroplated Au top contact layer. For a high-reflectivity (HR) coated 15 µm wide and 3 mm long laser, the cw operation is achieved up to 313 K (40 °C) with an output power of 17 mW. At 298 K, a very high cw output power of 213 mW is obtained for a HR coated 15 µm wide and 4 mm long laser. Thermal resistance is analyzed at temperatures above 283 K for HR coated lasers with different cavities. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Power Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) Grown by GasMBE
M. Razeghi and S. Slivken
SPIE Proceedings, International Conference on Solid State Crystals (ICSSC), Zakopane, Poland, -- October 14, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
This paper is a brief summary of the technological development and state-of-the-art performance of quantum cascade lasers produced at the Centre for Quantum Devices. Laser design will be discussed, as well as experimental details of device fabrication. Recent work has focused on the development of high peak and average power QCLs emitting at room temperature and above. Scaling of the output is demonstrated by increasing the number of emitting regions in the waveguide core. At λ = 9 µm, over 7 W of peak power has been demonstrated at room temperature for a single diode, with an average power of 300 mW at 6% duty cycle. At shorter wavelengths, laser development includes the use of highly strain-balanced heterostructures in order to maintain a high conduction band offset and minimize leakage current. At λ = 6 µm, utilizing a high reflective coating and epilayer-down mounting of the laser, we have demonstrated 225 mW of average power from a single facet at room temperature. Lastly, these results are put in perspective of other reported results and possible future directions are discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Performance InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes for the Very Long Wavelength Infrared Range
H. Mohseni, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, Y.S. Park
Applied Physics Letters 78 (15)-- April 9, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of high-performance p-i-n photodiodes based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices with 50% cut-off wavelength λc = 16 μm operating at 80 K. Material is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates with excellent crystal quality as evidenced by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The processed devices show a current responsivity of 3.5 A/W at 80 K leading to a detectivity of ∼ 1.51×1010 cm·Hz½/W. The quantum efficiency of these devices is about 35% which is comparable to HgCdTe detectors with a similar active layer thickness. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength
D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X.H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 76 (4)-- January 24, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the fabrication and characterization of AlxGa1–xN photodiodes (x~0.70) grown on sapphire by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The peak responsivity for –5 V bias is 0.11 A/W at 232 nm, corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90%. The device response drops four orders of magnitude by 275 nm and remains at low response for the entire near-ultraviolet and visible spectrum. Improvements were made to the device design including a semitransparent Ni/Au contact layer and a GaN:Mg cap layer, which dramatically increased device response by enhancing the carrier collection efficiency. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Responsivity and Noise Performance of InGaAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, T. David, G. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
Dark current nose measurements were carried out between 10 and 104 Hz at T = 80K on two InGaAs/InP quantum well IR photo detectors (QWIPs) designed for 8 μm IR detection. Using the measured noise data, we have calculated the thermal generation rate, bias-dependent gain, electron trapping probability, and electron diffusion length. The calculated thermal generation rate is similar to AlGaAs/GaAs QWIPs with similar peak wavelengths, but the gain is 50X larger, indicating improved transport and carrier lifetime are obtained in the binary InP barriers. As a result, a large responsivity of 7.5 A/W at 5V bias and detectivity of 5 X 1011 cm·Hz½/W at 1.2 V bias were measured for the InGaAs/InP QWIPs at T = 80K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Optical losses of Al-free lasers for λ = 0.808 and 0.98 μm
H. Yi, J. Diaz, B. Lane, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (20)-- November 11, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
In this work, we study the origin of the optical losses in Al‐free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=0.808 μm) and InGaAs/GaAs/InGaP (λ=0.980 μm) lasers. Theoretical modeling and the experimental results indicate that the scattering of the laser beam by refractive index fluctuation in the alloys is the dominant loss in our lasers, and the loss due to the free‐carrier absorption and scattering by interface roughness are negligible. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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