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1.  Recent advances of terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8119, Terahertz Emitters, Receivers, and Applications II, 81190D (September 07, 2011)-- November 7, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz quantum cascade laser (QCLs), however, the maximum operating temperature is still limited below 200 K (without magnetic field). THz QCL based on difference frequency generation (DFG) represents a viable technology for room temperature operation. Recently, we have demonstrated room temperature THz emission (∼ 4 THz) up to 8.5 μW with a power conversion efficiency of 10 μW/W². A dual-period distributed feedback grating is used to filter the mid-infrared spectra in favor of an extremely narrow THz linewidth of 6.6 GHz. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices
M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek and R. McClintock
IEEE Photonics Society 23rd Annual Meeting, November 7-10, 2010, Denver, CO, Proceedings, p. 351-352-- January 20, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
III-nitride optoelectronic devices are discussed. Ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices are reported. Demonstration of single photon detection efficiencies of 33% in the ultraviolet regime, intersubband energy level as low as in the mid-infrared regime, and GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with negative resistance of 67 Ω are demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  InP-based quantum-dot infrared photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high temperature imaging
S. Tsao, H. Lim, H. Seo, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 936-941-- June 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor depositon. The detectivity was 6 x 1010cm·Hz1/2·W-1 at 150 K and a bias of 5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.0 micron and a quantum efficiency of 48%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature. A 320 x 256 middle wavelength infrared focal plane array operating at temperatures up to 200 K was also demonstrated. The focal plane array had 34 mA/W responsivity, 1.1% conversion efficiency, and noise equivalent temperature difference of 344 mK at 120 K operating temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Dark current suppression in Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice long wavelength infrared photodiodes with M-structure barrier
B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, P.Y. Delaunay, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 16, p. 163511-1-- October 15, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
We presented an alternative design of Type-II superlattice photodiodes with the insertion of a mid-wavelength infrared M-structure AlSb/GaSb/InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattice for the reduction of dark current. The M-structure superlattice has a larger carrier effective mass and a greater band discontinuity as compared to the standard Type-II superlattices at the valence band. It acts as an effective medium that weakens the diffusion and tunneling transport at the depletion region. As a result, a 10.5 µm cutoff Type-II superlattice with 500 nm M-superlattice barrier exhibited a R0A of 200 cm2 at 77 K, approximately one order of magnitude higher than the design without the barrier. The quantum efficiency of such structures does not show dependence on either barrier thickness or applied bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High operability 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1416, p. 56-58_NGS15 Conf_Blacksburg, VA_Aug 1-5, 2011-- December 31, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Fabrication and characterization of a high performance 1024×1024 long wavelength infrared type‐II superlattice focal plane array are described. The FPA performs imaging at a continous rate of 15.00 frames/sec. Each pixel has pitch of 18μm with a fill factor of 71.31%. It demonstrates excellent operability of 95.8% and 97.4% at 81 and 68K operation temperature. The external quantum efficiency is ∼81% without any antireflective coating. Using F∕2 optics and an integration time of 0.13ms, the FPA exhibits an NEDT as low as 27 and 19mK at operating temperatures of 81 and 68K respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors
A. Hood, Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi, M. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 316-- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Leakage currents limit the operation of high performance Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode technology. Surface leakage current becomes a dominant limiting factor, especially at the scale of a focal plane array pixel (< 25 µm) and must be addressed. A reduction of the surface state density, unpinning the Fermi level at the surface, and appropriate termination of the semiconductor crystal are all aims of effective passivation. Recent work in the passivation of Type-II InAs\GaSb superlattice photodetectors with aqueous sulfur-based solutions has resulted in increased R0A products and reduced dark current densities by reducing the surface trap density. Additionally, photoluminescence of similarly passivated Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice and InAs GaSb bulk material will be discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Beam Steering in High-Power CW Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, C.S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J.R. Meyer, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 41 (6)-- June 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the light-current (L-I), spectral, and far-field characteristics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) with seven different wavelengths in the λ=4.3 to 6.3 μm range. In continuous-wave (CW) mode, the narrow-stripe (≈13 μm) epitaxial- side-up devices operated at temperatures up to 340 K, while at 295 K the CW output power was as high as 640 mW with a wallplug efficiency of 4.5%. All devices with λ≥4.7 μm achieved room-temperature CW operation, and at T=200 K several produced powers exceeding 1 W with ≈10% wallplug efficiency. The data indicated both spectral and spatial instabilities of the optical modes. For example, minor variations of the current often produced nonmonotonic hopping between spectra with envelopes as narrow as 5-10 nm or as broad as 200-250 nm. Bistable beam steering, by far-field angles of up to ±12° from the facet normal, also occurred, although even in extreme cases the beam quality never became worse than twice the diffraction limit. The observed steering is consistent with a theory for interference and beating between the two lowest order lateral modes. We also describe simulations of a wide-stripe photonic-crystal distributed-feedback QCL, which based on the current material quality is projected to emit multiple watts of CW power into a single-mode beam at T=200 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High Power 3-12 μm Infrared Lasers: Recent Improvements and Future Trends
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, and Y.S. Park
Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 11 (2-3)-- October 1, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
In this paper, we discuss the progress of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Room temperature QCL operation has been reported for lasers emitting between 5-11 μm, with 9-11 μm lasers operating up to 425 K. Laser technology for the 3-5 μm range takes advantage of a strain-balanced active layer design. We also demonstrate record room temperature peak output powers at 9 and 11 μm (2.5 and 1 W, respectively) as well as record low 80K threshold current densities (250 A/cm²) for some laser designs. Preliminary distributed feedback (DFB) results are also presented and exhibit single mode operation for 9 μm lasers at room temperature. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Toward realizing high power semiconductor terahertz laser sources at room temperature
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8023, Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems V: Advance Applications in Industry and Defense, 802302 (May 25, 2011)-- May 25, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers promising applications in science, industry, and military. THz penetration through nonconductors (fabrics, wood, plastic) enables a more efficient way of performing security checks (for example at airports), as illegal drugs and explosives could be detected. Being a non-ionizing radiation, THz radiation is environment-friendly enabling a safer analysis environment than conventional X-ray based techniques. However, the lack of a compact room temperature THz laser source greatly hinders mass deployment of THz systems in security check points and medical centers. In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCLs), with maximum operating temperatures close to 200 K (without magnetic field). However, higher temperature operation is severely limited by a small LO-phonon energy (∼ 36 meV) in this material system. With a much larger LO-phonon energy of ∼ 90 meV, III-Nitrides are promising candidates for room temperature THz lasers. However, realizing high quality material for GaN-based intersubband devices presents a significant challenge. Advances with this approach will be presented. Alternatively, recent demonstration of InP based mid-infrared QCLs with extremely high peak power of 120 W at room temperature opens up the possibility of producing high power THz emission with difference frequency generation through two mid-infrared wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From Ultraviolet Toward Terahertz
M. Razeghi
IEEE Photonics Journal-Breakthroughs in Photonics 2010, Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 263-267-- April 26, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We review III-Nitride optoelectronic device technologies with an emphasis on recent breakthroughs. We start with a brief summary of historical accomplishments and then report the state-of-the-art in three key spectral regimes: (1) Ultraviolet (AlGaN-based avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors, focal plane arrays, and light emitting diodes), (2) Visible (InGaN-based solid state lighting, lasers, and solar cells), and (3) Near-, mid-infrared, and terahertz (AlGaN/GaN-based gap-engineered intersubband devices). We also describe future trends in III-Nitride optoelectronic devices. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High operating temperature 320 x 256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector
S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology-- May 28, 2007 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Thermal conductivity tensors of the cladding and active layers of antimonide infrared lasers and detectors
Chuanle Zhou, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, A. Hoang, A. Haddadi, M. Razeghi, and M. Grayson
Optical Materials Express. 2013;3(10):1632-1640.-- October 1, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
The in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the cladding layers and active quantum wells of interband cascade lasers and type-II superlattice infrared detector are measured by the 2-wire 3ω method. The layers investigated include InAs/AlSb superlattice cladding layers, InAs/GaInSb/InAs/AlSb W-active quantum wells, an InAs/GaSb superlattice absorber, an InAs/GaSb/AlSb M-structure, and an AlAsSb digital alloy. The in-plane thermal conductivity of the InAs/AlSb superlattice is 4-5 times higher than the cross-plane value. The isotropic thermal conductivity of the AlAsSb digital alloy matches a theoretical expectation, but it is one order of magnitude lower than the only previously-reported experimental value. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Temperature dependence of the dark current and activation energy at avalanche onset of GaN Avalanche Photodiodes
M.P. Ulmer, E. Cicek, R. McClintock, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8460, p. 84601G-1-- August 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a study of the performance of an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a function of temperature from 564 K to 74 K. The dark current at avalanche onset decreases from 564 K to 74 K by approximately a factor of 125 and from 300 K to 74K the dark current at avalanche offset is reduced by a factor of about 10. The drop would have been considerably larger if the activation energy at avalanche onset (Ea) did not also decrease with decreasing temperature. These data give us insights into how to improve the single-photon counting performance of a GaN based ADP. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Investigation of the factors influencing nanostructure array growth by PLD towards reproducible wafer-scale growth
Vinod E. Sandana; David. J. Rogers; Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani; Philippe Bove; Manijeh Razeghi
physica status solidi (a) Applications and Materials Science. Volume 211, Issue 2, pages 449–454, (February 2014)-- January 14, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
The growth of catalyst-free ZnO nanostructure arrays on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition was investigated. Without an underlayer, randomly oriented, micron-scale structures were obtained. Introduction of a c-axis oriented ZnO underlayer resulted in denser arrays of vertically oriented nanostructures with either tapering, vertical-walled or broadening forms, depending on background Ar pressure. Nanostructure pitch seemed to be determined by underlayer grain size while nanostructure widths could be narrowed from ∼100–500 to ∼10–50 nm by a 50 °C increase in growth temperature. A dimpled underlayer topography correlated with the moth-eye type arrays while a more granular surface was linked to vertically walled nanocolumns. Between-wafer reproducibility was demonstrated for both moth-eye and vertical nanocolumn arrays. Broadening nanostructures proved difficult to replicate, however. Full 2 inch wafer coverage was obtained by rastering the target with the laser beam. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High power photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers emitting at 4.5 micron
B. Gokden, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760806-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers possess very small linewidth enhancement factor, which makes them very prominent candidates for realization of high power, nearly diffraction limited and single mode photonic crystal distributed feedback broad area lasers in the mid-infrared frequencies. In this paper, we present room temperature operation of a two dimensional photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.5 µm. peak power up to ~0.9 W per facet is obtained from a 2 mm long laser with 100 µm cavity width at room temperature. The observed spectrum is single mode with a very narrow linewidth. Far-field profile has nearly diffraction limited single lobe with full width at half maximum of 3.5 degree normal to the facet. The mode selection and power output relationships are experimentally established with respect to different cavity lengths for photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-responsivity GaInAs/InP Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
M. Erdtmann, A. Matlis, C. Jelen, M. Razeghi, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
We have studied the dependence of the well doping density in n-type GaInAs/InP quantum well IR photodetectors (QWIPs) grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three identical GaInAs/InP QWIP structures were grown with well sheet carrier densities of 1x1011 cm-2, 3x1011 cm-2, and 10x1011 cm-2; all three samples had very sharp spectral response at λ equals 9.0 μm. We find that there is a large sensitivity of responsivity, dark current, noise current, and detectivity with the well doping density. Measurements revealed that the lowest-doped samples had an extremely low responsivity relative to the doping concentration while the highest-doped sample had an excessively high dark current relative to doping. The middle-doped sample yielded the optimal results. This QWIP had a responsivity of 33.2 A/W and operated with a detectivity of 3.5x1010 cm·Hz½·W-1 at a bias of 0.75 V and temperature of 80 K. This responsivity is the highest value reported for any QWIP in the (lambda) equals 8-9 &mus;m range. Analysis is also presented explaining the dependence of the measured QWIP parameters to well doping density. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High-Power CW Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
J.R. Meyer, W.W. Bewley, J.R. Lindle, I. Vurgaftman, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, -- January 22, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the cw operation of quantum cascade lasers that do not require cryogenic cooling and emit at λ = 4.7-6.2 µm. At 200 K, more than 1 W of output power is obtained from 12-µm-wide stripes, with a wall-plug efficiency (ηwall) near 10%. Room-temperature cw operation has also been demonstrated, with a maximum output power of 640 mW (ηwall = 4.5%) at 6 µm and 260 mW (ηwall = 2.3%) at 4.8 µm. Far-field characterization indicates that whereas the beam quality remains close to the diffraction limit in all of the tested lasers, in the devices emitting at 6.2 µm the beam tends to steer by as much as 5-10° degrees in either direction with varying temperature and pump current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance quantum cascade lasers (~11 μm) operating at high temperature (T>= 425K)
A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, S. Slivken, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 78 (4)-- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report record-low threshold current density and high output power for λ ∼ 11 μm Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers operating up to 425 K. The threshold current density is 1.1, 3.83, and 7.08 kA/cm² at 80, 300, and 425 K, respectively, for 5 μs pulses at a 200 Hz repetition rate. The cavity length is 3 mm with a stripe width of 20 μm. The maximum peak output power per facet is 1 W at 80 K, 0.5 W at 300 K, and more than 75 mW at 425 K. The characteristic temperature of these lasers is 174 K between 80 and 300 K and 218 K in the range of 300–425 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  A detailed analysis of carrier transport in InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
C. Besikci, Y.H. Choi, G. Labeyrie, E. Bigan and M. Razeghi with J.B. Cohen, J. Carsello, and V.P. Dravid
Journal of Applied Physics 76 (10)-- November 15, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
InAs0.3Sb0.7 layers with mirrorlike morphology have been grown on GaAs substrates by low‐pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A room‐temperature electron Hall mobility of 2×104 cm²/V· s has been obtained for a 2 μm thick layer. Low‐temperature resistivity of the layers depended on TMIn flow rate and layer thickness. Hall mobility decreased monotonically with decreasing temperature below 300 K. A 77 K conductivity profile has shown an anomalous increase in the sample conductivity with decreasing thickness except in the near vicinity of the heterointerface. In order to interpret the experimental data, the effects of different scattering mechanisms on carrier mobility have been calculated, and the influences of the lattice mismatch and surface conduction on the Hall measurements have been investigated by applying a three‐layer Hall‐effect model. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that the combined effects of the dislocations generated by the large lattice mismatch and strong surface inversion may lead to deceptive Hall measurements by reflecting typical n‐type behavior for a p‐type sample, and the measured carrier concentration may considerably be affected by the surface conduction up to near room temperature. A quantitative analysis of dislocation scattering has shown significant degradation in electron mobility for dislocation densities above 107 cm−2. The effects of dislocation scattering on hole mobility have been found to be less severe. It has also been observed that there is a critical epilayer thickness (∼1 μm) below which the surface electron mobility is limited by dislocation scattering. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Comparison of ultraviolet APDs grown on free-standing GaN and sapphire substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801P, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
There is a need for semiconductor-based ultraviolet photodetectors to support avalanche gain in order to realize better performance andmore effective compete with existing technologies. Wide bandgap III-Nitride semiconductors are the promising material system for the development of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that could be a viable alternative to current bulky UV detectors such as photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in IIINitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Noise analysis in Type-II InAs/GaSb Focal Plane Arrays
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 14-- October 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Growth and characterization of InSbBi for long wavelength infrared photodetectors
J.J. Lee, J.D. Kim, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 70 (24)-- June 16, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
The epitaxial growth of InSbBi ternary alloys by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is reported on. X-ray diffraction spectra showed well resolved peaks of InSbBi and InSb films. Bi incorporation was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Photoresponse spectrum up to 9.3 μm which corresponds to 0.13 eV energy band gap has been measured in a sample with Bi composition of 5.8 at.% at 77 K. Electron mobility at room temperature ranges from 44 100 to 4910 cm²/V·s as Bi composition increases. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Quantum Sensing Using Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice for Infrared Detection
M. Razeghi, A. Gin, Y. Wei, J. Bae, and J. Nah
Microelectronics Journal, 34 (5-8)-- May 1, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
Large, regular arrays of bulk GaSb and InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice pillars have been fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry etching. A 2.5 keV electron beam lithography system and metal evaporation are used to form the Au mask on superlattice and bulk substrates. Dry etching of these materials has been developed with BCl3:Ar, CH4:H2:Ar and cyclic CH4:H2:Ar/O2 plasmas. Etch temperatures were varied from 20 to 150 °C. The diameter of the superlattice pillars was below 50 nm with regular 200 nm spacing. Bulk GaSb pillars were etched with diameters below 20 nm. Areas of dense nanopillars as large as 500 μm×500 μm were fabricated. The best height/diameter aspect ratio was approximately 10:1. To date, these are the smallest diameter III–V superlattice pillar structures reported, and the first nanopillars in the InAs/GaSb material system. The basic theory of these devices and surface passivation with SiO2 and Si3N4 thin films has also been discussed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
1.  Beryllium compensation doping of InAs/GaSb infrared superlattice photodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, A. Hood, M. Razeghi and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 143507-1-- October 1, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with dark current measurements on InAs/GaSb long wavelength infrared superlattice photodiodes grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaSb substrates are reported. By varying the beryllium concentration in the InAs layer of the active region, the residually n-type superlattice is compensated to become slightly p-type. By adjusting the doping, the dominant dark current mechanism can be varied from diffusion to Zener tunneling. Minimization of the dark current leads to an increase of the zero-bias differential resistance from less than 4 to 32 cm2 for a 100% cutoff of 12.05 µm [reprint (PDF)]
 

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