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4.  Core-shell GaN-ZnO Moth-eye Nanostructure Arrays Grown on a-SiO2/Si (111) as a basis for Improved InGaN-based Photovoltaics and LEDs
D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, A. Ougazzaden, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, M. Molinari, M. Troyon, M. Peres, Manuel J. Soares, A.J. Neves, T. Monteiro, D. McGrouther, J.N. Chapman, H.-J. Drouhin, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications (2015)-- March 30, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, ZnO moth-eye-like nanoarrays were grown by catalyst-free pulsed laser deposition on a-SiO2/Si (111) substrates. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies indicated that nanostructures were highly c-axis oriented wurtzite ZnO with strong near band edge emission. The nanostructures were used as templates for the growth of non-polar GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. XRD, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and CL revealed ZnO encapsulated with GaN, without evidence of ZnO back-etching. XRD showed compressive epitaxial strain in the GaN, which is conducive to stabilization of the higher indium contents required for more efficient green light emitting diode (LED) and photovoltaic (PV) operation. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements showed a relative reflectance of less than 1% over the wavelength range of 400–720 nm at all angles up to 60°. The superior black-body performance of this moth-eye-like structure would boost LED light extraction and PV anti-reflection performance compared with existing planar or nanowire LED and PV morphologies. The enhancement in core conductivity, provided by the ZnO, would also improve current distribution and increase the effective junction area compared with nanowire devices based solely on GaN. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Widely tuned room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference-frequency generation
Q.Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 25, p. 251121-1-- December 17, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate room temperature THz quantum cascade laser sources with a broad spectral coverage based on intracavity difference-frequency generation. Two mid-infrared active cores based on the single-phonon resonance scheme are designed with a THz nonlinearity specially optimized at the high operating fields that correspond to the highest mid-infrared output powers. A Čerenkov phase-matching scheme along with integrated dual-period distributed feedback gratings are used for efficient THz extraction and spectral purification. Single mode emissions from 1.0 to 4.6 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio and output power up to 40 dB and 32 μW are obtained, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  ZnO nanorod electrodes for hydrogen evolution and storage
Harinipriya, S.; Usmani, B.; Rogers, D. J.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Lusson, A.; Bove, P.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Razeghi, M.
Proc. SPIE 8263, Oxide-based Materials and Devices III, 82631Y (February 9, 2012)-- February 9, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Due to the attractive combination of a relatively high specific heat of combustion with a large specific energy capacity, molecular hydrogen (H2) is being investigated for use as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy-efficient H2 production and safe storage remain key technical obstacles to implementation of an H2 based economy, however. ZnO has been investigated for use as an alternative photocatalytic electrode to TiO2 for solarpowered photo-electro-chemical (PEC) electrolysis, in which H2 is generated by direct water splitting in a cell with a metal cathode and a semiconducting anode. In this investigation, ZnO NR grown on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition were investigated for use as electrodes in the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The electrochemical potential and Fermi energy of the ZnO NR were estimated from the electrochemical current density in acid and alkaline solutions via phenomenological thermodynamic analysis. As well as acting as an effective electrocalytic cathode, the ZnO NR appear to operate as a hydrogen reservoir. These results indicate that the ZnO NR have excellent potential for the storage of evolved H2. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Minority electron unipolar photodetectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb/AlSb superlattices for very long wavelength infrared detection
B.M. Nguyen, S. Abdollahi Pour, S. Bogdanov and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 760825-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
The bandstructure tunability of Type-II antimonide-based superlattices has been significantly enhanced since the introduction of the M-structure superlattice, resulting in significant improvements of Type-II superlattice infrared detectors. By using M-structure, we developed the pMp design, a novel infrared photodetector architecture that inherits the advantages of traditional photoconductive and photovoltaic devices. This minority electron unipolar device consists of an M-structure barrier layer blocking the transport of majority holes in a p-type semiconductor, resulting in an electrical transport due to minority carriers with low current density. Applied for the very long wavelength detection, at 77K, a 14µm cutoff detector exhibits a dark current 3.3 mA·cm−2, a photoresponsivity of 1.4 A/W at 50mV bias and the associated shot-noise detectivity of 4x1010 Jones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Performance enhancement of GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with p-type delta-doping
C. Bayram, J.L. Pau, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 24, p. 241103-1-- June 16, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality delta-doped p-GaN is used as a means of improving the performance of back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Devices with delta-doped p-GaN show consistently lower leakage current and lower breakdown voltage than those with bulk p-GaN. APDs with delta-doped p-GaN also achieve a maximum multiplication gain of 5.1×104, more than 50 times higher than that obtained in devices with bulk p-GaN. The better device performance of APDs with delta-doped p-GaN is attributed to the higher structural quality of the p-GaN layer achieved via delta-doping. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Hole-initiated multiplication in back-illuminated GaN avalanche photodiodes
R. McClintock, J.L. Pau, K. Minder, C. Bayram, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90 No. 14, p. 141112-1-- April 2, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Avalanche p-i-n photodiodes were fabricated on AlN templates for back illumination. Structures with different intrinsic layer thicknesses were tested. A critical electric field of 2.73 MV/cm was estimated from the variation of the breakdown voltage with thickness. From the device response under back and front illumination and the consequent selective injection of holes and electrons in the junction, ionization coefficients were obtained for GaN. The hole ionization coefficient was found to be higher than the electron ionization coefficient as predicted by theory. Excess multiplication noise factors were also calculated for back and front illumination, and indicated a higher noise contribution for electron injection. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Avalanche multiplication in AlGaN based solar-blind photodetectors
R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 87 (24)-- December 12, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Avalanche multiplication has been observed in solar-blind AlGaN-based p-i-n photodiodes. Upon ultraviolet illumination, the optical gain shows a soft breakdown starting at relatively low electric fields, eventually saturating without showing a Geiger mode breakdown. The devices achieve a maximum optical gain of 700 at a reverse bias of 60 V. By modeling the device, it is found that this corresponds to an electric-field strength of 1.7 MV/cm. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth of Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5359, pp. 400-- January 25, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate high power AlGaN based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with an emission wavelength of 280 nm using an asymmetric single quantum well active layer configuration on top of a high-quality AlGaN/AlN template layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). An output power of 1.8 mW at a pulsed current of 400 mA was achieved for a single 300 µm × 300 µm diode. This device reached a high peak external quantum efficiency of 0.24% at 40 mA. An array of four diodes produced 6.5 mW at 880 mA of pulsed current. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High performance quantum cascade lasers (~11 μm) operating at high temperature (T>= 425K)
A. Tahraoui, A. Matlis, S. Slivken, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 78 (4)-- January 22, 2001 ...[Visit Journal]
We report record-low threshold current density and high output power for λ ∼ 11 μm Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers operating up to 425 K. The threshold current density is 1.1, 3.83, and 7.08 kA/cm² at 80, 300, and 425 K, respectively, for 5 μs pulses at a 200 Hz repetition rate. The cavity length is 3 mm with a stripe width of 20 μm. The maximum peak output power per facet is 1 W at 80 K, 0.5 W at 300 K, and more than 75 mW at 425 K. The characteristic temperature of these lasers is 174 K between 80 and 300 K and 218 K in the range of 300–425 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  LEO of III-Nitride on Al2O3 and Si Substrates
M. Razeghi, P. Kung, P. Sandvik, K. Mi, X. Zhang, V.P. Dravid, J. Freitas, and A. Saxler
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 26, 2000 ...[Visit Journal]
Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) has recently become the method of choice to reduce the density of dislocations in heteroepitaxial GaN thin films, and is thus expected to lead to enhanced performance devices. We present here the LEO growth and characterization of GaN films by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Various substrates were used, including basal plane sapphire and oriented Si substrates. The steps in the LEO growth technology will be briefly reviewed. The characterization results will be discussed in detail. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were assessed through scanning, atomic and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning cathodoluminenscence measurements. Single-step and double- step LEO GaN was achieved on sapphire. Similarly high quality LEO grown GaN films were obtained on sapphire and silicon substrates. Clear and dramatic reduction in the density of defects are observed in LEO grown materials using the various characterization techniques mentioned previously. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Schottky MSM Photodetectors on GaN Films Grown on Sapphire by Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth
P. Kung, D. Walker, P. Sandvik, M. Hamilton, J. Diaz, I.H. Lee and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth and characterization of Schottky based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on lateral epitaxially overgrown GaN films. The lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN was carried out on basal plane sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and exhibited lateral growth rates more than 5 times as high as vertical growth rates. The spectral responsivity, the dependence on bias voltage, on incident optical power, and the time response of these photodetectors have been characterized. Two detector orientations were investigated: one with the interdigitated finger pattern parallel and the other perpendicular to the underlying SiOx mask stripes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattices for long-wavelength infrared detectors
H. Mohseni, E. Michel, M. Razeghi, W. Mitchel, and G. Brown
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 28, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on semi- insulating GaAs substrate for long wavelength IR detectors. Photoconductive detectors fabricated from the superlattices showed 80% cut-off at 11.6 μm and peak responsivity of 6.5 V/W with Johnson noise limited detectivity of 2.36 x 109 cm·Hz½/W at 10.7 μm at 78 K. The responsivity decreases at higher temperatures with a T-2 behavior rather than exponential decay, and at room temperature the responsivity is about 660 mV/W at 11 μm. Lower Auger recombination rate in this system provides comparable detectivity to the best HgCdTe detectors at 300K. Higher uniformity over large areas, simpler growth and the possibility of having read-out circuits in the same GaAs chip are the advantages of this system over HgCdTe detectors for near room temperature operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Quantum Hall liquid-to-insulator transition in In1-xGaxAs/InP heterostructures
W. Pan, D. Shahar, D.C. Tsui, H.P. Wei, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B 55 (23)-- June 15, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a temperature- and current-scaling study of the quantum Hall liquid-to-insulator transition in an In1-xGaxAs/InP heterostructure. When the magnetic field is at the critical field Bc, ρxx=0.86h/e². Furthermore, the transport near Bc scales as |B- Bc|T with κ=0.45±0.05, and as |B- Bc|I-b with b=0.23±0.05. The latter can be due to phonon emission in a dirty piezoelectric medium, or can be the consequence of critical behavior near Bc, within which z=1.0±0.1 and ν=2.1±0.3 are obtained from our data. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent advances in III-Nitride materials, characterization and device applications
M. Razeghi, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, K.Y. Lim, and K.S. Kim
SPIE Conference: Solid State Crystals in Optoelectronics and Semiconductor Technology; Proceedings 3179-- October 7, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
High-quality AlN, GaN, AlGaN have been grown on sapphire substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The x-ray rocking curve of AlN and GaN were 100 arcsecs and 30 arcsecs respectively with Pendelloesung oscillations, which are the best reported to date. GaN with high crystallinity simultaneously exhibited high optical and electrical quality. Photoluminescence linewidth of GaN at 77K was as low as 17 meV, which is the best reported to date. Si-doped GaN had a mobility higher than 300 cm²/V·s. GaN has been also successfully grown on LiGaO2 substrate with LP-MOCVD for the first time. AlGaN for the entire composition range has been grown. These layers exhibited the lowest x-ray FWHM reported to date. The excellent optical quality of these layers have been characterized by room temperature UV transmission and photoluminescence. N-type doping of AlGaN with Si has ben achieved up to 60 percent Al with mobility as high as 78 cm²/V·s. AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN superlattice with atomically sharp interface have been demonstrated. Optically-pumped stimulated emission in GaN:Ge and GaN:Si has been observed with threshold optical power density as low as 0.4 MW/cm². AlGaN photoconductors with cut-off wavelengths from 200 nm to 365 nm have been achieved for the first time. GaN p-n junction photovoltaic detector with very selective photoresponse have been demonstrated and theoretically modeled. Ti/AlN/Si metal-insulator- semiconductor capacitor with high capacitance-voltage performances at both low and high frequencies and low interface trap level density have been demonstrated for the first time in this material system. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Kinetics of photoconductivity in n-type GaN photodetector
P. Kung, X. Zhang, D. Walker, A. Saxler, J. Piotrowski, A. Rogalski, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 67 (25)-- December 18, 1995 ...[Visit Journal]
High-quality ultraviolet photoconductive detectors have been fabricated using GaN layers grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (11⋅0) sapphire substrates. The spectral responsivity remained nearly constant for wavelengths from 200 to 365 nm and dropped sharply by almost three orders of magnitude for wavelengths longer than 365 nm. The kinetics of the photoconductivity have been studied by the measurements of the frequency‐dependent photoresponse and photoconductivity decay. Strongly sublinear response and excitation‐dependent response time have been observed even at relatively low excitation levels. This can be attributed to redistribution of the charge carriers with increased excitation level. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Transport properties in n-type InSb films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
S.N. Song, J.B. Ketterson, Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (7)-- August 16, 1993 ...[Visit Journal]
We have measured the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall mobility and transverse magnetoresistance in n-type InSb films epitaxially grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The films show a giant magnetoresistance: e.g., at 240 K the resistivity increases over 20 times at a magnetic field of 5 T; the low field coefficient of resistivity at 77 K is as high as 47.5 μ·Ω· cm/G. The Hall mobility decreases with magnetic field and saturates at higher fields. By taking the interface carrier transport into account, the observed field dependence of the Hall mobility and magnetoresistance may be understood based on a two-layer model. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Interface roughness scattering in thin, undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells
W. C. Mitchel, G.J. Brown, I. Lo, S. Elhamri, M. Aboujja, K. Ravindran, R.S. Newrock, M. Razeghi, and X. He
Applied Physics Letters 65 (12)-- September 19, 1994 ...[Visit Journal]
Electronic transport properties of very thin undoped GaInP/GaAs quantum wells have been measured by temperature dependent low field Hall effect and by Shubnikov–de Haas effect. Strong Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations were observed after increasing the electron concentration via the persistent photocurrent effect. Low temperature mobilities of up to 70 ,000 cm²/V· s at carrier concentrations of 6.5×1011 cm−2 were observed in a 20 Å quantum well. The results are compared with the theory of interface roughness scattering which indicates extremely smooth interfaces; however, discrepancies between experiment and theory are observed. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si substrate
E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181113 (2013)-- October 30, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on AlxGa1−xN-based solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) grown on Si(111) substrate. First, Si(111) substrate is patterned, and then metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is implemented for a fully-coalesced ∼8.5 μm AlN template layer via a pulsed atomic layer epitaxial growth technique. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on the high quality AlN template layer. After processing and implementation of Si(111) substrate removal, the optical and electrical characteristic of PDs are studied. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array; at the peak detection wavelength of 290 nm, 625 μm² area PD showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency and responsivity of ∼7% and 18.3 mA/W, respectively, with a UV and visible rejection ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density below 1.6 × 10−8 A/cm² at 10 V reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of λ ~ 3-3.2 μm quantum cascade lasers
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Tsao, S. Nida, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 24, p. 241110-1-- December 10, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers emitting at wavelengths of 3–3.2 μm in the InP-based material system. The laser core consists of GaInAs/AlInAs using strain balancing technique. In room temperature pulsed mode operation, threshold current densities of 1.66 kA∕cm² and 1.97 kA∕cm², and characteristic temperatures (T0) of 108 K and 102 K, are obtained for the devices emitting at 3.2 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Room temperature continuous wave operation is achieved at both wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Low frequency noise in 1024 x 1024 long wavelength infrared focal plane array base on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
A. Haddadi, S.R. Darvish, G. Chen, A.M. Hoang, B.M. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 82680X-- January 22, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
Recently, the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) material platform is considered as a potential alternative for HgCdTe technology in long wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging. This is due to the incredible growth in the understanding of its material properties and improvement of device processing which leads to design and fabrication of better devices. In this paper, we report electrical low frequency noise measurement on a high performance type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice 1024×1024 LWIR focal plane array. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Toward realizing high power semiconductor terahertz laser sources at room temperature
Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8023, Terahertz Physics, Devices, and Systems V: Advance Applications in Industry and Defense, 802302 (May 25, 2011)-- May 25, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
The terahertz (THz) spectral range offers promising applications in science, industry, and military. THz penetration through nonconductors (fabrics, wood, plastic) enables a more efficient way of performing security checks (for example at airports), as illegal drugs and explosives could be detected. Being a non-ionizing radiation, THz radiation is environment-friendly enabling a safer analysis environment than conventional X-ray based techniques. However, the lack of a compact room temperature THz laser source greatly hinders mass deployment of THz systems in security check points and medical centers. In the past decade, tremendous development has been made in GaAs/AlGaAs based THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCLs), with maximum operating temperatures close to 200 K (without magnetic field). However, higher temperature operation is severely limited by a small LO-phonon energy (∼ 36 meV) in this material system. With a much larger LO-phonon energy of ∼ 90 meV, III-Nitrides are promising candidates for room temperature THz lasers. However, realizing high quality material for GaN-based intersubband devices presents a significant challenge. Advances with this approach will be presented. Alternatively, recent demonstration of InP based mid-infrared QCLs with extremely high peak power of 120 W at room temperature opens up the possibility of producing high power THz emission with difference frequency generation through two mid-infrared wavelengths. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Photoluminescence characteristics of polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN superlattices
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, P. Lavenus, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 12, p. 121918-1-- September 20, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
High quality Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices (SLs) with various (GaN) well widths (1.6 to 6.4 nm) have been grown on polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence (PL) studies of SLs have been carried out to determine and correlate effects of well width and polarization field on the room-temperature PL characteristics. A theoretical model was applied to explain PL energy-dependency on well width and crystalline orientation taking into account internal electric field for polar substrate. Absence of induced-internal electric field in nonpolar SLs was confirmed by stable PL peak energy and stronger PL intensity as a function of excitation power density than polar ones. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High power quantum cascade lasers
M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, and S.R. Darvish
New Journal of Physics (NJP), Volume 11, p. 125017-- December 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent state-of-art quantum cascade laser results at wavelengths around 4.8 and 10 μm. At 4.8 μm, a room temperature wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 22 and 15.5% are obtained in pulsed mode and continuous wave (cw) mode, respectively. Room temperature cw output power reaches 3.4 W. The same laser design is able to reach a WPE of 36% at 120 K in pulsed mode. At 10 μm, room temperature average power of 2.2 W and cw power of 0.62 W are obtained. We also explore lasers utilizing the photonic crystal distributed feedback mechanism, and we demonstrate up to 12 W peak power operation at three different wavelengths around 4.7 μm with a waveguide width of 100 μm and diffraction limited beam quality. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Materials characterization of n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg/c-Al(2)O(3) UV LEDs grown by pulsed laser deposition and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
D. Rogers, F.H. Teherani, P. Kung, K. Minder, and M. Razeghi
Superlattices and Microstructures-- April 1, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg hybrid heterojunctions grown on c-Al2O3 substrates showed 375 nm room temperature electroluminescence. It was suggested that the high materials and interface quality obtained using pulsed laser deposition for the n-ZnO growth and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition for the p-GaN:Mg were key factors enabling the injection of holes and the radiative near band edge recombination in the ZnO. In this paper we present the materials characterization of this structure using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a Zn0/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diodes
D.J. Rogers, F.Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (14)-- April 13, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
n-ZnO/p-GaN:Mg heterojunction light emitting diode (LED) mesas were fabricated on c-Al2O3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition for the ZnO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition for the GaN:Mg. Room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) showed an intense main peak at 375 nm and a negligibly low green emission indicative of a near band edge excitonic emission from a ZnO layer with low dislocation/defect density. The LEDs showed I-V characteristics confirming a rectifying diode behavior and a RT electroluminescence (EL) peaked at about 375 nm. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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