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2.  Relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade laser
S. Slivken, V. Litvinov, M. Razeghi, and J.R. Meyer
Journal of Applied Physics 85 (2)-- January 15, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
Relaxation kinetics in a quantum cascade intersubband laser are investigated. Distribution functions and gain spectra of a three-subband double-quantum-well active region are obtained as a function of temperature and injection current. The potentially important role of the nonequilibrium phonons at lasing threshold is shown and discussed in details. It is shown that the threshold current is strongly dependent of the power dissipated in the active region in steady state. The numerical calculations for an 8.5 μm laser illustrate the general issues of relaxation kinetics in quantum cascade lasers. Temperature dependence of the threshold current is obtained in a good agreement with the experiments. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High operating temperature MWIR photon detectors based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice
M. Razeghi, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, S. Abdollahi Pour, E.K.W. Huang, P. Manukar, S. Bogdanov, and G. Chen
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76081Q-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent efforts have been paid to elevate the operating temperature of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid Infrared photon detectors. Optimized growth parameters and interface engineering technique enable high quality material with a quantum efficiency above 50%. Intensive study on device architecture and doping profile has resulted in almost one order of magnitude of improvement to the electrical performance and lifted up the 300 K-background BLIP operation temperature to 166 K. At 77 K, the ~4.2 µm cut-off devices exhibit a differential resistance area product in excess of the measurement system limit (106 Ω·cm²) and a detectivity of 3x1013 cm·Hz½·W−1. High quality focal plane arrays were demonstrated with a noise equivalent temperature of 10 mK at 77 K. Uncooled camera is capable to capture hot objects such as soldering iron. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Quantum-Cascade Lasers Operating in Continuous-Wave Mode Above 90°C at λ ~5.25 µm
A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (5)-- January 30, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the design and fabrication of λ~5.25 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) for very high temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation. CW operation is reported up to a maximum temperature of 90 °C (363 K). CW output power is reported in excess of 500 mW near room temperature with a low threshold current density. A finite element thermal model is used to investigate the Gth and maximum CW operating temperature of the QCLs. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Fabrication of Indium Bumps for Hybrid Infrared Focal Plane Array Applications
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, M. Razeghi, and G.J. Brown
Infrared Physics and Technology, 45 (2)-- March 1, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
Hybrid infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) have found many applications. In hybrid IR FPAs, FPA and Si read out integrated circuits (ROICs) are bonded together with indium bumps by flip-chip bonding. Taller and higher uniformity indium bumps are always being pursued in FPA fabrication. In this paper, two indium bump fabrication processes based on evaporation and electroplating techniques are developed. Issues related to each fabrication technique are addressed in detail. The evaporation technique is based on a unique positive lithography process. The electroplating method achieves taller indium bumps with a high aspect ratio by a unique “multi-stack” technique. This technique could potentially benefit the fabrication of multi-color FPAs. Finally, a proposed low-cost indium bump fabrication technique, the “bump transfer”, is given as a future technology for hybrid IR FPA fabrication. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-Power (~9 μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, Z. Huang, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 80 (22)-- June 3, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power quantum cascade lasers emitting at λ > 9 μm are demonstrated. Accurate control of layer thickness and interfaces is evidenced by x-ray diffraction. Excellent peak power for uncoated lasers, up to 3.5 W per facet for a 25 μm emitter width, is obtained at 300 K for 75 period structures. The threshold current density at 300 K is only 1.4 kA/cm². From 300 to 425 K, the laser exhibits a characteristic temperature, T0, of 167 K. Over 150 mW of average power is measured per facet for a duty cycle of 6%. Simulation of the average power output reveals a thermal resistance of 12 K/W for epilayer-up mounted ridges. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Photoluminescence study of InAsSb/InAsSbP heterostructures grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, D. Wu, E. Kaas, H. Yi, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 69 (11)-- September 9, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
Photoluminescence has been measured for double‐ and separate‐confinement InAsSb/InAsSbP heterostructures grown by low‐pressure metalorganic vapor deposition. A measurement of the integrated luminescence intensity at the temperature range of 77–300 K shows that over a wide range of excitation level (1–5×10² W/cm²) the radiative transitions are the dominant. mechanism below T∼170 K. Auger recombination coefficient C=C0 exp(−Ea/kT) with C0≊5×10−27 cm6/s and Ea≊40 meV has been estimated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High performance focal plane array based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice heterostructures
P.Y. Delaunay and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000M-1-10.-- February 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
Recent progress in growth techniques, structure design and processing has lifted the performances of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors. A double heterostructure design, based on a low band gap (11 µm) active region and high band gap (5 µm) superlattice contacts, reduced the sensitivity of the superlattice to surface effects. The heterodiodes with an 11 µm cutoff, passivated with SiO2, presented similar performances to unpassivated devices and a one order of magnitude increase of the resistivity of the sidewalls, even after flip-chip bonding and underfill. Thanks to this new design and to the inversion of the polarity of the devices, a high performance focal plane array with an 11 µm cutoff was demonstrated. The noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 26 mK and 19 mK for operating temperatures of 81 K and 67 K. At an integration time of 0.08 ms, the FPA presented a quantum efficiency superior to 50%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-performance, continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.6 μm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 8, p. 747-754-- August 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the high-performance continuous-wave (CW) operation of 10-μm-wide quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at λ ~ 4.6 μm, based on the GaInAs–AlInAs material without regrowth, in epilayer-up and -down bonding configurations. The operational characteristics of QCLs such as the maximum average power, peak output power, CW output power, and maximum CW operating temperature are investigated, depending on cavity length. Also, important device parameters, i.e., the waveguide loss, the transparency current density, the modal gain, and the internal quantum efficiency, are calculated from length-dependent results. For a high-reflectivity (HR) coated 4-mm-long cavity with epilayer-up bonding, the highest maximum average output power of 633 mW is measured at 65% duty cycle, with 469 mW still observed at 100%. The laser exhibits the maximum wall-plug efficiencies of 8.6% and 3.1% at 298 K, in pulsed and CW operatons, respectively. From 298 to 393 K, the temperature dependent threshold current density in pulsed operation shows a high characteristic temperature of 200 K. The use of an epilayer-down bonding further improves the device performance. A CW output power of 685 mW at 288 K is achieved for the 4-micron-long cavity. At 298 K, the output power of 590 mW, threshold current density of 1.52 kA / cm2, and maximum wall-plug efficiency of 3.73% are obtained under CW mode, operating up to 363 K (90 °C). For HR coated 3-micron-long cavities, laser characteristics across the same processed wafer show a good uniformity across the area of 2 x 1 cm2, giving similar output powers, threshold current densities, and emission wavelengths. The CW beam full-width at half-maximum of far-field patterns are 25 degree and 46 degree for the parallel and the perpendicular directions, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Reliability of strain-balanced Ga0.331In0.669As/Al0.659In0.341As/InP quantum-cascade lasers under continuous-wave room-temperature operation
A. Evans and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (26)-- June 26, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
Constant current aging is reported for two randomly selected high-reflectivity-coated QCLs with an output power over 100 mW. QCLs are tested under continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 298 K(25 °C) corresponding to an internal temperature of 378 K (105 °C). Over 4000 h of continuous testing is reported without any decrease in output power. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 4 µm
J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (4)-- January 23, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
High-power cw λ~4 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated. The effect of different cavity length and laser die bonding is also investigated. For a high-reflectivity-coated 11-μm-wide and 4-mm-long epilayer-down bonded QCL, cw output powers as high as 1.6 W at 80 K and 160 mW at 298 K are obtained, and the cw operation is achieved up to 313 K with 12 mW. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  On the performance and surface passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes for the very-long- wavelength infrared
A. Hood, M. Razeghi, E. Aifer, G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 87 (1)-- October 10, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate very-long-wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength (λc,50%) of 17 μm. We observed a zero-bias, peak Johnson noise-limited detectivity of 7.63×109 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K with a 90%-10% cutoff width of 17 meV, and quantum efficiency of 30%. Variable area diode zero-bias resistance-area product (R0A) measurements indicated that silicon dioxide passivation increased surface resistivity by nearly a factor of 5, over unpassivated photodiodes, and increased overall R0A uniformity. The bulk R0A at 77 K was found to be 0.08 Ω·cm2, with RA increasing more than twofold at 25 mV reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Ammonium Sulfide Passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodiodes
A. Gin, Y. Wei, A. Hood, A. Bajowala, V. Yazdanpanah, M. Razeghi and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- March 22, 2004 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the surface passivation of Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors using various ammonium sulfide solutions. Compared to unpassivated detectors, zero-bias resistance of treated 400 µm×400 µm devices with 8 µm cutoff wavelength was improved by over an order of magnitude to ~20 kΩ at 80 K. Reverse-bias dark current density was reduced by approximately two orders of magnitude to less than 10 mA/cm2 at –2 V. Dark current modeling, which takes into account trap-assisted tunneling, indicates greater than 70 times reduction in bulk trap density for passivated detectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  AlGaN ultraviolet detectors
M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski,
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- February 12, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
Hitherto, the semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) detectors have been mainly fabricated using Si. Industries such as the aerospace, automotive, petroleum, and others have continuously provided the impetus pushing the development of fringe technologies which are tolerant of increasingly high temperatures and hostile environments. As a result, the main efforts are currently directed to anew generation of UV detectors fabricated from wide-band-gap semiconductors between them the most promising are diamond and AlGaN. The latest progress in development of AlGaN UV detectors is described in detail. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photovoltaic detectors with cutoff wavelength approaching 32 μm
Y. Wei, A. Gin, M. Razeghi and G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters, 81 (19)-- November 4, 2002 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the most recent advance in the area of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photovoltaic detectors that have cutoff wavelengths beyond 25 μm, with some at nearly 32 μm. The photodiodes with a heterosuperlattice junction showed Johnson noise limited peak detectivity of 1.05 x 1010 cm Hz½/W at 15 μm under zero bias, and peak responsivity of 3 A/W under -40 mV reverse bias at 34 K illuminated by ~300 K background with a 2π field-of-view. The maximum operating temperature of these detectors ranges from 50 to 65 K. No detectable change in the blackbody response has been observed after 5-6 thermal cyclings, with temperature varying between 15 and 296 K in vacuum. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Novel Method for Reclaim/Reuse of Bulk GaN Substrates using Sacrifical ZnO Release Layers
A. Rajan, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, P. L. Voss, K. Pantzas, T. Moudakir, A. Ougazzaden, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V. E. Sandana, P. Bove, K. Prior, R. McClintock & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8987, Oxide-based Materials and Devices V, 898719-- April 2, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-standing (0002)-oriented GaN substrates (f = 2”) were coated with 200 nm of ZnO and used as templates for the growth of GaN thin films. SEM and AFM revealed that such GaN layers had a relatively homogenous surface morphology with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of less than 4nm. XRD studies revealed strained ZnO growth on the GaN substrate and the reproduction of the substrate rocking curve for the GaN overlayers after only a hundred nm of growth, thus indicating that the GaN films had superior crystallographic quality compared to those grown on sapphire or ZnO/sapphire substrates. Quarter-wafer areas of GaN were removed from the GaN substrate (by selective chemical etching away of the ZnO interlayer). The expensive GaN substrates were then reclaimed/reused (without the need for polishing) for a second cycle of ZnO and GaN growth, which gave similar XRD, SEM, CL and AFM results to the first cycle. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-Power (~9 μm) Quantum Cascade Lasers
S. Slivken, Z. Huang, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 5 (22)-- June 3, 2002 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Comparison of Gain and Threshold Current Density for InGaAsP/GaAs λ = 808 nm) Lasers with Different Quantum-Well Thickness
H.J. Yi, J. Diaz, I. Eliashevich, G. Lukas, S. Kim, D. Wu, M. Erdtmann, C. Jelen, S. Slivken, L.J. Wang, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 79 (11)-- July 1, 1996 ...[Visit Journal]
We investigated the quantum‐size effects of quantum well (QW) on gain and threshold current density for InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) laser diodes. In this work, a comparison is made of lasers with different QW thickness while keeping the optical confinement factors constant. We found that the threshold current density and differential efficiency were not affected by narrowing the QW thickness. The theoretical model taking into account the mixing of the valence bands and momentum relaxation for InGaAsP/GaAs lasers with spontaneous emission (optically pumped) measurement shows that the absence of difference between these structures can be attributed to the high relaxation rate. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Transport properties in n-type InSb films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
S.N. Song, J.B. Ketterson, Y.H. Choi, R. Sudharsanan, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 63 (7)-- August 16, 1993 ...[Visit Journal]
We have measured the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall mobility and transverse magnetoresistance in n-type InSb films epitaxially grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The films show a giant magnetoresistance: e.g., at 240 K the resistivity increases over 20 times at a magnetic field of 5 T; the low field coefficient of resistivity at 77 K is as high as 47.5 μ·Ω· cm/G. The Hall mobility decreases with magnetic field and saturates at higher fields. By taking the interface carrier transport into account, the observed field dependence of the Hall mobility and magnetoresistance may be understood based on a two-layer model. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Advanced Monolithic Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Integrated with Silicon Readout Integrated Circuit
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, C. Jelen and M.Z. Tidrow
Infrared Physics and Technology, 46 (3)-- January 1, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
Today, most infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilize a hybrid scheme. To achieve higher device reliability and lower cost, monolithic FPAs with Si based readout integrated circuits (ROICs) are the trend of the future development. In this paper, two approaches for monolithic FPAs are proposed: double sided integration and selective epitaxy integration. For comparison, the fabrication process for hybrid quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) FPAs are also described. Many problems, such as the growth of QWIPs on Si substrate and processing incompatibility between Si and III–V semiconductors, need to be solved before monolithic FPAs can be realized. Experimental work on GaInAs/InP QWIP-on-Si is given in this paper. A record high detectivity of 2.3×109 jones was obtained for one QWIP-on-Si detector at 77 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 955502-- August 25, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
III-Nitride material system (AlGaInN) possesses unique optical, electrical and structural properties such as a wide tunable direct bandgap, inherent fast carrier dynamics; good carrier transport properties, high breakdown fields; and high robustness and chemical stability. Recent technological advances in the wide bandgap AlGaN portion of this material system have led to a renewed interest in ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. These detectors find use in numerous applications in the defense, commercial and scientific arenas such as covert space-to-space communications, early missile threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy, flame detection and monitoring, UV environmental monitoring, and UV astronomy.1,2,3 Back illuminated detectors operating in the solar blind region are of special interest. Back illumination allows the detector to be hybridized to a silicon read-out integrated circuit, epi-side down, and still collect light through the back of the transparent sapphire substrate. This allows the realization of solar blind focal plane arrays (FPAs) for imaging applications. Solar-blind FPAs are especially important because of the near total absence of any background radiation in this region. In this talk, we will present our recent back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector, mini-array, and FPA results. By systematically optimizing the design of the structure we have realized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of in excess of 89% for pixel-sized detectors. Based on the absence of any anti-reflection coating, this corresponds to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. At the same time, the dark current remains below ~2 × 10-9 A/cm² even at 10 volts of reverse bias. The detector has a very sharp falloff starting at 275 with the UV-solar rejection of better than three orders of magnitude, and a visible rejection ratio is more than 6 orders of magnitude. This high performance photodetector design was then used as the basis of the realization of solar-blind FPA. We demonstrated a 320×256 FPA with a peak detection wavelength of 278nm. The operability of the FPA was better than 92%, and excellent corrected imaging was obtained. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Tunability of intersubband absorption from 4.5 to 5.3 µm in a GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
N. Péré-Laperne, C. Bayram, L. Nguyen-Thê, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 13, p. 131109-- September 28, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Intersubband (ISB) absorption at wavelengths as long as 5.3 µm is realized in GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By employing low aluminum content Al0.2Ga0.8N barriers and varying the well width from 2.6 to 5.1 nm, ISB absorption has been tuned from 4.5 to 5.3 µm. Theoretical ISB absorption and interband emission models are developed and compared to the experimental results. The effects of band offsets and the piezoelectric fields on these superlattices are investigated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  High-Performance InP-Based Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Lasers
M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 3, May-June 2009, p. 941-951.-- June 5, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) were once considered as inefficient devices, as the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) was merely a few percent at room temperature. But this situation has changed in the past few years, as dramatic enhancements to the output power andWPE have been made for InP-based mid-IR QCLs. Room temperature continuous-wave (CW) output power as high as 2.8 W and WPE as high as 15% have now been demonstrated for individual devices. Along with the fundamental exploration of refining the design and improving the material quality, a consistent determination of important device performance parameters allows for strategically addressing each component that can be improved potentially. In this paper, we present quantitative experimental evidence backing up the strategies we have adopted to improve the WPE for QCLs with room temperature CW operation. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  The effect of doping the M-barrier in very long-wave type-II InAs/GaSb heterodiodes
D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, E.K. Huang, P.Y. Delaunay, M. Razeghi, M.Z. Tidrow and J. Pellegrino
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, No. 3, p. 031107-1-- July 21, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
A variation on the standard homo-diode Type-II superlattice with an M-barrier between the pi-region and the n-region is shown to suppress the dark currents. By determining the optimal doping level of the M-superlattice, dark current densities of 4.95 mA·cm-2 and quantum efficiencies in excess of 20% have been demonstrated at the moderate reverse bias of 50 mV; allowing for near background-limited performance with a Johnson-noise detectivity of 3.11×1010 Jones at 77 K for a 14.58 µm cutoff wavelength for large area diodes without passivation. This is comparable to values for the state-of-the-art HgCdTe photodiodes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
2.  Temperature dependent characteristics of λ ~ 3.8 µm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (25)-- June 19, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
The highest-performance device displays pulsed laser action at wavelengths between 3.4 and 3.6 μm, for temperatures up to 300 K, with a low temperature (80 K) threshold current density of approximately 2.6 kA/cm2, and a characteristic temperature of T0~130 K. The shortest wavelength QCL (λ ~ 3.05 μm) has a higher threshold current density (~12 kA/cm2 at T=20 K) and operates in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 110 K. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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