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5.  Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060I-1-- April 21, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
We report our recent results about mid-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A very high responsivity and a very low dark current were obtained. A high peak detectivity of the order of 3×1012 Jones was achieved at 77 K. The temperature dependent device performance was also investigated. The improved temperature insensitivity compared to QWIPs was attributed to the properties of quantum dots. The device showed a background limited performance temperature of 220 K with a 45° field of view and 300K background. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Structural, Optical, Electrical and Morphological Study of Transparent p-NiO/n-ZnO Heterojunctions Grown by PLD
V. E. Sandana, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, N. Ben Sedrine, M. R. Correia, T. Monteiro, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 93641O (March 24, 2015)-- March 24, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
NiO/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on FTO/glass and bulk hydrothermal ZnO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-Ray diffraction and Room Temperature (RT) Raman studies were consistent with the formation of (0002) oriented wurtzite ZnO and (111) oriented fcc NiO. RT optical transmission studies revealed bandgap energy values of ~3.70 eV and ~3.30 eV for NiO and ZnO, respectively and more than 80% transmission for the whole ZnO/NiO/FTO/glass stack over the majority of the visible spectrum. Lateral p-n heterojunction mesas (~6mm x 6mm) were fabricated using a shadow mask during PLD growth. n-n and p-p measurements showed that Ti/Au contacting gave an Ohmic reponse for the NiO, ZnO and FTO. Both heterojunctions had rectifying I/V characteristics. The junction on FTO/glass gave forward bias currents (243mA at +10V) that were over 5 orders of magnitude higher than those for the junction formed on bulk ZnO. At ~ 10-7 A (for 10V of reverse bias) the heterojunction leakage current was approximately two orders of magnitude lower on the bulk ZnO substrate than on FTO. Overall, the lateral p-NiO/n-ZnO/FTO/glass device proved far superior to that formed by growing p-NiO directly on the bulk n-ZnO substrate and gave a combination of electrical performance and visible wavelength transparency that could predispose it for use in various third generation transparent electronics applications. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High-Performance Focal Plane Arrays Based on InAs-GaSb Superlattices with a 10-micron Cutoff Wavelegth
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 5, p. 462-467-- May 1, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
We report on the demonstration of a focal plane array based on Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices grown on N-type GaSb substrate with a 50%-cutoff wavelength at 10 μm. The surface leakage occurring after flip-chip bonding and underfill in the Type-II devices was suppressed using a double heterostructure design. The R0A of diodes passivated with SiO2 was 23 Ω·cm2 after underfill. A focal plane array hybridized to an Indigo readout integrated circuit demonstrated a noise equivalent temperature difference of 33 mK at 81 K, with an integration time of 0.23 ms. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  High-detectivity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
J. Szafraniec, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A.A. Quivy, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (121102)-- March 20, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
A mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InGaAs quantum dots buried in an InGaP matrix and deposited on a GaAs substrate was demonstrated. Its photoresponse at T=77 K was measured to be around 4.7 μm with a cutoff at 5.5 μm. Due to the high peak responsivity of 1.2 A/W and low dark-current noise of the device, a specific peak detectivity of 1.1 x 1012 cm·Hz½·W−1 was achieved at −0.9 V bias [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Multi-color 4–20 μm In-P-based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
C. Jelen, S. Slivken, G.J. Brown, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
In order to tune the wavelength of lattice-matched QWIP detectors over the range from 4 - 20 &mum, new designs are demonstrated for the first time which combine InGaAlAs and InGaAsP layers lattice-matched to InP and grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate the first long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors using the lattice-matched n-doped InGaAlAs/InP materials system. Samples with AlAs mole fractions of 0.0, 0.1, and 0.15 result in cutoff wavelengths of 8.5, 13.3, and 19.4 μm, respectively. A 45 degree facet coupled illumination responsivity of R equals 0.37 A/W and detectivity of D*(λ) equals 1x109 cm·Hz½·W-1 at T = 77 K, for a cutoff wavelength λc equals 13.3 μm have been achieved. Based on the measured intersubband photoresponse wavelength, a null conduction band offset is expected for In0.52Ga0.21Al0.27As/InP heterojunctions. We also report quantum well infrared photodetector structures of In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As grown on InP substrate with photoresponse at 4 μm suitable for mid-wavelength infrared detectors. These detectors exhibit a constant peak responsivity of 30 mA/W independent of temperature in the range from T equals 77 K to T equals 200 K. Combining these two materials, we report the first multispectral detectors that combine lattice-matched quantum wells of InGaAs/InAlAs and InGaAs/InP. Utilizing two contacts, a voltage tunable detector with (lambda) p equals 8 micrometer at a bias of V equals 5 V and λp equals 4 μm at V equals 10 V is demonstrated. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Polarization-free GaN emitters in the ultraviolet and visible spectra via heterointegration on CMOS-compatible Si (100)
C. Bayram, J. Ott, K. T. Shiu, C. W. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Kim, D. K. Sadana, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9370, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XII, 93702F (February 8, 2015); -- February 8, 2015 ...[Visit Journal]
This work presents a new type of polarization-free GaN emitter. The unique aspect of this work is that the ultraviolet and visible emission originates from the cubic phase GaN and the cubic phase InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells, respectively. Conventionally, GaN emitters (e.g. light emitting diodes, laser diodes) are wurtzite phase thus strong polarization fields exist across the structure contributing to the “droop” behavior – a phenomenon defined as “the reduction in emitter efficiency as injection current increases”. The elimination of piezoelectric fields in GaN-based emitters as proposed in this work provide the potential for achieving a 100% internal efficiency and might lead to droopfree light emitting diodes. In addition, this work demonstrates co-integration of GaN emitters on cheap and scalable CMOS-compatible Si (100) substrate, which yields possibility of realizing a GaN laser diode uniquely – via forming mirrors along the naturally occurring cubic phase GaN-Si(100) cleavage planes. [reprint (PDF)]
 
5.  Growth and Characterization of Long-Wavelength Infrared Type-II Superlattice Photodiodes on a 3-in GaSb Wafer
B.M. Nguyen, G. Chen, M.A. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (JQE), Vol. 47, No. 5, May 2011, p. 686-690-- May 11, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of high performance Type-II superlattice photodiodes on 3” GaSb substrates for long wavelength infrared detection. A 7.3 micron thick device structure shows excellent structural homogeneity via atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization. Optical and electrical measurements of photodiodes reveal not only the uniformity of the Type-II superlattice material but also of the fabrication process. Across the wafer, at 77 K, photodiodes with a 50% cut-off wavelength of 11 micron exhibit more than 45% quantum efficiency, and a dark current density of 1.0 x 10-4 A/cm² at 50 mV, resulting in a specific detectivity of 6x1011 cm·Hz1/2/W. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Growth of “moth-eye” ZnO nanostructures on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and steel substrates by pulsed laser deposition
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh Hosseini Teherani, Philippe Bove, Michael Molinari, Michel Troyon, Alain Largeteau, Gérard Demazeau, Colin Scott, Gaelle Orsal, Henri-Jean Drouhin, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi C., 1-5 (2013)-- August 6, 2013 ...[Visit Journal]
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, arrays of black-body-like ZnO moth-eye nanostructures were grown on Si(111), c-Al2O3, ZnO and high manganese austenitic steel substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nanostructures to be well-crystallised wurtzite ZnO with strong preferential c-axis crystallographic orientation along the growth direction for all the substrates. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies revealed emission characteristic of the ZnO near band edge for all substrates. Such moth-eye nanostructures have a graded effective refractive index and exhibit black-body characteristics. Coatings with these features may offer improvements in photovoltaic and LED performance. Moreover, since ZnO nanostructures can be grown readily on a wide range of substrates it is suggested that such an approach could facilitate growth of GaN-based devices on mismatched and/or technologically important substrates, which may have been inaccessible till present. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High power operation of λ ∼ 5.2–11 μm strain balanced quantum cascade lasers based on the same material composition
N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071106 (2014)-- August 20, 2014 ...[Visit Journal]
A technique based on composite quantum wells for design and growth of strain balanced Al0.63In0.37As/Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), emitting in 5.2–11 μm wavelength range, is reported. The strained Al0.63In0.37As provides good electron confinement at all wavelengths, and strain balancing can be achieved through composite wells of Ga0.35In0.65As/Ga0.47In0.53As for different wavelength. The use of these fixed composition materials can avoid the need for frequent calibration of a MBE reactor to grow active regions with different strain levels for different wavelengths. Experimental results for QCLs emitting at 5.2, 6.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 11 μm exhibit good wall plug efficiencies and power across the whole wavelength range. It is shown that the emission wavelength can be predictably changed using the same design template. These lasers are also compatible with a heterogeneous broadband active region, consisting of multiple QCL cores, which can be produced in a single growth run. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Highly selective two-color mid-wave and long-wave infrared detector hybrid based on Type-II superlattices
E.K. Huang, M.A. Hoang, G. Chen, S.R. Darvish, A. Haddadi, and M. Razeghi
Optics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 22, p. 4744-4746-- November 15, 2012 ...[Visit Journal]
We report a two-color mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) co-located detector with 3 μm active region thickness per channel that is highly selective and can perform under high operating temperatures for the MWIR band. Under back-side illumination, a temperature evolution study of the MWIR detector’s electro-optical performance found the 300 K background-limit with 2π field-of-view to be achieved below operating temperatures of 160 K, at which the temperature’s 50% cutoff wavelength was 5.2 μm. The measured current reached the system limit of 0.1 pA at 110 K for 30 μm pixel-sized diodes. At 77 K, where the LWIR channel operated with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 11.2 μm, an LWIR selectivity of ∼17% was achieved in the MWIR wave band between 3 and 4.7 μm, making the detector highly selective. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Surface leakage current reduction in long wavelength infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes
S. Bogdanov, B.M. Nguyen, A.M. Hoang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, No. 18, p. 183501-1-- May 2, 2011 ...[Visit Journal]
Dielectric passivation of long wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors with different active region doping profiles has been studied. SiO2 passivation was shown to be efficient as long as it was not put in direct contact with the highly doped superlattice. A hybrid graded doping profile combined with the shallow etch technique reduced the surface leakage current in SiO2 passivated devices by up to two orders of magnitude compared to the usual design. As a result, at 77 K the SiO(2) passivated devices with 10.5 μm cutoff wavelength exhibit an R0A of 120 Ω·cm², RmaxA of 6000 Ω·cm², and a dark current level of 3.5×10−5 A·cm−2 at −50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Comparison of ultraviolet APDs grown on free-standing GaN and sapphire substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801P, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
There is a need for semiconductor-based ultraviolet photodetectors to support avalanche gain in order to realize better performance andmore effective compete with existing technologies. Wide bandgap III-Nitride semiconductors are the promising material system for the development of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that could be a viable alternative to current bulky UV detectors such as photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in IIINitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Current status and potential of high power mid-infrared intersubband lasers
S. Slivken, Y. Bai, B. Gokden, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-28, 2010), Vol. 7608, p. 76080B-1-- January 22, 2010 ...[Visit Journal]
Some of the recent advances in high power quantum cascade laser development will be reviewed in this paper. Research areas explored include short wavelength (λ <4 µm) lasers, high performance strain-balanced heterostructures, and high power long wavelength (7< λ< 16 µm) lasers. Near λ=4.5 µm, highlights include demonstration of 18% continuous wave wallplug efficiency at room temperature, 53% pulsed wallplug efficiency at 40 K, and 120 W of peak power output from a single device at room temperature. Near λ ~10 µm, up to 0.6 W of continuous output power at room temperature has also been demonstrated, with pulsed efficiencies up to 9%. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Recent Advances in LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices
M. Razeghi, D. Hoffman, B.M. Nguyen, P.Y. Delaunay, E.K. Huang, M.Z. Tidrow, and V. Nathan
IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 97, No. 6, p. 1056-1066-- June 1, 2009 ...[Visit Journal]
In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photo-detectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R0A - product LWIR Type – II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high quality LWIR Focal Plane Arrays that were 100 % fabricated in - house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  High quantum efficiency two color type-II InAs/GaSb n-i-p-p-i-n photodiodes
P.Y. Delaunay, B.M. Nguyen, D. Hoffman, A. Hood, E.K. Huang, M. Razeghi, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 11, p. 111112-1-- March 17, 2008 ...[Visit Journal]
A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 µm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 µm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for High-Performance Third Generation Infrared Imaging and Free-Space Communication
M. Razeghi, A. Hood and A. Evans
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits IX, Vol. 6476, p. 64760Q-1-9-- January 29, 2007 ...[Visit Journal]
Free-space optical communications has recently been touted as a solution to the "last mile" bottleneck of high speed data networks providing highly secure, short to long range, and high bandwidth connections. However, commercial near infrared systems experience atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which can adversely affect a link's uptime. By moving the operating wavelength into the mid or long wavelength infrared enhanced link uptimes and increased range can be achieved due to less susceptibility atmospheric affects. The combination of room temperature, continuous wave' high power quantum cascade lasers and high operating temperature Type-II superlattice photodetectors offers the benefits of mid and long wavelength infrared systems as well as practical operating conditions. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Investigations of p-type signal for ZnO thin films grown on (100) GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition
D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, T. Monteiro, M. Soares, A. Neves, M. Carmo, S. Periera, M.R. Correia, A. Lusson, E. Alves, N.P. Barradas, J.K. Morrod, K.A. Prior, P. Kung, A. Yasan, and M. Razeghi
Phys. Stat. Sol. C, 3 (4)-- March 1, 2006 ...[Visit Journal]
n this work we investigated ZnO films grown on semi-insulating (100) GaAs substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Samples were studied using techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, temperature dependent photoluminescence, C-V profiling and temperature dependent Hall measurements. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  On the performance and surface passivation of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes for the very-long- wavelength infrared
A. Hood, M. Razeghi, E. Aifer, G.J. Brown
Applied Physics Letters 87 (1)-- October 10, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate very-long-wavelength infrared Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with a cutoff wavelength (λc,50%) of 17 μm. We observed a zero-bias, peak Johnson noise-limited detectivity of 7.63×109 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K with a 90%-10% cutoff width of 17 meV, and quantum efficiency of 30%. Variable area diode zero-bias resistance-area product (R0A) measurements indicated that silicon dioxide passivation increased surface resistivity by nearly a factor of 5, over unpassivated photodiodes, and increased overall R0A uniformity. The bulk R0A at 77 K was found to be 0.08 Ω·cm2, with RA increasing more than twofold at 25 mV reverse bias. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  320x256 Solar-Blind Focal Plane Arrays based on AlxGa1-xN
R. McClintock, K. Mayes, A. Yasan, D. Shiell, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (1)-- January 3, 2005 ...[Visit Journal]
We report AlGaN-based back-illuminated solar-blind ultraviolet focal plane arrays operating at a wavelength of 280 nm. The electrical characteristics of the individual pixels are discussed, and the uniformity of the array is presented. The p–i–n photodiode array was hybridized to a 320×256 read-out integrated circuit entirely within our university research lab, and a working 320×256 camera was demonstrated. Several example solar-blind images from the camera are also provided. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  4.5 mW Operation of AlGaN-based 267 nm Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, L. Gautero, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 83 (23)-- December 8, 2003 ...[Visit Journal]
We demonstrate 4.5 mW output power from AlGaN-based single quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes at a very short wavelength of 267 nm in pulsed operation mode. The output power in continuous-wave mode reaches a value of 165 µW at an injected current of 435 mA. The measurements were done on arrays of four devices flip chip bonded to AlN submounts for thermal management. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Top-emission ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission at 280 nm
A. Yasan, R. McClintock, K. Mayes, S.R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, 5-- August 5, 2002 ...[Visit Journal][reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Pulse Autocorrelation Measurements Based on Two- and Three-Photon Conductivity in a GaN Photodiode
A. Streltsov, K.D. Moll, A. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 75 (24)-- December 13, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We characterize the performance of a GaN p-i-n photodiode as a nonlinear sensor for second- and third-order femtosecond pulse autocorrelation measurements in the visible and near-infrared regimes, respectively. The two- and three-photon absorption coefficients for GaN are also determined. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  Characteristics of Self-Assembled InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Mid-Infrared Photoconductive Detectors Grown by Low Pressure MOCVD
S. Kim, M. Erdtmann, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, -- January 27, 1999 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the first self-assembled InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot intersubband infrared photoconductive detectors (QDIPs) grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The InGaAs quantum dots were constructed on an InGaP matrix as self assembling in Stranski-Krastanow growth mode in optimum growth conditions. The detector structure was prepared for single layer and multi-stacked quantum dots for active region. Normal incident photoconductive response was observed at a peak wavelength of 5.5 μm with a high responsivity of 130 mA/W, and a detectivity of 4.74 X 107 cm·Hz½/W at 77 K for multi-stack QDIP. Low temperature photoresponse of the single quantum dot photodetector was characterized. Peak response was obtained between 16 K and 60 K. The detailed dark current noise measurements were carried on single and multistack quantum dot infrared detectors. High photoconductive gain as 7.6 x 103 biased at 0.5 V results in increasing the intersubband carrier relaxation time as two order of magnitude compared quantum well infrared photodetectors. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  GaInN/GaN Multi-Quantum Well Laser Diodes Grown by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
P. Kung, A. Saxler, D. Walker, A. Rybaltowski, X. Zhang, J. Diaz, and M. Razeghi
MRS Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research 3 (1)-- January 1, 1998 ...[Visit Journal]
We report the growth, fabrication and characterization of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum well lasers grown on (00·1) sapphire substrates by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The threshold current density of a 1800 µm long cavity length laser was 1.4 kA/cm² with a threshold voltage of 25 V. These lasers exhibited series resistances of 13 and 14 Ω at 300 and 79 K, respectively. [reprint (PDF)]
 
4.  AlxGa1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) Ultraviolet Photodetectors Grown on Sapphire by Metal-organic Chemical-vapor Deposition
D. Walker, X. Zhang, A. Saxler, P. Kung, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 70 (8)-- February 24, 1997 ...[Visit Journal]
AlxGa1–xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) ultraviolet photoconductors with cutoff wavelengths from 365 to 200 nm have been fabricated and characterized. The maximum detectivity reached 5.5 × 108 cm·Hz1/2/W at a modulating frequency of 14 Hz. The effective majority carrier lifetime in AlxGa1–xN materials, derived from frequency-dependent photoconductivity measurements, has been estimated to be from 6 to 35 ms. The frequency-dependent noise spectrum shows that it is dominated by Johnson noise at high frequencies for low-Al-composition samples. [reprint (PDF)]
 

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