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1.  
The new oxide paradigm for solid state ultraviolet photodetectors
The new oxide paradigm for solid state ultraviolet photodetectors
D. J. Rogers, P. Bove, X. Arrateig, V. E. Sandana, F. H. Teherani, M. Razeghi, R. McClintock, E. Frisch, S. Harel,
Proceedings Volume 10533, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IX; 105331P-- March 22, 2018
The bandgap of wurzite ZnO layers grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition was engineered from 3.7 to 4.8 eV by alloying with Mg. Above this Mg content the layers transformed from single phase hcp to mixed hcp/fcc phase before becoming single phase fcc above a bandgap of about 5.5 eV. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors based on gold Inter-Digitated-Transducer structures were fabricated from the single phase hcp layers by single step negative photolithography and then packaged in TO5 cans. The devices gave over 6 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal with solar rejection ratios (I270 : I350) of over 3 x 105 and dark signals of 300 pA (at a bias of -5V). Spectral responsivities were engineered to fit the “Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches” industry standard form and gave over two decade higher responsivities (14 A/W, peaked at 270 nm) than commercial SiC based devices. Homogeneous Ga2O3 layers were also grown on 2 inch diameter c-Al2O3 substrates by PLD. Optical transmission spectra were coherent with a bandgap that increased from 4.9 to 5.4 eV when film thickness was decreased from 825 to 145 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films were of the β-Ga2O3 (monoclinic) polytype with strong (-201) orientation. β-Ga2O3 MSM photodetectors gave over 4 orders of magnitude of separation between dark and light signal (at -5V bias) with dark currents of 250 pA and spectral responsivities of up to 40 A/W (at -0.75V bias). It was found that the spectral responsivity peak position could be decreased from 250 to 230 nm by reducing film thickness from 825 to 145 nm. This shift in peak responsivity wavelength with film thickness (a) was coherent with the apparent bandgap shift that was observed in transmission spectroscopy for the same layers and (b) conveniently provides a coverage of the spectral region in which MgZnO layers show fcc/hcp phase mixing. reprint
 
2.  
A review of the growth, doping, and applications of β-Ga<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> thin films
A review of the growth, doping, and applications of β-Ga2O3 thin films
Manijeh Razeghi, Ji-Hyeon Park , Ryan McClintock, Dimitris Pavlidis, Ferechteh H. Teherani, David J. Rogers, Brenden A. Magill, Giti A. Khodaparast, Yaobin Xu, Jinsong Wu, Vinayak P. Dravid
Proc. SPIE 10533, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IX, 105330R -- March 14, 2018
β-Ga2O3 is emerging as an interesting wide band gap semiconductor for solar blind photo detectors (SBPD) and high power field effect transistors (FET) because of its outstanding material properties including an extremely wide bandgap (Eg ~4.9eV) and a high breakdown field (8 MV/cm). This review summarizes recent trends and progress in the growth/doping of β-Ga2O3 thin films and then offers an overview of the state-of-the-art in SBPD and FET devices. The present challenges for β-Ga2O3 devices to penetrate the market in real-world applications are also considered, along with paths for future work. reprint
 
3.  
Broadband monolithically-tunable quantum cascade lasers
Broadband monolithically-tunable quantum cascade lasers
Wenjia Zhou, Ryan McClintock, Donghai Wu, Steven Slivken, Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10540, Quantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XV,-- January 26, 2018
Mid-infrared lasers, emitting in the spectral region of 3-12 μm that contain strong characteristic vibrational transitions of many important molecules, are highly desirable for spectroscopy sensing applications. High efficiency quantum cascade lasers have been demonstrated with up to watt-level output power in the mid-infrared region. However, the wide wavelength tuning, which is critical for spectroscopy applications, is still largely relying on incorporating external gratings, which have stability issues. Here, we demonstrate the development a monolithic, widely tunable quantum cascade laser source emitting between 6.1 and 9.2 μm through an on-chip integration of a sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser array with a beam combiner. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and coordinate the driving of the laser array to produce desired wavelength. A broadband spectral measurement (520cm-1) of methane shows excellent agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurement. Further optimizations have led to high performance monolithic tunable QCLs with up to 65 mW output while delivering fundamental mode outputs. reprint
 
4.  
Progress in monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Progress in monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers
Manijeh Razeghi Wenjia Zhou Ryan McClintock Donghai Wu Steven Slivken
Optical Engineering 57(1), 011018-- December 1, 2017
We present recent progress on the development of monolithic, broadband, widely tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers. First, we show a broadband midinfrared laser gain realized by a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser based on a strain balanced composite well design of Al0.63In0.37As∕Ga0.35In0.65As∕ Ga0.47In0.53As. Single mode emission between 5.9 and 10.9 μm under pulsed mode operation was realized from a distributed feedback laser array, which exhibited a flat current threshold across the spectral range. Using the broadband wafer, a monolithic tuning between 6.2 and 9.1 μm was demonstrated from a beam combined sampled grating distributed feedback laser array. The tunable laser was utilized for a fast sensing of methane under pulsed operation. Transmission spectra were obtained without any moving parts, which showed excellent agreement to a standard measurement made by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. reprint
 
5.  
High performance monolithic, broadly tunable  mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
High performance monolithic, broadly tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
WENJIA Zhou, DONGHAI Wu, RYAN McCLINTOCK, STEVEN SLIVKEN, AND MANIJEH RAZEGH1
Optica 4(10)-- October 10, 2017
Mid-infrared lasers, emitting in the spectral region of 3-12 µm that contains strong characteristic vibrational tran­sitions of many important molecules, are highly desirable for spectroscopy sensing applications. High-efficiency quantum cascade lasers have been demonstrated with up to watt-level output power in the mid-infrared region. However, the wide wavelength tuning that is critical for spectroscopy applica­tions still largely relies on incorporating external gratings, which have stability issues. Here, we demonstrate a mono­lithic, broadly tunable quantum cascade laser source emitting between 6.1 and 9.2 µm through an on-chip integration of a sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser array and a beam combiner. High peak power up to 65 mW has been obtained through a balanced high-gain active region design, efficient waveguide layout, and the development of a broad­band antireflection coating. Nearly fundamental transverse­mode operation is achieved for all emission wavelengths with a pointing stability better than 1.6 mrad (0.1 °). The demon­strated laser source opens new opportunities for mid-infrared spectroscopy. reprint
 
6.  
Nanoselective area growth of defect-free thick indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on sacrificial ZnO templates
Nanoselective area growth of defect-free thick indium-rich InGaN nanostructures on sacrificial ZnO templates
Renaud Puybaret, David J Rogers, Youssef El Gmili, Suresh Sundaram, Matthew B Jordan, Xin Li, Gilles Patriarche, Ferechteh H Teherani, Eric V Sandana, Philippe Bove, Paul L Voss, Ryan McClintock, Manijeh Razeghi, Ian Ferguson, Jean-Paul Salvestrini, and Abdallah Ougazzade
Renaud Puybaret et al 2017 Nanotechnology 28 195304-- April 29, 2017
Nanoselective area growth (NSAG) by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of high-quality InGaN nanopyramids on GaN-coated ZnO/c-sapphire is reported. Nanopyramids grown on epitaxial low-temperature GaN-on-ZnO are uniform and appear to be single crystalline, as well as free of dislocations and V-pits. They are also indium-rich (with homogeneous 22% indium incorporation) and relatively thick (100 nm). These properties make them comparable to nanostructures grown on GaN and AlN/Si templates, in terms of crystallinity, quality, morphology, chemical composition and thickness. Moreover, the ability to selectively etch away the ZnO allows for the potential lift-off and transfer of the InGaN/GaN nanopyramids onto alternative substrates, e.g. cheaper and/or flexible. This technology offers an attractive alternative to NSAG on AlN/Si as a platform for the fabrication of high quality, thick and indium-rich InGaN monocrystals suitable for cheap, flexible and tunable light-emitting diodes.
 
7.  
Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Ilkay Demir, Yoann Robin, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Konstantinos Zekentes, and Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi-- April 4, 2017
The growth of thick, high quality, and low stress AlN films on Si substrates is highly desired for a number of applications like the development of micro and nano electromechanical system (MEMS and NEMS) technologies [1] and particularly for fabricating AlGaNbased UV LEDs [2–5]. UV LEDs are attractive as they are applied in many areas, such as biomedical instrumentations and dermatology, curing of industrial resins and inks, air purification, water sterilization, and many others [2, 3]. UV LEDs have been generally fabricated on AlN, GaN, Al2O3, or SiC substrates because of better lattice mismatching to AlGaN material systems. reprint
 
8.  
Imprinting of Nanoporosity in Lithium-Doped Nickel Oxide through the use of Sacrificial Zinc Oxide Nanotemplates
Imprinting of Nanoporosity in Lithium-Doped Nickel Oxide through the use of Sacrificial Zinc Oxide Nanotemplates
Vinod E. Sandana, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh H. Teheran1, Philippe Bove, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII, 101052C-- April 3, 2017
Methods for simultaneously increasing the conductivity and the porosity of NiO layers grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) were investigated in order to develop improved photocathodes for p-DSSC applications. NiO:Li (20at%) layers grown on c-Al2O3 by PLD showed a sharp drop in conductivity with increasing substrate temperature. Layers grown at room temperature were more than two orders of magnitude more conductive than undoped NiO layers but did not show evidence of any porosity in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. A new method for imposing a nanoporosity in NiO was developed based on a sacrificial template of nanostructured ZnO. SEM images and EDX spectroscopy showed that a nanoporous morphology had been imprinted in the NiO overlayer after preferential chemical etching away of the nanostructured ZnO underlayer. Beyond p-DSSC applications, this new process could represent a new paradigm for imprinting porosity in a whole range of materials. reprint
 
9.  
Investigations on the substrate dependence of the properties in nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by PLD
Investigations on the substrate dependence of the properties in nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by PLD
F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; C. Ton-That ; L. L. C. Lem ; E. Chikoidze ; M. Neumann-Spallart ; Y. Dumont ; T. Huynh ; M. R. Phillips ; P. Chapon ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII, 101051R-OLD-- March 23, 2017
Nominally-undoped Ga2O3 layers were deposited on a-, c- and r-plane sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Conventional x-ray diffraction analysis for films grown on a- and c-plane sapphire showed the layers to be in the β-Ga2O3 phase with preferential orientation of the (-201) axis along the growth direction. Pole figures revealed the film grown on r-plane sapphire to also be in the β-Ga2O3 phase but with epitaxial offsets of 29.5°, 38.5° and 64° from the growth direction for the (-201) axis. Optical transmission spectroscopy indicated that the bandgap was ~5.2eV, for all the layers and that the transparency was > 80% in the visible wavelength range. Four point collinear resistivity and Van der Pauw based Hall measurements revealed the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-plane sapphire to be 4 orders of magnitude more conducting than layers grown on a- and c-plane sapphire under similar conditions. The absolute values of conductivity, carrier mobility and carrier concentration for the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-sapphire (at 20Ω-1.cm-1, 6 cm²/Vs and 1.7 x 1019 cm-3, respectively) all exceeded values found in the literature for nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films by at least an order of magnitude. Gas discharge optical emission spectroscopy compositional depth profiling for common shallow donor impurities (Cl, F, Si and Sn) did not indicate any discernable increase in their concentrations compared to background levels in the sapphire substrate. It is proposed that the fundamentally anisotropic conductivity in β-Ga2O3 combined with the epitaxial offset of the (-201) axis observed for the layer grown on r-plane sapphire may explain the much larger carrier concentration, electrical conductivity and mobility compared with layers having the (-201) axis aligned along the growth direction. reprint
 
10.  
A study into the impact of sapphire substrate orientation on the properties of nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
A study into the impact of sapphire substrate orientation on the properties of nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
F. H. Teherani; D. J. Rogers; V. E. Sandana; P. Bove; C. Ton-That; L. L. C. Lem; E. Chikoidze; M. Neumann-Spallart; Y. Dumont; T. Huynh; M. R. Phillips; P. Chapon; R. McClintock; M. Razeghi
Proceedings Volume 10105, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VIII; 101051R-- March 23, 2017
Nominally-undoped Ga2O3 layers were deposited on a-, c- and r-plane sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Conventional x-ray diffraction analysis for films grown on a- and c-plane sapphire showed the layers to be in the β-Ga2O3 phase with preferential orientation of the (-201) axis along the growth direction. Pole figures revealed the film grown on r-plane sapphire to also be in theβ-Ga2O3 phase but with epitaxial offsets of 29.5°, 38.5° and 64° from the growth direction for the (-201) axis. Optical transmission spectroscopy indicated that the bandgap was ~5.2eV, for all the layers and that the transparency was > 80% in the visible wavelength range. Four point collinear resistivity and Van der Pauw based Hall measurements revealed the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-plane sapphire to be 4 orders of magnitude more conducting than layers grown on a- and c-plane sapphire under similar conditions. The absolute values of conductivity, carrier mobility and carrier concentration for the β-Ga2O3 layer on r-sapphire (at 20Ω-1.cm-1, 6 cm2/Vs and 1.7 x 1019 cm-3, respectively) all exceeded values found in the literature for nominally-undoped β-Ga2O3 thin films by at least an order of magnitude. Gas discharge optical emission spectroscopy compositional depth profiling for common shallow donor impurities (Cl, F, Si and Sn) did not indicate any discernable increase in their concentrations compared to background levels in the sapphire substrate. It is proposed that the fundamentally anisotropic conductivity in β-Ga2O3 combined with the epitaxial offset of the (-201) axis observed for the layer grown on r-plane sapphire may explain the much larger carrier concentration, electrical conductivity and mobility compared with layers having the (-201) axis aligned along the growth direction. reprint
 
11.  
Study of Au coated ZnO nanoarrays for surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensing
Study of Au coated ZnO nanoarrays for surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensing
Gre´gory Barbillon, Vinod E. Sandana,Christophe Humbert, Benoit Be´lier, David J. Rogers, Ferechteh H. Teherani, Philippe Bove Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghid
Cite this: J. Mater. Chem. C, 2017, 5, 3528-- March 20, 2017
At present, the simultaneous attainment of good reproducibility and high enhancement factors (EF) are key challenges in the development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)substrates for improved chemical and biological sensing. SERS substrates are generally based on distributions of metallic nanoparticles/structures with different shapes and architectures which are prepared by either thermal dewetting, precipitation from colloidal suspensions1–4 or advanced (e.g. deep UV or electron beam (EBL)) lithographic techniques.5–9 Although such substrates can exhibit large Raman enhancements, the former two techniques (colloidal and thermal dewetting) give poor SERS reproducibility while deep UV and EBL are too expensive and/or complex for mass production.
 
12.  
Quntum Cascade Laser Breakthrough for Advanced Remote Detection
Quntum Cascade Laser Breakthrough for Advanced Remote Detection
Manijeh Razeghi, Wenjia Zhou, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock, and Steven Slivken, Northwestern University
-- November 1, 2016
The atoms in a molecule can bend, stretch and rotate with respect to one an­other, and these excitations are largely optically active. Most molecules, from simple to moderately complex, have a characteristic absorption spectrum in the 3- to 14-µrn wavelength range that can be uniquely identified and quantified in real time. Infrared spectroscopy has been used to study these absorption features and de­velop different molecular "fingerprints."
 
13.  
Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Direct growth of thick AlN layers on nanopatterned Si substrates by cantilever epitaxy
Ilkay Demir, Yoann Robin, Ryan McClintock, Sezai Elagoz, Konstantinos Zekentes, and Manijeh Razeghi
Phys. Status Solidi A, 1–6 (2016)-- September 30, 2016
AlN layers have been grown on 200 nm period of nanopatterned Si (111) substrates by cantilever epitaxy and compared with AlN layers grown by maskless lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) on micropatterned Si (111) substrates. The material quality of 5–10 µm thick AlN grown by LEO is comparable to that of much thinner layers (2 µm) grown by cantilever epitaxy on the nanopatterned substrates. Indeed, the latter exhibited root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.65 nm and X-ray diffraction full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 710 arcsec along the (0002) reflection and 930 arcsec along the (10̅15) reflection. The corresponding room temperature photoluminescence spectra was dominated by a sharp band edge peak. Back emission ultra violet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) were fabricated by flip chip bonding to patterned AlN heat sinks followed by complete Si (111) substrate removal demonstrating a peak pulsed power of ∼0.7 mW at 344 nm peak emission wavelength. The demonstrated UV LEDs were fabricated on a cost effective epitaxial structure grown on the nanopatterned Si substrate with a total thickness of 3.3 µm reprint
 
14.  
Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer
Akhil Rajan, David J Rogers, Cuong Ton-That, Liangchen Zhu, Matthew R Phillips, Suresh Sundaram, Simon Gautier, Tarik Moudakir, Youssef El-Gmili, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Vinod E Sandana, Ferechteh H Teherani, Philippe Bove, Kevin A Prior, Zakaria Djebbour, Ryan McClintock and Manijeh Razeghi
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 49, Number 31 -- July 15, 2016
Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling. reprint
 
15.  
Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design
Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design
Wenjia Zhou, Neelanjan Bandyopadhyay, Donghai Wu, Ryan McClintock & Manijeh Razeghi
Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 25213 -- June 8, 2016
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm−1) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing. reprint
 
16.  
Growth of AlGaN on silicon substrates: a novel way to make back-illuminated ultraviolet photodetectors
Growth of AlGaN on silicon substrates: a novel way to make back-illuminated ultraviolet photodetectors
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550U-- August 28, 2015
AlGaN, with its tunable wide-bandgap is a good choice for the realization of ultraviolet photodetectors. AlGaN films tend to be grown on foreign substrates such as sapphire, which is the most common choice for back-illuminated devices. However, even ultraviolet opaque substrates like silicon holds promise because, silicon can be removed by chemical treatment to allow back-illumination,1 and it is a very low-cost substrate which is available in large diameters up to 300 mm. However, Implementation of silicon as the solar-blind PD substrates requires overcoming the lattice-mismatch (17%) with the AlxGa1-xN that leads to high density of dislocation and crack-initiating stress. In this talk, we report the growth of thick crack-free AlGaN films on (111) silicon substrates through the use of a substrate patterning and mask-less selective area regrowth. This technique is critical as it decouples the epilayers and the substrate and allows for crack-free growth; however, the masking also helps to reduce the dislocation density by inclining the growth direction and encouraging dislocations to annihilate. A back-illuminated p-i-n PD structure is subsequently grown on this high quality template layer. After processing and hybridizing the device we use a chemical process to selectively remove the silicon substrate. This removal has minimal effect on the device, but it removes the UV-opaque silicon and allows back-illumination of the photodetector. We report our latest results of back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors growth on silicon. reprint
 
17.  
Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes
Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes
Ryan McClintock ; Manijeh Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 95550B -- August 28, 2015
The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields – typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. reprint
 
18.  
Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
Solar-blind photodetectors and focal plane arrays based on AlGaN
R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9555, Optical Sensing, Imaging, and Photon Counting: Nanostructured Devices and Applications, 955502-- August 25, 2015
III-Nitride material system (AlGaInN) possesses unique optical, electrical and structural properties such as a wide tunable direct bandgap, inherent fast carrier dynamics; good carrier transport properties, high breakdown fields; and high robustness and chemical stability. Recent technological advances in the wide bandgap AlGaN portion of this material system have led to a renewed interest in ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. These detectors find use in numerous applications in the defense, commercial and scientific arenas such as covert space-to-space communications, early missile threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy, flame detection and monitoring, UV environmental monitoring, and UV astronomy.1,2,3 Back illuminated detectors operating in the solar blind region are of special interest. Back illumination allows the detector to be hybridized to a silicon read-out integrated circuit, epi-side down, and still collect light through the back of the transparent sapphire substrate. This allows the realization of solar blind focal plane arrays (FPAs) for imaging applications. Solar-blind FPAs are especially important because of the near total absence of any background radiation in this region. In this talk, we will present our recent back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector, mini-array, and FPA results. By systematically optimizing the design of the structure we have realized external quantum efficiencies (EQE) of in excess of 89% for pixel-sized detectors. Based on the absence of any anti-reflection coating, this corresponds to nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency. At the same time, the dark current remains below ~2 × 10-9 A/cm² even at 10 volts of reverse bias. The detector has a very sharp falloff starting at 275 with the UV-solar rejection of better than three orders of magnitude, and a visible rejection ratio is more than 6 orders of magnitude. This high performance photodetector design was then used as the basis of the realization of solar-blind FPA. We demonstrated a 320×256 FPA with a peak detection wavelength of 278nm. The operability of the FPA was better than 92%, and excellent corrected imaging was obtained. reprint
 
19.  
Core-shell GaN-ZnO Moth-eye Nanostructure Arrays Grown on a-SiO<sub>2</sub>/Si (111) as a basis for Improved InGaN-based Photovoltaics and LEDs
Core-shell GaN-ZnO Moth-eye Nanostructure Arrays Grown on a-SiO2/Si (111) as a basis for Improved InGaN-based Photovoltaics and LEDs
D.J. Rogers, V.E. Sandana, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, A. Ougazzaden, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, M. Molinari, M. Troyon, M. Peres, Manuel J. Soares, A.J. Neves, T. Monteiro, D. McGrouther, J.N. Chapman, H.-J. Drouhin, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi
Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications (2015)-- March 30, 2015
Self-forming, vertically-aligned, ZnO moth-eye-like nanoarrays were grown by catalyst-free pulsed laser deposition on a-SiO2/Si (111) substrates. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies indicated that nanostructures were highly c-axis oriented wurtzite ZnO with strong near band edge emission. The nanostructures were used as templates for the growth of non-polar GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. XRD, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and CL revealed ZnO encapsulated with GaN, without evidence of ZnO back-etching. XRD showed compressive epitaxial strain in the GaN, which is conducive to stabilization of the higher indium contents required for more efficient green light emitting diode (LED) and photovoltaic (PV) operation. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements showed a relative reflectance of less than 1% over the wavelength range of 400–720 nm at all angles up to 60°. The superior black-body performance of this moth-eye-like structure would boost LED light extraction and PV anti-reflection performance compared with existing planar or nanowire LED and PV morphologies. The enhancement in core conductivity, provided by the ZnO, would also improve current distribution and increase the effective junction area compared with nanowire devices based solely on GaN. reprint
 
20.  
Scale-up of the Chemical Lift-off of (In)GaN-based p-i-n Junctions from Sapphire Substrates Using Sacrificial ZnO Template Layers
Scale-up of the Chemical Lift-off of (In)GaN-based p-i-n Junctions from Sapphire Substrates Using Sacrificial ZnO Template Layers
D. J. Rogers, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, V. Sandana, P. L. Voss, A. Ougazzaden, A. Rajan, K.A. Prior, R. McClintock, & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 936424 -- March 24, 2015
(In)GaN p-i-n structures were grown by MOVPE on both GaN- and ZnO-coated c-sapphire substrates. XRD studies of the as-grown layers revealed that a strongly c-axis oriented wurtzite crystal structure was obtained on both templates and that there was a slight compressive strain in the ZnO underlayer which increased after GaN overgrowth. The InGaN peak position gave an estimate of 13.6at% for the indium content in the active layer. SEM and AFM revealed that the top surface morphologies were similar for both substrates, with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of about 10 nm. Granularity appeared slightly coarser (40nm for the device grown on ZnO vs 30nm for the device grown on the GaN template) however. CL revealed a weaker GaN near band edge UV emission peak and a stronger broad defect-related visible emission band for the structure grown on the GaN template. Only a strong ZnO NBE UV emission was observed for the sample grown on the ZnO template. Quarter-wafer chemical lift-off (CLO) of the InGaN-based p-i-n structures from the sapphire substrate was achieved by temporary-bonding the GaN surface to rigid glass support with wax and then selectively dissolving the ZnO in 0.1M HCl. XRD studies revealed that the epitaxial nature and strong preferential c-axis orientation of the layers had been maintained after lift-off. This demonstration of CLO scale-up, without compromising the crystallographic integrity of the (In)GaN p-i-n structure opens up the perspective of transferring GaN based devices off of sapphire substrates industrially. reprint
 
21.  
Structural, Optical, Electrical and Morphological Study of Transparent p-NiO/n-ZnO Heterojunctions Grown by PLD
Structural, Optical, Electrical and Morphological Study of Transparent p-NiO/n-ZnO Heterojunctions Grown by PLD
V. E. Sandana, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, P. Bove, N. Ben Sedrine, M. R. Correia, T. Monteiro, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9364, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VI, 93641O (March 24, 2015)-- March 24, 2015
NiO/ZnO heterostructures were fabricated on FTO/glass and bulk hydrothermal ZnO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-Ray diffraction and Room Temperature (RT) Raman studies were consistent with the formation of (0002) oriented wurtzite ZnO and (111) oriented fcc NiO. RT optical transmission studies revealed bandgap energy values of ~3.70 eV and ~3.30 eV for NiO and ZnO, respectively and more than 80% transmission for the whole ZnO/NiO/FTO/glass stack over the majority of the visible spectrum. Lateral p-n heterojunction mesas (~6mm x 6mm) were fabricated using a shadow mask during PLD growth. n-n and p-p measurements showed that Ti/Au contacting gave an Ohmic reponse for the NiO, ZnO and FTO. Both heterojunctions had rectifying I/V characteristics. The junction on FTO/glass gave forward bias currents (243mA at +10V) that were over 5 orders of magnitude higher than those for the junction formed on bulk ZnO. At ~ 10-7 A (for 10V of reverse bias) the heterojunction leakage current was approximately two orders of magnitude lower on the bulk ZnO substrate than on FTO. Overall, the lateral p-NiO/n-ZnO/FTO/glass device proved far superior to that formed by growing p-NiO directly on the bulk n-ZnO substrate and gave a combination of electrical performance and visible wavelength transparency that could predispose it for use in various third generation transparent electronics applications. reprint
 
22.  
High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ~9μm
High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ~9μm
Q. Y. Lu, M. Razeghi, S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Bai, W. J. Zhou, M. Chen, D. Heydari, A. Haddadi, R. McClintock, M. Amanti, and C. Sirtori
Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051105 (2015)-- February 2, 2015
We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm−1 and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes. reprint
 
23.  
High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
High Performance Solar-Blind Ultraviolet Focal Plane Arrays Based on AlGaN
Erdem Cicek, Ryan McClintock, Abbas Haddadi, William A. Gaviria Rojas, and Manijeh Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 50, Issue 8, p 591-595-- August 1, 2014
We report on solar-blind ultraviolet, AlxGa1-x N- based,p-i-n,focal plane array (FPA) with 92% operability. At the peak detection wavelength of 278 nm, 320×256-FP A-pixel showed unbiased peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) and responsivity of 49% and 109 mA/W, respectively, increasing to 66% under 5 volts of reverse bias. Electrical measurements yielded a low-dark current density: <7×10-9A/cm², at FPA operating voltage of 2 volts of reverse bias. reprint
 
24.  
Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices:  A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
Antimonide-Based Type II Superlattices: A Superior Candidate for the Third Generation of Infrared Imaging Systems
M. Razeghi, A. Haddadi, A.M. Hoang, G. Chen, S. Bogdanov, S.R. Darvish, F. Callewaert, P.R. Bijjam, and R. McClintock
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2014-- August 1, 2014
Type II superlattices (T2SLs), a system of interacting multiquantum wells,were introduced by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki in the 1970s. Since then, this material system has drawn a lot of attention, especially for infrared detection and imaging. In recent years, the T2SL material system has experienced incredible improvements in material growth quality, device structure design, and device fabrication techniques that have elevated the performance of T2SL-based photodetectors and focal-plane arrays (FPAs) to a level comparable to state-of-the-art material systems for infrared detection and imaging, such as mercury cadmium telluride compounds. We present the current status of T2SL-based photodetectors and FPAs for imaging in different infrared regimes, from short wavelength to very long wavelength, and dual-band infrared detection and imaging, as well as the future outlook for this material system. reprint
 
25.  Novel Method for Reclaim/Reuse of Bulk GaN Substrates using Sacrifical ZnO Release Layers
A. Rajan, S. Sundaram, Y. El Gmili, P. L. Voss, K. Pantzas, T. Moudakir, A. Ougazzaden, D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, V. E. Sandana, P. Bove, K. Prior, R. McClintock & M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8987, Oxide-based Materials and Devices V, 898719-- April 2, 2014
Free-standing (0002)-oriented GaN substrates (f = 2”) were coated with 200 nm of ZnO and used as templates for the growth of GaN thin films. SEM and AFM revealed that such GaN layers had a relatively homogenous surface morphology with an RMS roughness (5 μm x 5 μm) of less than 4nm. XRD studies revealed strained ZnO growth on the GaN substrate and the reproduction of the substrate rocking curve for the GaN overlayers after only a hundred nm of growth, thus indicating that the GaN films had superior crystallographic quality compared to those grown on sapphire or ZnO/sapphire substrates. Quarter-wafer areas of GaN were removed from the GaN substrate (by selective chemical etching away of the ZnO interlayer). The expensive GaN substrates were then reclaimed/reused (without the need for polishing) for a second cycle of ZnO and GaN growth, which gave similar XRD, SEM, CL and AFM results to the first cycle. reprint
 

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