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1.  InP-based quantum-dot infrared photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high temperature imaging
S. Tsao, H. Lim, H. Seo, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 936-941-- June 1, 2008
We report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor depositon. The detectivity was 6 x 1010cm·Hz1/2·W-1 at 150 K and a bias of 5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.0 micron and a quantum efficiency of 48%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature. A 320 x 256 middle wavelength infrared focal plane array operating at temperatures up to 200 K was also demonstrated. The focal plane array had 34 mA/W responsivity, 1.1% conversion efficiency, and noise equivalent temperature difference of 344 mK at 120 K operating temperature. reprint
 
2.  Thermal imaging based on high-performance InAs/InP quantum-dot infrared photodetector operating at high temperature
M. Razeghi; H. Lim; S. Tsao; H. Seo; W. Zhang
Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS.15-16:[4382251] (2007).-- October 21, 2007
We report a room temperature operating and high-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector on InP substrate and thermal imaging of 320times256 focal plane array based on this device up to 200 K. reprint
 
3.  High operating temperature 320 x 256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector
S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology-- May 28, 2007reprint
 
4.  High operating temperature 320 x 256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector
S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 20, p. 201109-- May 14, 2007
This letter reports a 320×256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array operating at temperatures up to 200 K based on an InAs quantum dot/InGaAs quantum well/InAlAs barrier detector grown on InP substrate by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device's low dark current density and the persistence of the photocurrent up to room temperature enabled the high temperature imaging. The focal plane array had a peak detection wavelength of 4 µm, a responsivity of 34 mA/W, a conversion efficiency of 1.1%, and a noise equivalent temperature difference of 344 mK at an operating temperature of 120 K. reprint
 
5.  Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot infrared photodetector operating at room temperature and focal plane array
Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; Wei Zhang; Manijen Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 6542, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXIII, 65420R (May 14, 2007)-- May 14, 2007
Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have attracted much attention because of their novel properties and thus possible practical applications including the lasers, detectors and modulators. Especially the photodetectors which have quantum dots in their active region have been developed and show promising performances such as high operation temperature due to three dimensional confinement of the carriers and normal incidence in contrast to the case of quantum well detectors which require special optical coupling schemes. Here we report our recent results for mid-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The material system we have investigated consists of 25 period self-assembled InAs quantum dot layers on InAlAs barriers, which are lattice-matched to InP substrates, covered with InGaAs quantum well layers and InAlAs barriers. This active region was sandwiched by highly doped InP contact layers. The device operates at 4.1 μm with a peak detectivity of 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a quantum efficiency of 35 %. The photoresponse can be observed even at room temperature resulting in a peak detectivity of 6×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. A 320×256 focal plane array has been fabricated in this kind of device. Its performance will also be discussed here. reprint
 
6.  High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature
H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 13, p. 131112-1-- March 26, 2007
The authors report a room temperature operating InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector grown on InP substrate. The self-assembled InAs quantum dots and the device structure were grown by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The detectivity was 2.8×1011 cm·Hz1/2/W at 120 K and a bias of −5 V with a peak detection wavelength around 4.1 μm and a quantum efficiency of 35%. Due to the low dark current and high responsivity, a clear photoresponse has been observed at room temperature, which gives a detectivity of 6.7×107 cm·Hz1/2/W. reprint
 
7.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetecto
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology-- December 4, 2006reprint
 
8.  Gain and recombination dynamics of quantum-dot infrared photodetectors
H. Lim, B. Movaghar, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A.A. Quivy, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 74 (20)-- November 15, 2006
In this paper we present a theory of diffusion and recombination in QDIPs which is an attempt to explain the recently reported values of gain in these devices. We allow the kinetics to encompass both the diffusion and capture rate limited regimes of carrier relaxation using rigorous random walk and diffusion methods. The photoconductive gains are calculated and compared with the experimental values obtained from InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs and InAs/InP QDIPs using the generation-recombination noise analysis. reprint
 
9.  High performance mid-wavelength quantum dot infrared photodetectors for focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA, Vol. 6297, pp. 62970C-- August 13, 2006
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for detection in the middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) ranges. Here, we report our recent results for mid-wavelength QDIPs grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Three monolayer of In0.68Ga0.32As self-assembled via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and formed lens-shaped InGaAs quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2. The peak responsivity at 77 K was measured to be 3.4 A/W at a bias of -1.9 V with 4.7 µm peak detection wavelength. Focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on these devices have been developed. The preliminary result of FPA imaging is presented. reprint
 
10.  Quantum Dots in GaInP/GaInAs/GaAs for Infrared Sensing
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, and A.A. Quivy
Advances in Science and Technology 51-- June 4, 2006
Quantum dots grown by epitaxial self-assembly via Stranski- Krastanov growth mode have many favorable properties for infrared sensing. Because of their very small size and three-dimensional confinement, the electronic energy levels are quantized and discrete. These quantum effects lead to a unique property, “phonon bottleneck”, which might enable the high operating temperature of infrared sensing which usually requires cryogenic cooling. Here we report a focal plane array (FPA) based on an epitaxial self-assembled quantum dot infrared detector (QDIP). The device structure containing self-assembled In0.68Ga0.32As quantum dots with a density around 3×1010 cm-2 was grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). Using different structures, we successfully developed QDIPs with a peak photoresponse around 5 μm and 9 μm. High peak detectivities were achieved at 77 K from both QDIPs. By stacking both device structures, we demonstrated a two-color QDIP whose peak detection wavelength could be tuned from 5 μm to 9 μm by changing the bias. 256×256 detector arrays based on 5 μm and 9 μm-QDIPs were fabricated with standard photolithography, dry etching and hybridization to a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). We demonstrated thermal imaging from our FPAs based on QDIPs.
 
11.  Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors and focal plane arrays
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, and A.A. Quivy
SPIE Infrared Technology and Applications Conference, April 17-21, 2006, Orlando, FL Proceedings – Infrared Technology and Applications XXXII, Vol. 6206, p. 62060I-1-- April 21, 2006
We report our recent results about mid-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. A very high responsivity and a very low dark current were obtained. A high peak detectivity of the order of 3×1012 Jones was achieved at 77 K. The temperature dependent device performance was also investigated. The improved temperature insensitivity compared to QWIPs was attributed to the properties of quantum dots. The device showed a background limited performance temperature of 220 K with a 45° field of view and 300K background. reprint
 
12.  High-detectivity quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
J. Szafraniec, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A.A. Quivy, B. Movaghar and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (121102)-- March 20, 2006
A mid-wavelength infrared photodetector based on InGaAs quantum dots buried in an InGaP matrix and deposited on a GaAs substrate was demonstrated. Its photoresponse at T=77 K was measured to be around 4.7 μm with a cutoff at 5.5 μm. Due to the high peak responsivity of 1.2 A/W and low dark-current noise of the device, a specific peak detectivity of 1.1 x 1012 cm·Hz½·W−1 was achieved at −0.9 V bias reprint
 
13.  InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Photodetector with a High Detectivity
H. Lim, S. Tsao, M. Taguchi, W. Zhang, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270N-- January 23, 2006
Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have recently been considered as strong candidates for numerous applications such as night vision, space communication, gas analysis and medical diagnosis involving middle and long wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR respectively) operation. This is due to their unique properties arising from their 3-dimensional confinement potential that provides a discrete density of states. They are expected to outperform quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) as a consequence of their natural sensitivity to normal incident radiation, their higher responsivity and their higher-temperature operation. So far, most of the QDIPs reported in the literature were based on the InAs/GaAs system and were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Here, we report on the growth of a high detectivity InGaAs/InGaP QDIP grown on a GaAs substrate using low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). reprint
 
14.  InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, A. Quivy and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 61270M -- January 23, 2006
We report our recent results of InAs quantum dots grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the application of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). We have previously demonstrated the first InP-based QDIP with a peak detection wavelength at 6.4 µm and a detectivity of 1010 cm·Hz½/W at 77K. Here we show our recent work toward shifting the detection wavelength to the 3-5 µm middlewavelength infrared (MWIR) range. The dependence of the quantum dot on the growth conditions is studied by atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Possible ways to increase the quantum efficiency of QDIPs are discussed. reprint
 
15.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (9)-- August 29, 2005reprint
 
16.  Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors: Comparison Experiment and Theory
H. Lim, W. Zhang, S. Tsao, T. Sills, J. Szafraniec, K. Mi, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Physical Review B, 72-- August 17, 2005
We present data and calculations and examine the factors that determine the detectivities in self-assembled InAs and InGaAs based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). We investigate a class of devices that combine good wavelength selectivity with “high detectivity.” We study the factors that limit the temperature performance of quantum dot detectors. For this we develop a formalism to evaluate the optical absorption and the electron transport properties. We examine the performance limiting factors and compare theory with experimental data. We find that the notion of a phonon bottleneck does not apply to large-diameter lenslike quantum dots, which have many closely spaced energy levels. The observed strong decrease of responsivity with temperature is ultimately due to a rapid thermal cascade back into the ground states. High temperature performance is improved by engineering the excited state to be near the continuum. The good low temperature (77 K) performance in strongly bound QDIPs is shown to be due to the high gain and the low noise achievable in these micron size devices. reprint
 
17.  Focal plane arrays based on quantum dot infrared photodetectors
Manijeh Razeghi; Wei Zhang; Ho-Chul Lim; Stanley Tsao; John Szafraniec; Maho Taguchi; Bijan Movaghar
Proc. SPIE 5838, Nanotechnology II, 125 (June 28, 2005);-- June 28, 2005
Here we report the first demonstrations of infrared focal plane array (FPA) based on GaAs and InP based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). QDIPs are extension of quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) and are predicted to outperform QWIPs due to their potential advantages including normally incident absorption, higher responsivity and high temperature operation. Two material systems have been studied: InGaAs/InGaP QDIPs on GaAs substrates and InAs QDIP on InP substrates. An InGaAs/InGaP QDIP has been grown on GaAs substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 μm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 μm. A detectivity of 1.2x1011 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at T=77 K and bias of -0.9 V, which is the highest for QDIPs grown by MOCVD. An InAs QDIP structure has also been grown on InP substrate by LP-MOCVD. Photoresponse of normal incidence was observed at temperature up to 160K with a peak wavelength of 6.4 μm and cutoff wavelength of 6.6 μm. A detectivity of 1.0x1010 cm·Hz1/2/W was obtained at 77K at biases of -1.1 V, which is the first and highest detectivity reported for QDIP on InP substrate. 256×256 detector arrays were fabricated first time in the world for both the GaAs and InP based QDIPs. Dry etching and indium bump bonding were used to hybridize the arrays to a Litton readout integrated circuit. For the InGaAs/InGaP QDIP FPA, thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T=77K, the noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) was measured as 0.509K with a 300K background and f/2.3 optics. For the InP based QDIPs, thermal imaging was achieved at 77 K. reprint
 
18.  High Detectivity InAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown on InP by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 86 (19)-- May 9, 2005
We report a high-detectivity InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector. The InAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on InP substrates via low-pressure metal–organic chemical–vapor deposition. Highly uniform quantum dots with a density of 4×1010 cm2 were grown on a GaAs/InP matrix. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures up to 160 K with a peak of 6.4 µm and cutoff of 6.6 µm. Very low dark currents and noise currents were obtained by inserting Al0.48In0.52As current blocking layers. The background-limited performance temperature was 100 K. A detectivity of 1.0×1010 cm·Hz½/W was obtained at 77 K with a bias of –1.1 V. reprint
 
19.  High performance InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP) on InP by MOCVD
W. Zhang, H. Lim, M. Taguchi, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, B. Movaghar, M. Razeghi, and M. Tidrow
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 326-- January 22, 2005
Inter-subband detectors such as quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) have been widely used in infrared detection. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have been predicted to have better performance than QWIPs including higher operation temperature and normal incidence detection. Here we report our recent results of InAs QDIP grown on InP substrate by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The device structures consist of multiple stacks of InAs quantum dots with InP barriers. High detectivities in the range of 1010cm·Hz1/2/W were obtained at 77K. The measurements at higher temperatures show better temperature dependent performance than QWIP. However, the performances of QDIPs are still far from the expected. One of the reasons is the low quantum efficiency due to the low fill factor of quantum dots layer. Resonant cavity enhanced QDIP has been studied to increase the quantum efficiency. Different schemes of mirrors using free carrier plasma and distributed Bragg reflector are discussed. reprint
 
20.  High performance InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetector achieved through doping level optimization
S. Tsao, K. Mi, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, H. Lim, B. Movaghar, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, Jose, CA, Vol. 5732, pp. 334-- January 22, 2005
We report an InGaAs/InGaP/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with detectivity of 1.3x1011 cm·Hz½/W at 77K and 1.2x1010 ccm·Hz½/W at 120K. Modeling of the Quantum dot energy levels showed us that increased photoresponse could be obtained by doping the quantum dots to 4 electrons per dot instead of the usual 2 electrons per dot. This happens because the primary photocurrent transition is from the first excited state to a higher excited state. Increasing the quantum doping in our device yielded significant responsivity improvement and much higher detectivity as a result. This paper discusses the performance of this higher doping device and compares it to our previously reported device with lower doping. reprint
 
21.  Transport and Photodetection in Self-Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots
M. Razeghi, H. Lim, S. Tsao, J. Szafraniec, W. Zhang, K. Mi, and B. Movaghar
Nanotechnology, 16-- January 7, 2005
A great step forward in science and technology was made when it was discovered that lattice mismatch can be used to grow highly ordered, artificial atom-like structures called self-assembled quantum dots. Several groups have in the meantime successfully demonstrated useful infrared photodetection devices which are based on this technology. The new physics is fascinating, and there is no doubt that many new applications will be found when we have developed a better understanding of the underlying physical processes, and in particular when we have learned how to integrate the exciting new developments made in nanoscopic addressing and molecular self-assembly methods with semiconducting dots. In this paper we examine the scientific and technical questions encountered in current state of the art infrared detector technology and suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. Promoting simple physical pictures, we focus in particular on the problem of high temperature detector operation and discuss the origin of dark current, noise, and photoresponse. reprint
 
22.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (13)-- April 29, 2004
We report a demonstration of an infrared focal plane array based on InGaAs/InGaP quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The middle-wavelength infrared quantum-dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) structure was grown via low-pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W was achieved at T = 95 K and a bias of –1.4 V. The background limited temperature of our QDIP was 140 K with a 45° field of view. A 256×256 detector array was fabricated with dry etching, and hybridized to a Litton readout chip by indium bumps. Thermal imaging was achieved at temperatures up to 120 K. At T = 77 K, the noise equivalent temperature difference was measured as 0.509 K with a 300 K background and f/2.3 optics. reprint
 
23.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Applied Physics Letters, 84 (12)-- April 22, 2004
We report a high detectivity middle-wavelength infrared quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The InGaAs quantum dots were grown by self-assembly on an InGaP matrix via low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Photoresponse was observed at temperatures above 200 K with a peak wavelength of 4.7 µm and cutoff wavelength of 5.2 µm. The background limited performance temperature was 140 K, and this was attributed to the super low dark current observed in this QDIP. A detectivity of 3.6×1010 cm·Hz½/W, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art quantum well infrared photodetectors in a similar wavelength range, was obtained for this InGaAs/InGaP QDIP at both T = 77 K and T = 95 K at biases of –1.6 and –1.4 V, reprint
 
24.  Demonstration of a 256x256 Middle-Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Array based on InGaAs/InGaP Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs)
J. Jiang, K. Mi, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T.O'Sullivan, T. Sills, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (13)-- April 5, 2004reprint
 
25.  High Detectivity InGaAs/InGaP Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors Grown by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
J. Jiang, S. Tsao, T. O'Sullivan, W. Zhang, H. Lim, T. Sills, K. Mi, M. Razeghi, G.J. Brown, and M.Z. Tidrow
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 9 (12)-- March 29, 2004reprint
 

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