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1.  High-performance, continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers operating up to 85° C at λ ~ 8.8 μm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vo. 93, No. 2, p. 405-408-- November 1, 2008
High-temperature, high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation of quantum-cascade lasers with 35 active/injector stages at λ∼8.85 μm above room temperature is achieved without using a buried heterostructure. At this long wavelength, the use of a wider ridge waveguide in an epilayer-down bonding scheme leads to a superior performance of the laser. For a high-reflectivity-coated 21 μm×3 mm laser, the output power of 237 mW and the threshold current density of 1.44 kA·cm-2 at 298 K under CW mode are obtained with a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 1.7%. Further improvements were observed by using a 4-mm-long cavity. The device exhibits 294 mW of output power at 298 K and it operates at a high temperature, even up to 358 K (85°C). The full widths at half-maximum of the laser beam in CW operation for the parallel and the perpendicular far-field patterns are 25°and 63°, respectively. reprint
 
2.  High-performance, continuous-wave operation of λ ~ 4.6 μm quantum-cascade lasers above room temperature
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 44, No. 8, p. 747-754-- August 1, 2008
We report the high-performance continuous-wave (CW) operation of 10-μm-wide quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at λ ~ 4.6 μm, based on the GaInAs–AlInAs material without regrowth, in epilayer-up and -down bonding configurations. The operational characteristics of QCLs such as the maximum average power, peak output power, CW output power, and maximum CW operating temperature are investigated, depending on cavity length. Also, important device parameters, i.e., the waveguide loss, the transparency current density, the modal gain, and the internal quantum efficiency, are calculated from length-dependent results. For a high-reflectivity (HR) coated 4-mm-long cavity with epilayer-up bonding, the highest maximum average output power of 633 mW is measured at 65% duty cycle, with 469 mW still observed at 100%. The laser exhibits the maximum wall-plug efficiencies of 8.6% and 3.1% at 298 K, in pulsed and CW operatons, respectively. From 298 to 393 K, the temperature dependent threshold current density in pulsed operation shows a high characteristic temperature of 200 K. The use of an epilayer-down bonding further improves the device performance. A CW output power of 685 mW at 288 K is achieved for the 4-micron-long cavity. At 298 K, the output power of 590 mW, threshold current density of 1.52 kA / cm2, and maximum wall-plug efficiency of 3.73% are obtained under CW mode, operating up to 363 K (90 °C). For HR coated 3-micron-long cavities, laser characteristics across the same processed wafer show a good uniformity across the area of 2 x 1 cm2, giving similar output powers, threshold current densities, and emission wavelengths. The CW beam full-width at half-maximum of far-field patterns are 25 degree and 46 degree for the parallel and the perpendicular directions, respectively. reprint
 
3.  Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with watt-level optical power
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J. Nguyen and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, p. 101105-1-- March 10, 2008
We demonstrate quantum cascade lasers at an emitting wavelength of 4.6 µm, which are capable of room temperature, high power continuous wave (cw) operation. Buried ridge geometry with a width of 9.8 µm was utilized. A device with a 3 mm cavity length that was epilayer-down bonded on a diamond submount exhibited a maximum output power of 1.3 W at room temperature in cw operation. The maximum output power at 80 K was measured to be 4 W, with a wall plug efficiency of 27%. reprint
 
4.  Type-II Superlattices and Quantum Cascade Lasers for MWIR and LWIR Free-Space Communications
A. Hood, A. Evans and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 690005-1-9.-- February 1, 2008
Free-space optical communications has recently been touted as a solution to the "last mile" bottleneck of high-speed data networks providing highly secure, short to long range, and high-bandwidth connections. However, commercial near infrared systems experience atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which can adversely affect a link's operating budget. By moving the operating wavelength into the mid- or long-wavelength infrared enhanced link uptimes and increased operating range can be achieved due to less susceptibility to atmospheric affects. The combination of room-temperature, continuous-wave, high-power quantum cascade lasers and high operating temperature type-II superlattice photodetectors offers the benefits of mid- and long-wavelength infrared systems as well as practical operating conditions for next generation free-space communications systems. reprint
 
5.  Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang, A. Evans, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000A-1-8.-- February 1, 2008
We demonstrate electrically pumped, room temperature, single mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting at ~ 4.75 µm. Ridge waveguides of 50 µm and 100 µm width were fabricated with both PCDFB and Fabry-Perot feedback mechanisms. The Fabry-Perot device has a broad emitting spectrum and a broad far-field character. The PCDFB devices have primarily a single spectral mode and a diffraction limited far field characteristic with a full angular width at half-maximum of 4.8 degrees and 2.4 degrees for the 50 µm and 100 µm ridge widths, respectively. reprint
 
6.  Overview of Quantum Cascade Laser Research at the Center for Quantum Devices
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai, P. Sung, S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, January 20-25, 2008, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices V, Vol. 6900, p. 69000B-1-8.-- February 1, 2008
Over the past several years, our group has endeavored to develop high power quantum cascade lasers for a variety of remote and high sensitivity infrared applications. The systematic optimization of laser performance has allowed for demonstration of high power, continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature. In the past year alone, the efficiency and power of our short wavelength lasers (~4.8 µm) has doubled. In continuous wave at room temperature, we have now separately demonstrated ~10% wallplug efficiency and ~700 mW of output power. Up to now, we have been able to show that room temperature continuous wave operation with > 100 mW output power in the 3.8 < λ < 11.5 µm wavelength range is possible. reprint
 
7.  Electrically pumped photonic crystal distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers
Y. Bai, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, P. Sung, J. Nguyen, A. Evans, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 14, p. 141123-1-- October 1, 2007
We demonstrate electrically pumped, room temperature, single mode operation of photonic crystal distributed feedback (PCDFB) quantum cascade lasers emitting at ~4.75 µm. Ridge waveguides of 100 µm width were fabricated with both PCDFB and Fabry-Pérot feedback mechanisms. The Fabry-Pérot device has a broad emitting spectrum and a double lobed far-field character. The PCDFB device, as expected, has primarily a single spectral mode and a diffraction limited far field characteristic with a full angular width at half maximum of 2.4°. This accomplishment represents the first step in power scaling of single mode, midinfrared laser diodes operating at room temperature. reprint
 
8.  Buried heterostructure quantum cascade lasers with high continuous-wave wall plug efficiency
A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, J. Nguyen, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 071101-1-- August 13, 2007
The authors report on the development of ~4.7 µm strain-balanced InP-based quantum cascade lasers with high wall plug efficiency and room temperature continuous-wave operation. The use of narrow-ridge buried heterostructure waveguides and thermally optimized packaging is presented. Over 9.3% wall plug efficiency is reported at room temperature from a single device producing over 0.675 W of continuous-wave output power. Wall plug efficiencies greater than 18% are also reported for devices at a temperature of 150 K, with continuous-wave output powers of more than 1 W. reprint
 
9.  High-power mid- and far- wavelength infrared lasers for free space communication
M. Razeghi; A. Evans; J. Nguyen; Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S.R. Darvish; K. Mi
Proc. SPIE 6593, Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications II, 65931V (June 12, 2007)-- June 12, 2007
Laser-based free-space communications have been developed to serve specific roles in "last mile" high-speed data networks due to their high security, low cost, portability, and high bandwidth. Conventional free-space systems based on near infrared optical devices suffer from reliability problems due to atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects, such as those encountered with storms, dust, and fog. Mid-infrared wavelengths are less affected by atmospheric effects and can significantly enhance link up-time and range. This paper will discuss some of the recent advances in high-power, high temperature, high reliability mid-infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers and their potential application in highly reliable free space communication links. reprint
 
10.  Current status of high performance quantum cascade lasers at the center for quantum devices
M. Razeghi; A. Evans; Y. Bai; J. Nguyen; S. Slivken; S.R. Darvish; K. Mi
Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials. 588-593:[4266015] (2007)-- May 14, 2007
Mid-infrared laser sources are highly desired for laser-based trace chemical sensors, military countermeasures, free-space communications, as well as developing medical applications. While application development has been limited by the availability of adequate mid-infrared sources, InP-based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) hold promise as inexpensive, miniature, portable solutions capable of producing high powers and operating at high temperatures with excellent beam quality and superior reliability. This paper discusses the most recent developments of application-ready high power (> 100 mW), continuous-wave (CW), mid-infrared QCLs operating above room temperature with lifetimes exceeding 13,000 hours. reprint
 
11.  High-power, continuous-operation intersubband laser for wavelengths greater than 10 micron
S. Slivken, A. Evans, W. Zhang and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, No. 15, p. 151115-1-- April 9, 2007
In this letter, high-power continuous-wave emission (>100 mW) and high temperature operation (358 K) at a wavelength of 10.6 µm is demonstrated using an individual diode laser. This wavelength is advantageous for many medium-power applications previously reserved for the carbon dioxide laser. Improved performance was accomplished using industry-standard InP-based materials and by careful attention to design, growth, and fabrication limitations specific to long-wave infrared semiconductor lasers. The main problem areas are explored with regard to laser performance, and general steps are outlined to minimize their impact. reprint
 
12.  Quantum cascade laser: A tool for trace chemical detection
Allan J. Evans; Manijeh Razeghi
-- March 26, 2007
Laser-based trace chemical sensors are highly desired to enhance pollution filtering, health and safety monitoring, and filter efficiency monitoring for industrial processes. Limitations of current monitoring and sensing techniques are discussed and the benefits of mid-infrared spectroscopy using novel Quantum Cascade semiconductor Lasers (QCLs) are presented. These new techniques promise inexpensive, miniaturized sensors, capable of remote detection of trace chemicals in liquids, solids, and gasses with levels less than 1 part-per-billion. Applications of these techniques are discussed and the most recent developments of application-ready high power (> 100 mW), continuous-wave, mid-infrared QCLs operating above room temperature with lifetimes exceeding 12,000 hours are presented.
 
13.  Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays for High-Performance Third Generation Infrared Imaging and Free-Space Communication
M. Razeghi, A. Hood and A. Evans
SPIE Conference, January 25-29, 2007, San Jose, CA Proceedings – Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits IX, Vol. 6476, p. 64760Q-1-9-- January 29, 2007
Free-space optical communications has recently been touted as a solution to the "last mile" bottleneck of high speed data networks providing highly secure, short to long range, and high bandwidth connections. However, commercial near infrared systems experience atmospheric scattering losses and scintillation effects which can adversely affect a link's uptime. By moving the operating wavelength into the mid or long wavelength infrared enhanced link uptimes and increased range can be achieved due to less susceptibility atmospheric affects. The combination of room temperature, continuous wave' high power quantum cascade lasers and high operating temperature Type-II superlattice photodetectors offers the benefits of mid and long wavelength infrared systems as well as practical operating conditions. reprint
 
14.  High-power continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 7.8 µm
S.R. Darvish, W. Zhang, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 89 (25)-- December 18, 2006
The authors present high-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers. Continuous-wave output powers of 56 mW at 25 °C and 15 mW at 40 °C are obtained. Single-mode emission near 7.8 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio of >=30 dB and a tuning range of 2.83 cm−1 was obtained between 15 and 40 °C. The device exhibits no beam steering with a full width at half maximum of 27.4° at 25 °C in cw mode. reprint
 
15.  Optical Coatings by ion-beam sputtering deposition for long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers
J. Nguyen, J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 89 (11)-- September 11, 2006
The authors report on the development of high-reflection and multilayer antireflection coatings using ion-beam sputtering deposition for long-wave infrared (λ~9.4 μm) quantum cascade lasers. A metallic high-reflection coating structure using Y2O3 and Au is demonstrated to achieve a high reflectance of 96.70%, and the use of a multilayer anti-reflection coating structure using PbTe and ZnO is demonstrated to achieve a very low reflectance of 1.64%. reprint
 
16.  Reliability of strain-balanced Ga0.331In0.669As/Al0.659In0.341As/InP quantum-cascade lasers under continuous-wave room-temperature operation
A. Evans and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (26)-- June 26, 2006
Constant current aging is reported for two randomly selected high-reflectivity-coated QCLs with an output power over 100 mW. QCLs are tested under continuous-wave operation at a heat sink temperature of 298 K(25 °C) corresponding to an internal temperature of 378 K (105 °C). Over 4000 h of continuous testing is reported without any decrease in output power. reprint
 
17.  Temperature dependent characteristics of λ ~ 3.8 µm room-temperature continuous-wave quantum-cascade lasers
J.S. Yu, A. Evans, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (25)-- June 19, 2006
The highest-performance device displays pulsed laser action at wavelengths between 3.4 and 3.6 μm, for temperatures up to 300 K, with a low temperature (80 K) threshold current density of approximately 2.6 kA/cm2, and a characteristic temperature of T0~130 K. The shortest wavelength QCL (λ ~ 3.05 μm) has a higher threshold current density (~12 kA/cm2 at T=20 K) and operates in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 110 K. reprint
 
18.  Room-temperature, high-power and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 9.6 µm
S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (20)-- May 15, 2006
High-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers is reported. Continuous-wave output powers of 100 mW at 25 °C and 20 mW at 50 °C are obtained. The device exhibits a cw threshold current density of 1.34 kA/cm2, a maximum cw wall-plug efficiency of 1% at 25 °C, and a characteristic temperature of ~190 K in pulsed mode. Single-mode emission near 9.6 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio of ≥ 30 dB and a tuning range of 2.89 cm–1 from 15 to 50 °C is obtained. reprint
 
19.  High-power λ ~ 9.5 µm quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S.R. Darvish, J. Nguyen, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, 88 (9)-- February 27, 2006
We report high-power continuous-wave (cw) operation of λ~9.5 μm quantum-cascade lasers to a temperature of 318 K. A high-reflectivity-coated 19-μm-wide and 3-mm-long device exhibits cw output powers as high as 150 mW at 288 K and still 22 mW at 318 K. In cw operation at 298 K, a threshold current density of 1.57 kA/cm2, a slope efficiency of 391 mW/A, and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 0.71% are obtained. reprint
 
20.  Quantum-Cascade Lasers Operating in Continuous-Wave Mode Above 90°C at λ ~5.25 µm
A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (5)-- January 30, 2006
We report on the design and fabrication of λ~5.25 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) for very high temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation. CW operation is reported up to a maximum temperature of 90 °C (363 K). CW output power is reported in excess of 500 mW near room temperature with a low threshold current density. A finite element thermal model is used to investigate the Gth and maximum CW operating temperature of the QCLs. reprint
 
21.  Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum-cascade lasers at λ ~ 4 µm
J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, A. Evans, J. Nguyen, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters 88 (4)-- January 23, 2006
High-power cw λ~4 μm quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are demonstrated. The effect of different cavity length and laser die bonding is also investigated. For a high-reflectivity-coated 11-μm-wide and 4-mm-long epilayer-down bonded QCL, cw output powers as high as 1.6 W at 80 K and 160 mW at 298 K are obtained, and the cw operation is achieved up to 313 K with 12 mW. reprint
 
22.  High-Power Distributed-Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers
W.W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C.S. Kim, J.R. Meyer, J. Nguyen, A.J. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 612704-- January 23, 2006
Recently, a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in a single spectral mode at 4.8 µm and at temperatures up to 333 K has been reported. In the present work, we provide detailed measurements and modeling of its performance characteristics. The sidemode suppression ratio exceeds 25 dB, and the emission remains robustly single-mode at all currents and temperatures tested. Cw output powers of 99 mW at 298 K and 357 mW at 200 K are obtained at currents well below the thermal rollover point. reprint
 
23.  High Power, Continuous-Wave, Quantum Cascade Lasers for MWIR and LWIR Applications
S. Slivken, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish and M. Razeghi
SPIE Conference, San Jose, CA, Vol. 6127, pp. 612703-- January 23, 2006
Over the past several years, our group has endeavored to develop high power quantum cascade lasers for a variety of remote and high sensitivity infrared applications. The systematic optimization of laser performance has allowed for demonstration of high power, continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating above room temperature. Since 2002, the power levels for individual devices have jumped from 20 mW to 600 mW. Expanding on this development, we have able to demonstrate continuous wave operation at many wavelengths throughout the mid- and far-infrared spectral range, and have now achieved >100 mW output in the 4.0 to 9.5 µm range. reprint
 
24.  Characterization and Analysis of Single-Mode High-Power CW Quantum-Cascade Laser
W.W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, C.S. Kim, J.R. Meyer, J. Nguyen, A. Evans, J.S. Yu, S.R. Darvish, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics 98-- October 15, 2005
We measured and modeled the performance characteristics of a distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser exhibiting high-power continuous-wave (CW) operation in a single spectral mode at λ~4.8 µm and temperatures up to 333 K. The sidemode suppression ratio exceeds 25 dB, and the emission remains robustly single mode at all currents and temperatures tested. CW output powers of 99 mW at 298 K and 357 mW at 200 K are obtained at currents well below the thermal rollover point. The slope efficiency and subthreshold amplified spontaneous emission spectra are shown to be consistent with a coupling coefficient of no more than κL ~ 4–5, which is substantially lower than the estimate of 9 based on the nominal grating fabrication parameters. reprint
 
25.  High-power, room-temperature and continuous-wave operation of distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at λ = 4.8 µm
J.S. Yu, S. Slivken, S.R. Darvish, A. Evans, B. Gokden and M. Razeghi
Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science and Technology 12 (5)-- August 1, 2005reprint
 

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