Publications by    
Page 1 of 2:  1  2  >> Next  (46 Items)

1.  
Polarization-free GaN emitters in the ultraviolet and visible spectra via heterointegration on CMOS-compatible Si (100)
Polarization-free GaN emitters in the ultraviolet and visible spectra via heterointegration on CMOS-compatible Si (100)
C. Bayram, J. Ott, K. T. Shiu, C. W. Cheng, Y. Zhu, J. Kim, D. K. Sadana, M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 9370, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices XII, 93702F (February 8, 2015); -- February 8, 2015
This work presents a new type of polarization-free GaN emitter. The unique aspect of this work is that the ultraviolet and visible emission originates from the cubic phase GaN and the cubic phase InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells, respectively. Conventionally, GaN emitters (e.g. light emitting diodes, laser diodes) are wurtzite phase thus strong polarization fields exist across the structure contributing to the “droop” behavior – a phenomenon defined as “the reduction in emitter efficiency as injection current increases”. The elimination of piezoelectric fields in GaN-based emitters as proposed in this work provide the potential for achieving a 100% internal efficiency and might lead to droopfree light emitting diodes. In addition, this work demonstrates co-integration of GaN emitters on cheap and scalable CMOS-compatible Si (100) substrate, which yields possibility of realizing a GaN laser diode uniquely – via forming mirrors along the naturally occurring cubic phase GaN-Si(100) cleavage planes. reprint
 
2.  Cubic Phase GaN on Nano-grooved Si (100) via Maskless Selective Area Epitaxy
Bayram, C., Ott, J. A., Shiu, K.-T., Cheng, C.-W., Zhu, Y., Kim, J., Razeghi, M. and Sadana, D. K.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2014-- April 1, 2014
A method of forming cubic phase (zinc blende) GaN (referred as c-GaN) on a CMOS-compatible on-axis Si (100) substrate is reported. Conventional GaN materials are hexagonal phase (wurtzite) (referred as h-GaN) and possess very high polarization fields (∼MV/cm) along the common growth direction of <0001>. Such large polarization fields lead to undesired shifts (e.g., wavelength and current) in the performance of photonic and vertical transport electronic devices. The cubic phase of GaN materials is polarization-free along the common growth direction of <001>, however, this phase is thermodynamically unstable, requiring low-temperature deposition conditions and unconventional substrates (e.g., GaAs). Here, novel nano-groove patterning and maskless selective area epitaxy processes are employed to integrate thermodynamically stable, stress-free, and low-defectivity c-GaN on CMOS-compatible on-axis Si. These results suggest that epitaxial growth conditions and nano-groove pattern parameters are critical to obtain such high quality c-GaN. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures grown on c-GaN/Si (100) show strong room temperature luminescence in the visible spectrum, promising visible emitter applications for this technology. reprint
 
3.  Engineering future light emitting diodes and photovoltaics with inexpensive materials: Integrating ZnO and Si into GaN-based devices
C. Bayram ; K. T. Shiu ; Y. Zhu ; C. W. Cheng ; D. K. Sadana ; F. H. Teherani ; D. J. Rogers ; V. E. Sandana ; P. Bove ; Y. Zhang ; S. Gautier ; C.-Y. Cho ; E. Cicek ; Z. Vashaei ; R. McClintock ; M. Razeghi
Proc. SPIE 8626, Oxide-based Materials and Devices IV, 86260L (March 18, 2013)-- March 18, 2013
Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) based PV have the best fit to the solar spectrum of any alloy system and emerging LED lighting based on InGaN technology and has the potential to reduce energy consumption by nearly one half while enabling significant carbon emission reduction. However, getting the maximum benefit from GaN diode -based PV and LEDs will require wide-scale adoption. A key bottleneck for this is the device cost, which is currently dominated by the substrate (i.e. sapphire) and the epitaxy (i.e. GaN). This work investigates two schemes for reducing such costs. First, we investigated the integration of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) in InGaN-based diodes. (Successful growth of GaN on ZnO template layers (on sapphire) was illustrated. These templates can then be used as sacrificial release layers for chemical lift-off. Such an approach provides an alternative to laser lift-off for the transfer of GaN to substrates with a superior cost-performance profile, plus an added advantage of reclaiming the expensive single-crystal sapphire. It was also illustrated that substitution of low temperature n-type ZnO for n-GaN layers can combat indium leakage from InGaN quantum well active layers in inverted p-n junction structures. The ZnO overlayers can also double as transparent contacts with a nanostructured surface which enhances light in/out coupling. Thus ZnO was confirmed to be an effective GaN substitute which offers added flexibility in device design and can be used in order to simultaneously reduce the epitaxial cost and boost the device performance. Second, we investigated the use of GaN templates on patterned Silicon (100) substrates for reduced substrate cost LED applications. Controlled local metal organic chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of cubic phase GaN with on-axis Si(100) substrates was illustrated. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to investigate uniformity and examine the defect structure in the GaN. Our results suggest that groove structures are very promising for controlled local epitaxy of cubic phase GaN. Overall, it is concluded that there are significant opportunities for cost reduction in novel hybrid diodes based on ZnO-InGaN-Si hybridization. reprint
 
4.  Gallium nitride on silicon for consumer & scalable photonics
C. Bayram, K.T. Shiu, Y. Zhu, C.W. Cheng, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8631, p. 863112-1, Photonics West, San Francisco, CA-- February 4, 2013
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is a unique material system that has been heavily exploited for photonic devices thanks to ultraviolet-to-terahertz spectral tunability. However, without a cost effective approach, GaN technology is limited to laboratory demonstrations and niche applications. In this investigation, integration of GaN on Silicon (100) substrates is attempted to enable widespread application of GaN based optoelectronics. Controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates is demonstrated via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). CMOS-compatible fabrication scheme is used to realize [SiO2-Si{111}-Si{100}] groove structures on conventional 200-mm Si(100) substrates. MOCVD growth (surface treatment, nucleation, initiation) conditions are studied to achieve controlled GaN epitaxy on such grooved Si(100) substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques are used to determine uniformity and defectivity of the GaN. Our results show that aforementioned groove structures along with optimized MOCVD growth conditions can be used to achieve controlled local epitaxy of wurtzite phase GaN on on-axis Si(100) substrates. reprint
 
5.  Near milliwatt power AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes based on lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN on Si(111)
Y. Zhang, S. Gautier, C. Cho, E. Cicek, Z, Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, Y. Bai and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, p. 011106-1-- January 7, 2013
We report on the growth, fabrication, and device characterization of AlGaN-based thin-film ultraviolet (UV) (λ ∼ 359 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). First, AlN/Si(111) template is patterned. Then, a fully coalesced 7-μm-thick lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of AlN layer is realized on patterned AlN/Si(111) template followed by UV LED epi-regrowth. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is employed to optimize LEO AlN and UV LED epitaxy. Back-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and flip-chip bonded to AlN heat sinks followed by Si(111) substrate removal. A peak pulsed power and slope efficiency of ∼0.6 mW and ∼1.3 μW/mA are demonstrated from these thin-film UV LEDs, respectively. For comparison, top-emission UV LEDs are fabricated and back-emission LEDs are shown to extract 50% more light than top-emission ones. reprint
 
6.  Reliable GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with reproducible room-temperature negative differential resistance
C. Bayram, D.K. Sadana, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8268, p. 826827-- January 22, 2012
negative differential resistance (NDR). Compared to other negative resistance devices such as (Esaki) tunnel and transferred-electron devices, RTDs operate much faster and at higher temperatures. III-nitride materials, composed of AlGaInN alloys, have wide bandgap, high carrier mobility and thermal stability; making them ideal for high power high frequency RTDs. Moreover, larger conduction band discontinuity promise higher NDR than other materials (such as GaAs) and room-temperature operation. However, earlier efforts on GaN-based RTD structures have failed to achieve a reliable and reproducible NDR. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that minimizing dislocation density and eliminating the piezoelectric fields enable reliable and reproducible NDR in GaN-based RTDs even at room temperature. Observation of NDR under both forward and reverse bias as well as at room and low temperatures attribute the NDR behaviour to quantum tunneling. This demonstration marks an important milestone in exploring III-nitride quantum devices, and will pave the way towards fundamental quantum transport studies as well as for high frequency optoelectronic devices such as terahertz emitters based on oscillators and cascading structures. reprint
 
7.  Effects of substrate quality and orientation on the characteristics of III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
SPIE Proceedings, San Francisco, CA (January 22-27, 2011), Vol 7945, p. 79451A-- January 23, 2011
Al(Ga)N/GaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effects of material quality on room temperature negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of RTDs are investigated by growing the RTD structure on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. This reveals that NDR characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness and dislocations density). The effects of the aluminum content of AlGaN double barriers (DB) and polarization fields on NDR characteristic of AlGaN/GaN RTDs were also investigated by employing low dislocation density c-plane (polar) and m-plane (nonpolar) freestanding GaN substrates. Lower aluminum content in the DB RTD active layer and minimization of dislocations and polarization fields enabled a more reliable and reproducible NDR behaviour at room temperature. reprint
 
8.  III-Nitride Optoelectronic Devices: From ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices
M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek and R. McClintock
IEEE Photonics Society 23rd Annual Meeting, November 7-10, 2010, Denver, CO, Proceedings, p. 351-352-- January 20, 2011
III-nitride optoelectronic devices are discussed. Ultraviolet detectors and visible emitters towards terahertz intersubband devices are reported. Demonstration of single photon detection efficiencies of 33% in the ultraviolet regime, intersubband energy level as low as in the mid-infrared regime, and GaN-based resonant tunneling diodes with negative resistance of 67 Ω are demonstrated. reprint
 
9.  Reliability in room-temperature negative differential resistance characteristics of low-aluminum contact AlGaN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 18, p. 181109-1-- November 1, 2010
AlGaN/GaN resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), consisting of 20% (10%) aluminum-content in double-barrier (DB) active layer, were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding polar (c-plane) and nonpolar (m-plane) GaN substrates. RTDs were fabricated into 35-μm-diameter devices for electrical characterization. Lower aluminum content in the DB active layer and minimization of dislocations and polarization fields increased the reliability and reproducibility of room-temperature negative differential resistance (NDR). Polar RTDs showed decaying NDR behavior, whereas nonpolar ones did not significantly. Averaging over 50 measurements, nonpolar RTDs demonstrated a NDR of 67 Ω, a current-peak-to-valley ratio of 1.08, and an average oscillator output power of 0.52 mW. reprint
 
10.  Photoluminescence characteristics of polar and nonpolar AlGaN/GaN superlattices
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, P. Lavenus, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 12, p. 121918-1-- September 20, 2010
High quality Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices (SLs) with various (GaN) well widths (1.6 to 6.4 nm) have been grown on polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane freestanding GaN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence (PL) studies of SLs have been carried out to determine and correlate effects of well width and polarization field on the room-temperature PL characteristics. A theoretical model was applied to explain PL energy-dependency on well width and crystalline orientation taking into account internal electric field for polar substrate. Absence of induced-internal electric field in nonpolar SLs was confirmed by stable PL peak energy and stronger PL intensity as a function of excitation power density than polar ones. reprint
 
11.  Room temperature neagtive differential resistance characteristics of polar III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 9, p. 092104-1-- August 30, 2010
III-nitride resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), consisting Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN double-barrier (DB) active layers, were grown on c-plane lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN/sapphire and c-plane freestanding (FS) GaN. RTDs on both templates, fabricated into mesa diameters ranging from 5 to 35 μm, showed negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature. NDR characteristics (voltage and current density at NDR onset and current-peak-to-valley ratio) were analyzed and reported as a function of device size and substrate choice. Our results show that LEO RTDs perform as well as FS ones and DB active layer design and quality have been the bottlenecks in III-nitride RTDs. reprint
 
12.  Comparison of ultraviolet APDs grown on free-standing GaN and sapphire substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801P, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010
There is a need for semiconductor-based ultraviolet photodetectors to support avalanche gain in order to realize better performance andmore effective compete with existing technologies. Wide bandgap III-Nitride semiconductors are the promising material system for the development of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that could be a viable alternative to current bulky UV detectors such as photomultiplier tubes. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in IIINitride visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE. reprint
 
13.  III-nitride based avalanche photo detectors
R. McClintock, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi and M. Ulmer
Proceedings, Vol. 7780, p. 77801B, SPIE Optics and Photonics Symposium, Conference on Detectors and Imaging Devices: Infrared, Focal Plane and Single Photon, San Diego, CA -- August 4, 2010
Research into III-Nitride based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is motivated by the need for high sensitivity ultraviolet (UV) detectors in numerous civilian and military applications. By designing III-Nitride photodetectors that utilize low-noise impact ionization high internal gain can be realized-GaN APDs operating in Geiger mode can achieve gains exceeding 1×107. Thus with careful design, it becomes possible to count photons at the single photon level. In this paper we review the current state of the art in III-Nitride visible-blind APDs and discuss the critical design choices necessary to achieve high performance Geiger mode devices. Other major technical issues associated with the realization of visible-blind Geiger mode APDs are also discussed in detail and future prospects for improving upon the performance of these devices are outlined. The photon detection efficiency, dark count rate, and spectral response of or most recent Geiger-mode GaN APDs on free-standing GaN substrates are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities being demonstrated. We also present our latest results regarding linear mode gain uniformity: the study of gain uniformity helps reveal the spatial origins of gain so that we can better understand the role of defects. reprint
 
14.  Geiger-mode operation of ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes grown on sapphire and free-standing GaN substrates
E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 26, p. 261107 (2010);-- June 28, 2010
GaN avalanche photodiodes (APDs) were grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing (FS) c-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. At a reverse-bias of 70 V, APDs grown on sapphire substrates exhibited a dark current density of 2.7×10−4 A/cm² whereas APDs grown on FS-GaN substrates had a significantly lower dark current density of 2.1×10−6 A/cm². Under linear-mode operation, APDs grown on FS-GaN achieved avalanche gain as high as 14 000. Geiger-mode operation conditions were studied for enhanced SPDE. Under front-illumination the 625 μm² area APD yielded a SPDE of 13% when grown on sapphire substrates compared to more than 24% when grown on FS-GaN. The SPDE of the same APD on sapphire substrate increased to 30% under back-illumination—the FS-GaN APDs were only tested under front illumination due to the thick absorbing GaN substrate. reprint
 
15.  GaN avalanche photodiodes grown on m-plane freestanding GaN substrate
Z. Vashaei, E. Cicek, C. Bayram, R. McClintock and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 20, p. 201908-1-- May 17, 2010
M-plane GaN avalanche p-i-n photodiodes on low dislocation density freestanding m-plane GaN substrates were realized using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High quality homoepitaxial m-plane GaN layers were developed; the root-mean-square surface roughness was less than 1 Å and the full-width-at-half-maximum value of the x-ray rocking curve for (1010) diffraction of m-plane GaN epilayer was 32 arcsec. High quality material led to a low reverse-bias dark current of 8.11 pA for 225 μm² mesa photodetectors prior to avalanche breakdown, with the maximum multiplication gain reaching about 8000. reprint
 
16.  Novel Green Light Emitting Diodes: Exploring Droop-Free Lighting Solutions for a Sustainable Earth
M. Razeghi, C. Bayram, R. McClintock, F. Hosseini Teherani, D.J. Rogers, and V.E. Sandana
Journal of Light Emitting Diodes, Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 1-33-- April 30, 2010
The total annual energy consumption in the United States for lighting is approximately 800 Terawatt-hours and costs $80 billion to the public. The energy consumed for lighting throughout the world entails to greenhouse gas emission equivalent to 70% of the emissions from all the cars in the world. Novel solutions to lighting with higher efficiency will drastically reduce the energy consumption and help greenhouse gas emissions to be lowered. Novel green light emitting diodes are the key components of an affordable, durable and environmentally benign lighting solution that can achieve unique spectral quality and promise superior energy conversion efficiency. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), based on the InGaN alloy, are currently the most promising candidates for realizing solid state lighting (SSL). InGaN is a direct wide bandgap semiconductor with an emission that can span the entire visible spectrum via compositional tuning. However, InGaN LED performance remains wavelength-dependent. Indeed, ultrabright and efficient blue InGaN-based LEDs are readily available but the performance of InGaN-based green LEDs is still far from adequate for use in SSL. Our recent work demonstrated hybrid green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprised of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN were grown on semi-insulating AlN/sapphire using pulsed laser deposition for the n-ZnO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition for the other layers.. We have shown that atop grown ZnO layer by Pulsed Laser Deposition can be a good replacement for GaN. The green wavelength emission requires significant indium content in the active layer (growth temperature ~ 700ºC) that makes InGaN quantum wells very susceptible to thermal degradation. With our technology, diffusion and segregation of indium in the green emitting active is inhibited thanks to the lower ZnO deposition temperatures (<600ºC) than is required for GaN (>1000ºC). Our novel technology preserves the integrity of the as-grown active layer and demonstrates superior green spectral quality (as demonstrated for LEDs on c-sapphire). The results indicate that hybrid LED structures could hold prospects for the development of green LEDs with superior performance.
 
17.  Demonstration of negative differential resistance in GaN/AlN resonant tunneling didoes at room temperature
Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 8, p. 083505-- April 15, 2010
GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and negative differential resistance with peak-to-valley ratios as high as 2.15 at room temperature was demonstrated. Effect of material quality on RTDs’ performance was investigated by growing RTD structures on AlN, GaN, and lateral epitaxial overgrowth GaN templates. Our results reveal that negative differential resistance characteristics of RTDs are very sensitive to material quality (such as surface roughness) and MOCVD is a suitable technique for III-nitride-based quantum devices. reprint
 
18.  AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, No. 4, p. 042103-1-- January 25, 2010
AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire. RTDs were fabricated via standard processing steps. RTDs demonstrate a clear negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature (RT). The NDR was observed around 4.7 V with a peak current density of 59 kA/cm² and a peak-to-valley ratio of 1.6 at RT. Dislocation-free material is shown to be the key for the performance of GaN RTDs. reprint
 
19.  Effects of well width and growth temperature on optical and structural characteristics of AlN/GaN superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition
C. Bayram, N. Pere-Laperne, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 20, p. 201906-1-- November 16, 2009
AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) employing various well widths (from 1.5 to 7.0 nm) are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique at various growth temperatures (Ts) (from 900 to 1035 °C). The photoluminescence (PL), x-ray diffraction, and intersubband (ISB) absorption characteristics of these SLs and their dependency on well width and growth temperature are investigated. Superlattices with thinner wells (grown at the same Ts) or grown at lower Ts (employing the same well width) are shown to demonstrate higher strain effects leading to a higher PL energy and ISB absorption energy. Simulations are employed to explain the experimental observations. ISB absorptions from 1.04 to 2.15 µm are demonstrated via controlling well width and growth temperature. reprint
 
20.  Hybrid green LEDs with n-type ZnO substituted for N-type GaN in an inverted P-N junction
F. Hosseini Teherani; M. Razeghi; D.J. Rogers; Can Bayram; R. McClintock
LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, LEOS '09. IEEE, [5343231] (2009) -- October 4, 2009
Recently, the GaN and ZnO materials systems have attracted considerable attention because of their use in a broad range of emerging applications including light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. GaN and ZnO are similar materials with direct wide bandgaps, wurtzite crystal structure, high thermal stability and comparable thermal expansion coefficients, which makes them well suited for heterojunction fabrication. Two important advantages of GaN over ZnO are the reliable p-type doping and the mature know-how for bandgap engineering. Thus GaN-based LEDs can be made to emit from the deep UV right into the green through alloying with Al and In, respectively. The performance is not identical at all wavelengths, however, and the performance of InGaN-based green LEDs is still relatively poor. reprint
 
21.  Tunability of intersubband absorption from 4.5 to 5.3 µm in a GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition
N. Péré-Laperne, C. Bayram, L. Nguyen-Thê, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 13, p. 131109-- September 28, 2009
Intersubband (ISB) absorption at wavelengths as long as 5.3 µm is realized in GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N superlattices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. By employing low aluminum content Al0.2Ga0.8N barriers and varying the well width from 2.6 to 5.1 nm, ISB absorption has been tuned from 4.5 to 5.3 µm. Theoretical ISB absorption and interband emission models are developed and compared to the experimental results. The effects of band offsets and the piezoelectric fields on these superlattices are investigated. reprint
 
22.  Nitrides push performance of UV photodiodes
Can Bayram; Manijeh Razeghi
Laser Focus World. 45(9), pp. 47-51 (2009)-- September 1, 2009
The nitrides are known to be useful for creating the UV single-photon detectors with efficiencies of 20%, with its considerable advantages that could further enable quantum computing and data encryption. Such detectors would be well suited for numerous applications in the defense, commercial, and scientific arenas, including covert space-to-space communications, early missile-threat detection, chemical and biological threat detection and spectroscopy. The use of SAM regions is a common approach to reducing multiplication noise and enhancing gain through impact-ionization engineering that could benefit from the higher ionization coefficient by offering lower noise performance and higher gain. The ADPs also enables the realization of single-photon detection by using Geiger-mode operation, which entails operating the ADPs well above the breakdown voltage and using pulse-quenching circuitry.
 
23.  Stranski-Krastanov growth of InGaN quantum dots emitting in green spectra
C. Bayram and M. Razeghi
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing, Vol. 96, No. 2, p. 403-408-- August 1, 2009
Self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on GaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. 2D–3D growth mode transition through Stranski–Krastanov mode was observed via atomic force microscopy. The critical thickness for In0.67Ga0.33N QDs was determined to be four monolayers. The effects of growth temperature, deposition thickness, and V/III ratio on QD formation were examined. The capping of InGaN QDs with GaN was analyzed. Optimized InGaN quantum dots emitted in green spectra at room temperature. reprint
 
24.  Comparison of ZnO nanostructures grown using pulsed laser deposition, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor transport
V.E. Sandana, D.J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, R. McClintock, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, H-J Drouhin, M.C. Clochard, V. Sallett, G. Garry, and F. Falyouni
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1678-1683-- May 29, 2009
This article compares the forms and properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on Si (111) and c-plane sapphire (c-Al2O3) substrates using three different growth processes: metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and physical vapor transport (PVT). A very wide range of ZnO nanostructures was observed, including nanorods, nanoneedles, nanocombs, and some novel structures resembelling “bevelled” nanowires. PVT gave the widest family of nanostructures. PLD gave dense regular arrays of nanorods with a preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane on both Si and c-Al2O3 substrates, without the use of a catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that nanostructures grown by PLD were better crystallized and more highly oriented than those grown by PVT and MOCVD. Samples grown on Si showed relatively poor XRD response but lower wavelength emission and narrower linewidths in PL studies. reprint
 
25.  Fabrication and characterization of novel hybrid green light emitting didoes based on substituting n-type ZnO for n-type GaN in an inverted p-n junction
C. Bayram, D. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, and M. Razeghi
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, Vol. 27, No. 3, May/June, p. 1784-1788-- May 29, 2009
Details of the fabrication and characterization of hybrid green light emitting diodes, composed of n-ZnO/(InGaN/GaN) multi-quantum-wells/p-GaN on AlN/sapphire, are reported. Scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence were used to study the hybrid device. The effects of solvents, annealing, and etching on n-ZnO are discussed. Successful hybridization of ZnO and (In)GaN into a green light emitting diode was realized. reprint
 

Page 1 of 2:  1  2  >> Next  (46 Items)